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Lauren Gardner, Sahotra Sarkar
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072129.].
2018: PloS One
Siobhán Masterson, Bryan McNally, John Cullinan, Kimberly Vellano, Joséphine Escutnaire, David Fitzpatrick, Gavin D Perkins, Rudolph W Koster, Yuko Nakajima, Katherine Pemberton, Martin Quinn, Karen Smith, Bergþór Steinn Jónsson, Anneli Strömsöe, Meera Tandan, Akke Vellinga
BACKGROUND: The highest achievable survival rate following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is unknown. Data from airports serving international destinations (international airports) provide the opportunity to evaluate the success of pre-hospital resuscitation in a relatively controlled but real-life environment. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest at international airports with resuscitation attempted between January 1st, 2013 and December 31st, 2015...
March 14, 2018: Resuscitation
Greg Martin, Mairin Boland
The ever-increasing speed and scope of human mobility by international air travel has led to a global transport network for infectious diseases with the potential to introduce pathogens into non-endemic areas, and to facilitate rapid spread of novel or mutated zoonotic agents.Robust national emergency preparedness is vital to mitigate the transmission of infectious diseases agents domestically and to prevent onward spread to other countries. Given the complex range of stakeholders who respond to an infectious disease threat being transmitted through air travel, it is important that protocols be tested and practised extensively in advance of a real emergency...
March 7, 2018: Globalization and Health
Mariyam Suzana, Helen Walls, Richard Smith, Johanna Hanefeld
BACKGROUND: In resource-constrained health systems medical travel is a common alternative to seeking unavailable health services. This paper was motivated by the need to understand better the impact of such travel on households and health systems. METHODS: We used primary data from 344 subsidized and 471 non-subsidized inbound medical travellers during June to December 2013 drawn from the North, Centre and South regions of the Maldives where three international airports are located...
March 6, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
T Ning, W Shao-Sheng, Y Yan-Feng, Z Yong, L I Chao-Pin
Objective To investigate whether there is Blomia tropicalis breeding in the flour warehouse of food factory in a civil aviation airport, and, if there is, to observe the morphological structure of the mite. Methods The flour samples were collected from the flour warehouse of food factory in a civil aviation airport. The breeding mites were isolated from the samples by direct microscopy and made into specimens to observe with a light microscope. Results Female Blomia tropicalis was found in the collected flour samples...
April 28, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Manoela Gomes Reis Lopes, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia Vilela, Marco Antônio Pereira Querol
Large construction projects involve the functioning of a complex activity system (AS) in network format. Anomalies such as accidents, delays, reworks, etc., can be explained by contradictions that emerge historically in the system. The aim of this study was to analyze the history of an airport construction project to understand the current contradictions and anomalies in the AS and how they emerged. A case study was conducted for this purpose, combining Collective Work Analysis, interviews, observations, and analysis of documents that provided the basis for sessions in the Change Laboratory, where a participant timeline was elaborated with the principal events during the construction project...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Renato Nallin Montagnolli, Paulo Renato Matos Lopes, Ederio Dino Bidoia
Perfluorinated compounds, including fluorotelomers, are important constituents of firefighting foams to extinguish fuel fires in the petrochemical industry, airports, and at fire-training sites. In this study, we monitored the biodegradation process in a co-contamination scenario with monoaromatic hydrocarbons commonly found in fuels (benzene, toluene) and fluorotelomers. The CO2 production rates were evaluated by a factorial design taking into account the effect of seasonality at in situ natural attenuation processes...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maaike van Putten, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Miranda D Grounds, Joe N Kornegay, Anna Mayhew, Thomas H Gillingwater, Shin'ichi Takeda, Markus A Rüegg, Annamaria De Luca, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Raffaella Willmann
A workshop took place in 2015 to follow up TREAT-NMD activities dedicated to improving quality in the preclinical phase of drug development for neuromuscular diseases. In particular, this workshop adressed necessary future steps regarding common standard experimental protocols and the issue of improving the translatability of preclinical efficacy studies.
2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
Maryam Shabbir, Adelynn M Y Zon, Vivek Thuppil
Animals attend to what is relevant in order to behave in an effective manner and succeed in their environments. In several nonhuman species, there is an evolved bias for attending to patterns indicative of threats in the natural environment such as dangerous animals. Because skins of many dangerous animals are typically repetitive, we propose that repetition is the key feature enabling recognition of evolutionarily important threats. The current study consists of two experiments where we measured participants' reactions to pictures of male and female models wearing clothing of various repeating (leopard skin, snakeskin, and floral print) and nonrepeating (camouflage, shiny, and plain) patterns...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Robert E Davis, Kyle B Enfield
In most midlatitude locations, human morbidity and mortality are highly seasonal, with winter peaks driven by respiratory disease and associated comorbidities. But the transition between high and low mortality/morbidity months varies spatially. We use a measure of the thermal biophysical strain imposed on the respiratory system-the Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI)-to examine respiratory hospital admissions in Charlottesville, VA. Daily respiratory admissions to the University of Virginia over a 19-year period are compared to ATSI values derived from hourly surface weather data acquired from the Charlottesville airport...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Enis T Turgut, Oznur Usanmaz, Marc A Rosen
In this study, the effects of descent flight path angle (between 1.25° and 4.25°) on aircraft gaseous emissions (carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides) are explored using actual flight data from aircraft flight data recording system and emissions indices from the International Civil Aviation Organization. All emissions parameters are corrected to flight conditions using Boeing Fuel Flow Method2, where the ambient air pressure, temperature and humidity data are obtained from long-term radiosonde data measured close to the arrival airport...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
N Hudda, M C Simon, W Zamore, J L Durant
Jet engine exhaust is a significant source of ultrafine particles and aviation-related emissions can adversely impact air quality over large areas surrounding airports. We investigated outdoor and indoor ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) from 16 residences located in two study areas in the greater Boston metropolitan area (MA, USA) for evidence of aviation-related impacts. During winds from the direction of Logan International Airport, that is, impact-sector winds, an increase in outdoor and indoor PNC was clearly evident at all seven residences in the Chelsea study area (∼4-5 km from the airport) and three out of nine residences in the Boston study area (∼5-6 km from the airport); the median increase during impact-sector winds compared to other winds was 1...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Alhaji Saffa, Anna Tate, Ifeoma Ezeoke, Jasmine Jacobs-Wingo, Maryam Iqbal, Jennifer Baumgartner, Anne Fine, Bianca R Perri, Natasha McIntosh, Natalie Levy Stennis, Kristen Lee, Eric Peterson, Lucretia Jones, Lisa Helburn, Caroline Heindrichs, Seth Guthartz, Shadi Chamany, David Starr, Allison Scaccia, Marisa Raphael, Jay K Varma, Neil M Vora
The CDC recommended active monitoring of travelers potentially exposed to Ebola virus during the 2014 West African Ebola virus disease outbreak, which involved daily contact between travelers and health authorities to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for 21 days after the travelers' last potential Ebola virus exposure. From October 25, 2014, to December 29, 2015, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) monitored 5,359 persons for Ebola virus disease, corresponding to 5,793 active monitoring events...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
J Benzaquen, J Pradelli, B Padovani, C H Marquette, S Leroy
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common condition that may initially look simple but may conceal other diseases capable of accelerating its natural history or even simulating it. We describe four cases presenting as COPD with emphysema that were reclassified on the basis of certain clinical characteristics and the radiological pattern. CASE REPORTS: A 52 year old never smoking woman presenting with emphysema was eventually diagnosed as having lymphangioleiomyomatosis on the basis of an abdominal CT scan showing kidney angiomyolipomas...
January 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Wesam Al Khateeb
This study aimed to assess genotoxicity in wild plants grown in Jordan as a pollution bioindicator. Comet assay was used to evaluate the level of DNA damage in plants collected from different areas in Jordan. Significant differences in plant DNA damage index and frequency were observed among sites of collection. Results show that plants collected from Aqaba back road and Ghour Assaal had significantly higher damage values. In contrast, plants collected from Wadi Rum, Al Naqab Heights, Swaimeh/Deadsea and Alshoneh Aljanobyeh showed low levels of DNA damage...
February 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Mei Wang Tessum, Timothy Larson, Timothy R Gould, Christopher D Simpson, Michael G Yost, Sverre Vedal
Mobile monitoring and passive sampling device (PSD) monitoring are popular air pollutant measurement techniques with complementary strengths and weaknesses. This study investigates the utility of combining data from concurrent two-week mobile monitoring and PSD campaigns in Los Angeles in summer and early spring to identify sources of traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) and their spatial distributions. There were strong to moderate correlations between mobile and PSD measurements of both NO2 and NOx in summer and spring (Pearson's r between 0...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Simon Blaser, Hanspeter Diem, Andreas von Felten, Morgan Gueuning, Michael Andreou, Neil Boonham, Jennifer Tomlinson, Pie Müller, Jürg Utzinger, Jürg E Frey, Andreas Bühlmann
BACKGROUND: Rapid genetic on-site identification methods at points-of-entry, such as sea- and airports, have the potential to become important tools to prevent introduction and spread of economically harmful pest species that are unintentionally transported by the global trade of plant commodities. This paper reports the development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based identification system to prevent introduction of the three most frequently encountered regulated quarantine insect species groups at Swiss borders, Bemisia tabaci, Thrips palmi and several regulated fruit flies of the genera Bactrocera and Zeugodacus...
January 24, 2018: Pest Management Science
Sadamori Kojaku, Naoki Masuda
With a core-periphery structure of networks, core nodes are densely interconnected, peripheral nodes are connected to core nodes to different extents, and peripheral nodes are sparsely interconnected. Core-periphery structure composed of a single core and periphery has been identified for various networks. However, analogous to the observation that many empirical networks are composed of densely interconnected groups of nodes, i.e., communities, a network may be better regarded as a collection of multiple cores and peripheries...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
M Praveen Kumar, Bikash Medhi
The article throws light on the process of importing a novel preclinical drug into India based on the real-life experience from one of our studies. A novel drug "X" acting through a new mechanism of action was hypothesized by us to function as a neuroprotectant. It was decided to import this novel drug from a university located in Brazil. An official collaboration pact was exchanged between both the sides. In accordance with the Indian Drug and Cosmetics Act 1940, unauthorized import of drug into India is not permitted...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
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