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Sheng-Yong Luo, Qing-Hua Xu, Gong Peng, Zhi-Wu Chen
Objectives: Total flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch. (TFR) are the effective part extracted from the flowers of Rhododendron simsii Planch. and have obvious protective effects against cerebral ischemic or myocardial injuries in rabbits and rats. However, their mechanism of cardioprotection is still unrevealed. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of TFR on myocardial I/R injury and the underlying mechanism. Methods: TFR groups were treated by gavage once a day for 3 days at a dose of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, respectively, and then the model of myocardial I/R injury was established...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Yan Liang, Yang-Kun Chen, Vincent Chung-Tong Mok, De-Feng Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu, Hee-Ju Kang, Wai-Kwong Tang
Objective: All types of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) markers including lacune, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were found to be associated with poststroke depressive symptoms (PDS). This study explored whether the combination of the four markers constituting an overall SVD burden was associated with PDS. Methods: A cohort of 563 patients with acute ischemic stroke were followed over a 15-month period after the index stroke. A score of ≥7 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was defined as clinically significant PDS...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Cheng Zeng, Wen Jiang, Ruifang Zheng, Chenghui He, Jianguang Li, Jianguo Xing
Our previous research demonstrated that tilianin protects the myocardium in a myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) rat model and has prominent pharmacological potential as a cardiovascular drug. Our study aimed to investigate the molecular signaling implicated in the improvement of myocardial survival induced by tilianin, a flavonoid antioxidant. Tilianin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg/d) or saline was orally administered to rats for 14 days. On the 15th day, ischemia was induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery for 45 min, followed by 4 h of reperfusion...
2018: PloS One
Tauheed Ishrat, Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Bindu Pillai, Wael Eldahshan, Heba Ahmed, Jennifer L Waller, Adviye Ergul, Susan C Fagan
The aim of this translational, randomized, controlled, blinded preclinical trial was to determine the effect of compound 21 (C21) in embolic stroke. Rats were subjected to embolic-middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO). They received C21 (0.01, 0.03 and 0.06 mg/kg/d) or saline (orally) for five days, with the first-dose given IV at 3 h post-eMCAO. For the time-window study, the optimal-dose of C21 was initiated at 3, 6 or 24 h post-eMCAO and continued for five days. For the combinatorial study, animals received IV-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at either 2 or 4 h, with IV-C21 (0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Hua-Sheng Ding, Yan Huang, Zhen Chen, Yan-Hong Tang, Dan-Dan Wang, Di Fan, Cong-Xin Huang
Regulator of G-protein signalling 5 (RGS5) is, highly expressed in different cell types of the adult human heart, and it is a negative regulator of G protein-mediated signalling that inactivats Gα(q) and Gα(i) and thereby inhibits many signalling pathways. However, the critical role of RGS5 in the pathology of myocardial infarction (MI) remains unexplored. Here, an in vitro MI model, induced by the permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, was used with the isolated hearts of wild type (WT) and RGS5-knockout (KO) mice...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chunyan Wang, Haobo Li, Sheng Wang, Xiaowen Mao, Dan Yan, Stanley S Wong, Zhengyuan Xia, Michael G Irwin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Protein kinase C(PKC)-ε activation is a mechanism of preconditioning cardioprotection but its role in repeated non-invasive limb ischemic preconditioning (rNLIP) mediated cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in diabetes is unknown. METHODS: Eight-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic and non-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to I/R without or with rNLIP. In vitro, H9C2 cells were cultured with high glucose (HG) and subjected to hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R) without or with PKC-ε or STAT3 gene knock-down in the absence or presence of remote time hypoxia preconditioning (HPC)...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chengtai Ma, Yanxia Jiang, Xiaohui Zhang, Xiaoxue Chen, Zhenfang Liu, Xintao Tian
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms and identify the effects of isoquercetin on myocardial infarction in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Isoquercetin ameliorated myocardial infarct size, creatine kinase (CK), CK‑MB and lactic dehydrogenase activity and inhibited inflammation, oxidative stress and heart cell apoptosis in a rat with AMI. Isoquercetin increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase, reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase levels and suppressed the Toll-like receptor 4‑nuclear factor (TLR4‑NF)‑κB signaling pathway in a rat with AMI...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Qixiang Zhao, Zhiwei Liu, Bing Huang, Yanliang Yuan, Xiucheng Liu, Hu Zhang, Fan Qiu, Yiqian Zhang, Yufeng Li, Haoran Miao, Hongyan Dong, Zhongming Zhang
The prevention and management of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is an essential part of coronary heart disease surgery and is becoming a major clinical problem in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that pigment epithelium‑derived factor (PEDF) improves cardiac function in rats with acute myocardial infarction and reduces hypoxia‑induced cell injury. However, the protective function and mechanisms underlying the effect of PEDF in MI/R injury remain to be fully understood...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Juan Zhang, Lorelei Donovan Tucker, DongYan, Yujiao Lu, Luodan Yang, Chongyun Wu, Yong Li, Quanguang Zhang
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy is a leading cause of dire mortality and morbidity in neonates. Unfortunately, no effective therapies have been developed as of yet. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in pathogenesis and progression of neonatal HI. Previously, as a Nrf2 activator, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotection on brain trauma and ischemic stroke models, as well as oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. It is, however, still unknown whether TBHQ administration can protect against oxidative stress in neonatal HI brain injury...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Yu Mao, Qiuyue Kong, Rongrong Li, Xiaojin Zhang, Yali Gui, Yuehua Li, Chuanfu Li, Yanlin Zhao, Li Liu, Zhengnian Ding
Heat shock protein A12A (HSPA12A) is a newly discovered member of the Hsp70 family. The biological characteristics and functional roles of HSPA12A are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of HSPA12A on ischaemic stroke in mice. Ischaemic stroke was induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 h followed by blood reperfusion. We observed that HSPA12A was highly expressed in brain neurons, and neuronal HSPA12A expression was downregulated by ischaemic stroke and stroke-associated risk factors (aging, obesity and hyperglycaemia)...
March 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Adam N Wallace, Jonathan A Grossberg, Josser E Delgado Almandoz, Mudassar Kamran, Anil K Roy, Yasha Kayan, Matthew J Austin, Brian M Howard, Christopher J Moran, C Michael Cawley, DeWitte T Cross, Jacques E Dion, Akash P Kansagra, Joshua W Osbun
BACKGROUND: Flow diversion of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms has not been widely reported, possibly owing to concerns regarding parent vessel size and branch vessel coverage. OBJECTIVE: To examine the safety and effectiveness of PCA aneurysm flow diverter treatment. METHODS: Retrospective review of PCA aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; Medtronic Inc, Dublin, Ireland) at 3 neurovascular centers, including periprocedural complications and clinical and angiographic outcomes...
March 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
Benedict T Costello, Dion Stub, James Hare, Andris H Ellims, Xinyu Wang, Karen Smith, Stephen Bernard, Ziad Nehme, Michael Stephenson, Janet E Bray, Peter Cameron, Bill Barger, Ian T Meredith, David M Kaye, Leah Iles, Andrew J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly assumed to represent myocardial fibrosis; however, comparative human histological data are limited, and there is no consensus on the most accurate method for LGE quantitation. We evaluated the relationship between CMR assessment of regional fibrosis and infarct size assessment using serial biomarkers after ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: Ninety-three patients treated for STEMI (59±10 years, 86% male) underwent CMR 6 months after infarction...
February 21, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Juan Sanchis, Albert Ariza-Solé, Emad Abu-Assi, Oriol Alegre, Fernando Alfonso, José Antonio Barrabés, José Antonio Baz, Antonio Carol, Pablo Díez Villanueva, Bruno García Del Blanco, Jaime Elízaga, Eduard Fernandez, Abel García Del Egido, Joan García Picard, Iván Gómez Blázquez, Joan Antoni Gómez Hospital, Rosana Hernández-Antolín, Cinta Llibre, Francisco Marín, David Martí Sánchez, Roberto Martín, Manuel Martínez Sellés, Gema Miñana, María José Morales Gallardo, Julio Núñez, Armando Pérez de Prado, Eduardo Pinar, Marcelo Sanmartín, Alessandro Sionis, Adolfo Villa, Jaume Marrugat, Héctor Bueno
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Although clinical guidelines recommend invasive management in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), this strategy is underused in frail elderly patients in the real world. Furthermore, these patients are underrepresented in clinical trials and therefore the evidence is scarce. Our hypothesis is that an invasive strategy will improve prognosis in elderly frail patients with NSTEMI. METHODS: This will be a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial, in which the conservative and invasive strategies will be compared in patients meeting all of the following inclusion criteria: NSTEMI diagnosis, age ≥ 70 years, and frailty defined by a category ≥ 4 in the Clinical Frailty Scale...
March 7, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
Dong-Mei Wu, Yong-Jian Wang, Xin-Rui Han, Xin Wen, Lei Li, Lan Xu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
In this study, we aim to investigate the role of tanshinone IIA in myocardial infarction (MI), especially in left ventricular remodelling (VR) and the underlying mechanism involving the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signalling pathway. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 96) were selected, and 12 of them underwent sham surgery. The remaining 84 rats were subjected to MI modelling. HE and MT staining were carried out to estimate infract size, histopathological changes and fibrosis degree. Macrophage infiltration and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Joseph Wider, Vishnu V R Undyala, Peter Whittaker, James Woods, Xuequn Chen, Karin Przyklenk
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), the phenomenon whereby brief ischemic episodes in distant tissues or organs render the heart resistant to infarction, has been exhaustively demonstrated in preclinical models. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that exosomes play a requisite role in conveying the cardioprotective signal from remote tissue to the myocardium. However, in cohorts displaying clinically common comorbidities-in particular, type-2 diabetes-the infarct-sparing effect of RIPC may be confounded for as-yet unknown reasons...
March 9, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Dubravka Rajic, Ivica Jeremic, Sanja Stankovic, Olivera Djuric, Tatjana Zivanovic-Radnic, Igor Mrdovic, Predrag Mitrovic, Dragan Matic, Zorana Vasiljevic, Mihailo Matic, Milika Asanin
BACKGROUND: Despite successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), some patients develop left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and acute heart failure (HF). Identifying patients with an increased risk of developing LVSD by means of biomarkers may help select patients requiring more aggressive therapy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the levels of oxidative stress markers and development of LVSD and acute HF early after STEMI...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Mei Yang, Quanfu Xu, Bo Liu, Xiu Chen, Yigang Li
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials of intracoronary injection of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMCs) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have revealed promising but variable and modest results. One of the reasons underlying this situation may be the unstandardized preparation of BMCs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore whether methodological differences affect the prognosis of acute myocardial infarction patients who received BMCs transplantation...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Johannes Kaesmacher, Tomas Dobrocky, Mirjam R Heldner, Sebastian Bellwald, Pascal J Mosimann, Pasquale Mordasini, Sandra Bigi, Marcel Arnold, Jan Gralla, Urs Fischer
OBJECTIVE: A reperfusion quality of thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI)≥2b has been set as the therapeutic angiography target for interventions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. This study addresses whether the distinction between TICI2b and TICI3 reperfusions shows a clinically relevant difference on functional outcome. METHODS: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was carried out and presented in conformity with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria to test the primary hypothesis that TICI2b and TICI3 reperfusions are associated with different rates of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤2 at day 90...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
David Charles Hutchings, Simon George Anderson, Jessica L Caldwell, Andrew W Trafford
Novel cardioprotective agents are needed in both heart failure (HF) and myocardial infarction. Increasing evidence from cellular studies and animal models indicate protective effects of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, drugs usually reserved as treatments of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. PDE5 inhibitors have been shown to improve contractile function in systolic HF, regress left ventricular hypertrophy, reduce myocardial infarct size and suppress ischaemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias...
March 8, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Lucio Barile, Elisabetta Cervio, Vincenzo Lionetti, Giuseppina Milano, Alessandra Ciullo, Vanessa Biemmi, Sara Bolis, Claudia Altomare, Marco Matteucci, Dario Disilvestre, Tudor Emanuel Fertig, Tiziano Torre, Stefanos Demertzis, Pierluigi Mauri, Tiziano Moccetti, Giuseppe Vassalli
Aims: Cell therapy trials using cardiac-resident progenitor cells (CPCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (BMCs) in patients after myocardial infarction have provided encouraging results. Exosomes, nanosized extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, figure prominently in the bioactivities of these cells. However, a head-to-head comparison of exosomes from the two cell types has not been performed yet. Methods and Results: CPCs and BMCs were derived from cardiac atrial appendage specimens and sternal bone marrow, respectively, from patients (n=20; age, 69...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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