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Family Medicine

Atul Kabra, Rohit Sharma, Shivali Singla, Ruchika Kabra, Uttam Singh Baghel
BACKGROUND: Myrica esculenta (Family: Myricaceae) commonly known as Kaiphala or Katphala is a widely used medicinal plant in Ayurveda. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available till date on pharmacognostical characterization and HPTLC analysis of its leaves. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pharmacognostical, physicochemical, and HPTLC profiles of M. esculenta leaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The measures taken for pharmacognostical characterization were organoleptic study, macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC spectra profile...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Alexandra N Welz, Agnes Emberger-Klein, Klaus Menrad
BACKGROUND: The use of herbal medicine, as one element of complementary and alternative medicine, is increasing worldwide. Little is known about the reasons for and factors associated with its use. This study derives insights for the use of herbal medicine in Germany regarding the usage aims, role played by the type of illness, reasons for preferred usage and sources of information. METHODS: Using a qualitative methodological approach, six focus groups (n = 46) were conducted...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Alain N'guessan Yao, Mamadou Kamagaté, Augustin Kouao Amonkan, Philippe Chabert, Fidèle Kpahé, Camille Koffi, Mathieu N'goran Kouamé, Cyril Auger, Séraphin Kati-Coulibaly, Valérie Schini-Kerth, Henri Die-Kakou
BACKGROUND: Phyllanthus amarus (Schum & Thonn), a plant belonging to the family of Euphorbiaceae is used in Ivorian traditional medicine to treat cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension. However, although this plant has been described as a diuretic agent, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism action of diuretic effects of an ethanolic fraction of Phyllanthus amarus (EFPA) in rats. METHODS: Effects of EFPA on urinary excretion were carried out for doses ranging from 5 to 80 mg/kg given by intraperitoneal injection (i...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Brenda Si Elias, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Betty Head, Geoffrey G Hicks
Translating to the Community (T2C) is a social bio-repository designed to advance new diagnostic tools and realign community-clinical processes, with the aim to mitigate the short-and-long term impacts of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), prenatal alcohol exposure, and its co-morbidities and behaviors. In this paper, we describe the evolution of this repository as a new translational partnership to advance a precision medicine approach to FASD. Key to its evolution was a partnership between academic researchers, Indigenous communities, families and a regional diagnostic clinic...
March 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Ruwan Weerakkody, David Ross, David A Parry, Bulat Ziganshin, Jana Vandrovcova, Piyush Gampawar, Abdulshakur Abdullah, Jennifer Biggs, Julia Dumfarth, Yousef Ibrahim, Colin Bicknell, Mark Field, John Elefteriades, Nick Cheshire, Timothy J Aitman
PurposeThoracic aortic aneurysm/aortic dissection (TAAD) is a disorder with highly variable age of onset and phenotype. We sought to determine the prevalence of pathogenic variants in TAAD-associated genes in a mixed cohort of sporadic and familial TAAD patients and identify relevant genotype-phenotype relationships.MethodsWe used a targeted polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing-based panel for genetic analysis of 15 TAAD-associated genes in 1,025 unrelated TAAD cases.ResultsWe identified 49 pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in 47 cases (4...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Jacob W P Potuijt, Martijn Baas, Rivka Sukenik-Halevy, Hannie Douben, Picard Nguyen, Deon J Venter, Renée Gallagher, Sigrid M Swagemakers, Steven E R Hovius, Christianne A van Nieuwenhoven, Robert-Jan H Galjaard, Peter J van der Spek, Nadav Ahituv, Annelies de Klein
PurposeThe zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is an enhancer that regulates sonic hedgehog during embryonic limb development. Recently, mutations in a noncoding evolutionary conserved sequence 500 bp upstream of the ZRS, termed the pre-ZRS (pZRS), have been associated with polydactyly in dogs and humans. Here, we report the first case of triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPT-PS) to be associated with mutations in this region and show via mouse enhancer assays how this mutation leads to ectopic expression throughout the developing limb bud...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Gernot Kriegshäuser, Dietmar Enko, Hasmik Hayrapetyan, Stepan Atoyan, Christian Oberkanins, Tamara Sarkisian
PurposeThis work aimed at investigating demographic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of individuals experiencing their first familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) attack at age ≥40 years in a very large cohort of Armenian FMF patients.MethodsIn total, 10,370 Armenian patients diagnosed with FMF based on the Tel Hashomer criteria and carrying at least one MEFV mutant allele were included in this study.ResultsA total of 354 (3.40%) patients had late-onset FMF. Of these, 194 (54.80%) were female and 160 (45...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Verónica Schiariti, Eileen Fowler, Joline E Brandenburg, Eric Levey, Sarah Mcintyre, Theresa Sukal-Moulton, Sharon L Ramey, Jessica Rose, Susan Sienko, Elaine Stashinko, Laura Vogtle, Robin S Feldman, James I Koenig
To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies, cerebral palsy (CP) specific Common Data Elements (CDEs) were developed through a partnership between the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM). International experts reviewed existing NINDS CDEs and tools used in studies of children and young people with CP. CDEs were compiled, subjected to internal review, and posted online for external public comment in September 2016...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Cheryl Ann Green
Prayer is viewed in modern medicine as a complimentary alternative treatment. However, to many patients, it is a source of hope and comfort. Patients, when facing illness, advanced disease, disability or death, can benefit from prayer. For healthcare providers, comfort with praying with patients can be deemed as unprofessional conduct or blurred therapeutic boundaries, particularly, when prayer is offered to patients' unsolicited by the patient or their family member(s). Therefore, it is imperative that healthcare providers await the request of prayer by the patient before prayer is initiated...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Wei Zhang, Zheng Dong, Xiujuan Chang, Cuihong Zhang, Guanghua Rong, Xudong Gao, Zhen Zeng, Chunping Wang, Yan Chen, Yihui Rong, Jianhui Qu, Ze Liu, Yinying Lu
Apocynum venetum L., belonging to the family Apocynaceae, is a popular medicinal plant, which is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, neurasthenia, and hepatitis in China. In the present study, the total flavonoids (TFs) were prepared from the leaves of A. venetum, and its protective effects on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in a cultured HepG2 cell line and in mice were investigated. Cell exposed to 0.4% CCl4 (v/v) for 6 h led to a significant decrease in cell viability, increased LDH leakage, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
V C Graça, Maria Inês Dias, Lillian Barros, Ricardo C Calhelha, P F Santos, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Geranium molle L., commonly known as Dove's-foot Crane's-bill or Dovesfoot Geranium, is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family. Contrary to many other Geranium species, the bioactivity and the phytochemical composition of G. molle seem not to have attracted attention until a recent study from our group regarding the bioactivity of several aqueous and organic extracts of the plant. In particular, we assessed the cytotoxic activity of these extracts against several human tumor cell lines (breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas) and a non-tumor porcine liver primary cell line, inspired by an ethnopharmacological report describing the traditional use of this medicinal plant in some regions of Northeast Portugal for the treatment of cancer...
March 15, 2018: Food & Function
Chengzheng Han, Guozheng Xing, Mengying Zhang, Min Zhong, Zhen Han, Chiyi He, Xiaoping Liu
Wogonoside, the main effective constituent of traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria , belongs to the glucuronide family, with various functions, including detoxification, anti-inflammation and nourishing gallbladder, lowering blood pressure, diuresis and anti-allergic reactions. However, the effects of wogonoside on human colon cancer cells remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of wogonoside on human colon cancer cells in vitro and its anticancer mechanisms. The results demonstrated that wogonoside significantly inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis and mitochondrial-mediated autophagy of colon cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Telma Moreira, Daphne C Hernandez, Claudia W Scott, Rosenda Murillo, Elizabeth M Vaughan, Craig A Johnston
Hispanics are disparately affected by diabetes. Treating socioeconomically disadvantaged Hispanics is challenging due to economic and cultural barriers. Health care providers must understand that cultural beliefs about medicine and disease may have an impact on how diabetes treatment is viewed. Concepts such as susto (fright), coraje (anger), and fatalismo (fatalism) are common cultural beliefs. If these beliefs are not well understood by the health care provider, recommendations for treatment are likely to be discarded...
January 2018: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
Draženka Komes, Arijana Bušić, Ana Belščak-Cvitanović, Mladen Brnčić, Tomislav Bosiljkov, Aleksandra Vojvodić, Filip Dujmić
Regardless of its highly valuable nutritive composition, goat's milk is less preferred by consumers due to its specific sensory characteristics that are very often regarded as undesirable. On the other hand, traditional medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family, due to their rich bioactive composition, especially polyphenols, and desirable aroma profile, can be used to enhance and improve bioactive and sensory properties of food. In the present study nutritively valuable beverages were produced by enrichment of goat's milk with medicinal plant extracts derived from the Lamiaceae family and stabilized by homogenization with high intensity ultrasound treatment...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Yuxi Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Xuekai Gao, Chunying Liu, Shupeng Gai
Tree peony, one of the most valuable horticultural and medicinal plants in the world, has to go through winter to break dormancy. Growing studies from molecular aspects on dormancy release process have been reported, but inadequate study has been done on miRNA-guided regulation in tree peony. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was employed to identify and characterize miRNAs in three libraries (6 d, 18 d and 24 d chilling treatments). There were 7,122, 10,076 and 9,097 unique miRNA sequences belonging to 52, 87 and 68 miRNA families, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
James Rourke, Danielle O'Keefe, Mohamed Ravalia, Scott Moffatt, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Katherine Stringer, Michael Jong, Kristin Harris Walsh, Janelle Hippe
OBJECTIVE: To assess Memorial University of Newfoundland's (MUN's) commitment to a comprehensive pathways approach to rural family practice, and to determine the national and provincial effects of applying this approach. DESIGN: Analysis of anonymized secondary data. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Memorial's medical degree (MD) graduates practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of January 2015 (N = 305), MUN's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates (N = 120), and physicians who completed family medicine training programs in Canada between 2004 and 2013 and who were practising in Canada 2 years after completion of their postgraduate training (N = 8091)...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Eva Purkey, Rupa Patel, Tracey Beckett, Françoise Mathieu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the primary care experiences of women who have a history of childhood trauma and chronic disease. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with directed content analysis. SETTING: Family health team in Kingston, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six women. METHODS: Letters of invitation were sent to eligible participants followed by a telephone survey. Women with an adverse childhood experience (ACE) score of 4 or higher and with 2 or more chronic conditions were invited to participate in a one-on-one interview...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Daeho Kim, Sanghyun Hong, Hongjun Na, Jihwan Chun, Robin B Guevarra, You-Tae Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Hyeun Bum Kim, Ju-Hoon Lee
Bellflower root ( Platycodon grandiflorum ), which belongs to the Campanulaceae family, is a perennial grass that grows naturally in Korea, northeastern China, and Japan. Bellflower is widely consumed as both food and medicine due to its high nutritional value and potential therapeutic effects. Since foodborne disease outbreaks often come from vegetables, understanding the public health risk of microorganisms on fresh vegetables is pivotal to predict and prevent foodborne disease outbreaks.We investigated the microbial communities on the bellflower root (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Devesh Vashishtha, William Sieber, Brittany Hailey, Kristen Guirguis, Alexander Gershunov, Wael K Al-Delaimy
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine whether heat waves are associated with increased frequency of clinic visits for ICD-9 codes of illnesses traditionally associated with heat waves. Methods: During 4 years of family medicine clinic data between 2012 and 2016, we identified six heat wave events in San Diego County. For each heat wave event, we selected a control period in the same season that was twice as long. Scheduling a visit on a heat wave day (versus a non-heat wave day) was the primary predictor, and receiving a primary ICD-9 disease code related to heat waves was the outcome...
March 10, 2018: Family Practice
Lucas Wan Der Maas
The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the 2000s in the social base of the medical and nursing professions in Brazil, as a result of the expansion of higher education in the country beginning in the late 1990s. The article begins with a descriptive analysis of the social base of recruitment, drawing on data from the socioeconomic questionnaire of the National Student Performance Exam in 2004 and 2010, for incoming and graduating students in medicine and nursing. Next, it analyzes the social base of certified physicians and nurses, using data from the 2000 and 2010 Population Censuses...
March 8, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
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