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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441432/dysbiosis-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-decrease-in-paneth-cell-antimicrobial-peptide-level-during-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis-in-rats
#1
Jing Chen, Chunlan Huang, Jingjing Wang, Hui Zhou, Yingying Lu, Lihong Lou, Junyuan Zheng, Ling Tian, Xingpeng Wang, Zhongwei Cao, Yue Zeng
OBJECTIVES: Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) and intestinal microbiota dysbiosis was involved in intestinal barrier failure. Paneth cells protect intestinal barrier and are associated with intestinal microbiota. Here, we investigated changes in intestinal microbiota and antimicrobial peptides of Paneth cells in ileum during ANP. METHODS: Rats with ANP were established by retrograde injection of 3.5% sodium taurocholate into biliopancreatic duct and sacrificed at 24h and 48h, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432186/wellness-initiatives-benefits-and-limitations
#2
Michelle Li, Eleftherios P Diamandis, Nigel Paneth, Kiang-Teck J Yeo, Henrik Vogt, Stephen R Master
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429766/beyond-growth-signaling-paneth-cells-metabolically-suppport-iscs
#3
Talya L Dayton, Hans Clevers
Single Lgr5 intestinal stem cells (ISCs) can be expanded in vitro into epithelial organoids or "mini-guts", self-organizing cellular structures that recreate the intestinal differentiation program; Paneth cells, which constitute the intestinal stem cell niche, secrete stem cell growth signals, and are thus essential for this process. In a recent paper published in Nature, Rodríguez-Colman et al. describe how Paneth cells may be supporting the metabolic state of ISCs.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416688/knockout-of-the-lrrc26-subunit-reveals-a-primary-role-of-lrrc26-containing-bk-channels-in-secretory-epithelial-cells
#4
Chengtao Yang, Vivian Gonzalez-Perez, Taro Mukaibo, James E Melvin, Xiao-Ming Xia, Christopher J Lingle
Leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein 26 (LRRC26) is the regulatory γ1 subunit of Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent BK-type K(+) channels. BK channels that contain LRRC26 subunits are active near normal resting potentials even without Ca(2+), suggesting they play unique physiological roles, likely limited to very specific cell types and cellular functions. By using Lrrc26 KO mice with a β-gal reporter, Lrrc26 promoter activity is found in secretory epithelial cells, especially acinar epithelial cells in lacrimal and salivary glands, and also goblet and Paneth cells in intestine and colon, although absent from neurons...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390705/the-protection-role-of-atg16l1-in-cd11c-dendritic-cells-in-murine-colitis
#5
Hong Zhang, Libo Zheng, Jeremy Chen, Masayuki Fukata, Ryan Ichikawa, David Q Shih, Xiaolan Zhang
The autophagy-related 16-like 1 gene (Atg16l1) is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and has been shown to play an essential role in paneth cell function and intestinal homeostasis. However, the functional consequences of Atg16l1 deficiency in myeloid cells, particularly in dendritic cells (DCs), are not fully characterized. The aim of this study is to investigate the functional consequence of Atg16l1 in CD11c(+)DCs in murine colitis. We generated mice deficient in Atg16l1 in CD11c(+)DCs. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) and S...
March 16, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380527/modulation-of-intestinal-cell-differentiation-in-growing-pigs-is-dependent-on-the-fiber-source-in-the-diet
#6
M Saqui-Salces, Z Huang, M Ferrandis Vila, J Li, J A Mielke, P E Urriola, G C Shurson
Feeding high-fiber diets decreases cost, but also caloric and nutritional efficiency by modifying intestinal morphology and function. We analyzed the changes in intestinal cell composition, nutrient transporters and receptors, and cell differentiation induced by fibers from different sources. Forty-six finishing pigs (BW 84 ± 7 kg) were fed 1 of 4 diets: corn-soybean (Control; = 12), 23% wheat straw (WS; = 11), 55% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; = 11), and 30% soybean hulls (SBH; = 12). Pigs were fed 2 meals daily to an amount equivalent to 2...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375676/tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-an-actin-binding-protein-girdin-specifically-marks-tuft-cells-in-human-and-mouse-gut
#7
Daisuke Kuga, Kaori Ushida, Shinji Mii, Atsushi Enomoto, Naoya Asai, Masato Nagino, Masahide Takahashi, Masato Asai
Tuft cells (TCs) are minor components of gastrointestinal epithelia, characterized by apical tufts and spool-shaped somas. The lack of reliable TC-markers has hindered the elucidation of its role. We developed site-specific and phosphorylation-status-specific antibodies against Girdin at tyrosine-1798 (pY1798) and found pY1798 immunostaining of mouse jejunum clearly depicted epithelial cells closely resembling TCs. This study aimed to validate pY1798 as a TC-marker. Double-fluorescence staining of intestines was performed with pY1798 and known TC-markers, for example, hematopoietic-prostaglandin-D-synthase (HPGDS), or doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373760/role-of-autophagy-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
Tomoya Iida, Kei Onodera, Hiroshi Nakase
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system. Recently, some studies provided strong evidence that the process of autophagy affects several aspects of mucosal immune responses. Autophagy is a cellular stress response that plays key roles in physiological processes, such as innate and adaptive immunity, adaptation to starvation, degradation of aberrant proteins or organelles, antimicrobial defense, and protein secretion...
March 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363996/mir-34a-and-mir-34b-c-suppress%C3%A2-intestinal-tumorigenesis
#9
Longchang Jiang, Heiko Hermeking
The p53-inducible miR-34a and miR-34b/c genes are frequently silenced in colorectal cancer (CRC). To address the in vivo relevance of miR-34a/b/c function for suppression of intestinal tumor formation, we generated Apc(Min/+) mice with deletions of the miR-34a and/or miR-34b/c genes separately or in combination. Combined deletion of miR-34a/b/c increased the number of intestinal stem cells as well as Paneth and Goblet cells, resulting in enlarged intestinal crypts. miR-34a/b/c-deficient Apc(Min/+) mice displayed an increased tumor burden and grade, and decreased survival...
March 31, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359759/a-vesicle-trafficking-protein-%C3%AE-snap-regulates-paneth-cell-differentiation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#10
Susana Lechuga, Nayden G Naydenov, Alex Feygin, Antonio J Jimenez, Andrei I Ivanov
A soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein alpha (αSNAP) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking and signaling. In cultured intestinal epithelial cells, αSNAP has been shown to be essential for cell survival, motility, and adhesion; however, its physiologic functions in the intestinal mucosa remain unknown. In the present study, we used a mouse with a spontaneous hydrocephalus with hop gait (hyh) mutation of αSNAP to examine the roles of this trafficking protein in regulating intestinal epithelial homeostasis in vivo...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352666/lrrk2-but-not-atg16l1-is-associated-with-paneth-cell-defect-in-japanese-crohn-s-disease-patients
#11
Ta-Chiang Liu, Takeo Naito, Zhenqiu Liu, Kelli L VanDussen, Talin Haritunians, Dalin Li, Katsuya Endo, Yosuke Kawai, Masao Nagasaki, Yoshitaka Kinouchi, Dermot P B McGovern, Tooru Shimosegawa, Yoichi Kakuta, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck
BACKGROUND. Morphological patterns of Paneth cells are a prognostic biomarker in Western Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and are associated with autophagy-associated ATG16L1 and NOD2 variants. We hypothesized that genetic determinants of Paneth cell phenotype in other ethnic CD cohorts are distinct but also involved in autophagy. METHODS. We performed a hypothesis-driven analysis of 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CD susceptibility or known to affect Paneth cell function in 110 Japanese CD patients who underwent ileal resection...
March 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349941/milk-fat-globule-membrane-supplementation-in-formula-modulates-the-neonatal-gut-microbiome-and-normalizes-intestinal-development
#12
Ganive Bhinder, Joannie M Allaire, Cyrielle Garcia, Jennifer T Lau, Justin M Chan, Natasha R Ryz, Else S Bosman, Franziska A Graef, Shauna M Crowley, Larissa S Celiberto, Julia C Berkmann, Roger A Dyer, Kevan Jacobson, Michael G Surette, Sheila M Innis, Bruce A Vallance
Breast milk has many beneficial properties and unusual characteristics including a unique fat component, termed milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). While breast milk yields important developmental benefits, there are situations where it is unavailable resulting in a need for formula feeding. Most formulas do not contain MFGM, but derive their lipids from vegetable sources, which differ greatly in size and composition. Here we tested the effects of MFGM supplementation on intestinal development and the microbiome as well as its potential to protect against Clostridium difficile induced colitis...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348052/bile-acid-administration-elicits-an-intestinal-antimicrobial-program-and-reduces-the-bacterial-burden-in-two-mouse-models-of-enteric-infection
#13
Sarah Tremblay, Guillaume Romain, Mélisange Roux, Xi-Lin Chen, Kirsty Brown, Deanna L Gibson, Sheela Ramanathan, Alfredo Menendez
In addition to their chemical antimicrobial nature, bile acids (BA) are thought to have other functions in the homeostatic control of gastrointestinal immunity. However, those functions have remained largely undefined. In this work, we used ileal explants and mouse models of BA administration to investigate the role of BA in the regulation of the intestinal antimicrobial response. Mice fed on a diet supplemented with 0.1% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) showed an upregulated expression of Paneth cell α-defensins as well as an increased synthesis of the type-C lectins Reg3b and Reg3g by the ileal epithelium...
March 27, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336548/nutrient-sensing-by-absorptive-and-secretory-progenies-of-small-intestinal-stem-cells
#14
Kunihiro Kishida, Sarah C Pearce, Shiyan Yu, Nan Gao, Ronaldo P Ferraris
Nutrient sensing triggers responses by the gut-brain axis modulating hormone release, feeding behavior and metabolism that become dysregulated in metabolic syndrome and some cancers. Except for absorptive enterocytes and secretory enteroendocrine cells, the ability of many intestinal cell types to sense nutrients is still unknown, hence we hypothesized that progenitor stem cells (ISC) possess nutrient sensing ability inherited by progenies during differentiation. We directed via modulators of Wnt and Notch signaling, differentiation of precursor mouse intestinal crypts into specialized organoids each containing ISC, enterocyte, goblet or Paneth cells at relative proportions much higher than in situ as determined by mRNA expression and immunocytochemistry of cell type biomarkers...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330897/rip2-is-required-for-nod2-mediated-lysozyme-sorting-in-paneth-cells
#15
Haifang Wang, Xinwen Zhang, Zhanguang Zuo, Qin Zhang, Ying Pan, Benhua Zeng, Wenxia Li, Hong Wei, Zhihua Liu
Paneth cells play an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis by secreting a large number of antimicrobial peptides into the intestinal lumen. In this study, we found that Rip2 is required for lysozyme sorting in Paneth cells in a manner that is dependent on Nod2, LRRK2, and Rab2a. Rip2 deficiency in mouse led to lysosomal degradation of lysozyme in Paneth cells and prevented the recruitment of Rab2a onto dense core vesicles (DCVs). Like Nod2 and LRRK2, Rip2 localizes to DCVs in Paneth cells, and its DCV localization depends on Nod2 and LRRK2...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323883/ubiquitously-expressed-human-beta-defensin-1-hbd1-forms-bacteria-entrapping-nets-in-a-redox-dependent-mode-of-action
#16
Judith Raschig, Daniela Mailänder-Sánchez, Anne Berscheid, Jürgen Berger, Adam A Strömstedt, Lioba F Courth, Nisar P Malek, Heike Brötz-Oesterhelt, Jan Wehkamp
Ever since the discovery of endogenous host defense antimicrobial peptides it has been discussed how these evolutionary conserved molecules avoid to induce resistance and to remain effective. Human ß-defensin 1 (hBD1) is an ubiquitously expressed endogenous antimicrobial peptide that exhibits qualitatively distinct activities between its oxidized and reduced forms. Here, we explore these antimicrobial mechanisms. Surprisingly, using electron microscopy we detected a so far unknown net-like structure surrounding bacteria, which were treated with the reduced but not the oxidized form of hBD1...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316379/high-fat-diet-alters-gut-microbiota-and-the-expression-of-paneth-cell-antimicrobial-peptides-preceding-changes-of-circulating-inflammatory-cytokines
#17
Xiulan Guo, Jinchao Li, Renyong Tang, Guodong Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Richard J Wood, Zhenhua Liu
Obesity is an established risk factor for many diseases including intestinal cancer. One of the responsible mechanisms is the chronic inflammation driven by obesity. However, it remains to be defined whether diet-induced obesity exacerbates the intestinal inflammatory status by cytokines produced in adipose tissue or the high fat diet first alters the gut microbiota and then drives intestinal inflammation. To address this question, we fed C57BL/6 mice with a high fat diet (HF, 60%) and sacrificed them sequentially after 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and then compositions of gut microbiota and expressions of antimicrobial peptides were determined...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304405/the-erbb3-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-negatively-regulates-paneth-cells-by-pi3k-dependent-suppression-of-atoh1
#18
Dana Almohazey, Yuan-Hung Lo, Claire V Vossler, Alan J Simmons, Jonathan J Hsieh, Edie B Bucar, Michael A Schumacher, Kathryn E Hamilton, Ken S Lau, Noah F Shroyer, Mark R Frey
Paneth cells (PCs), a secretory population located at the base of the intestinal crypt, support the intestinal stem cells (ISC) with growth factors and participate in innate immunity by releasing antimicrobial peptides, including lysozyme and defensins. PC dysfunction is associated with disorders such as Crohn's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis, but the specific pathways regulating PC development and function are not fully understood. Here we tested the role of the neuregulin receptor ErbB3 in control of PC differentiation and the ISC niche...
March 17, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303901/mutual-reinforcement-between-telomere-capping-and-canonical-wnt-signalling-in-the-intestinal-stem-cell-niche
#19
Ting-Lin B Yang, Qijun Chen, Jennifer T Deng, Geetha Jagannathan, John W Tobias, David C Schultz, Shan Wang, Christopher J Lengner, Anil K Rustgi, John P Lynch, F Brad Johnson
Critical telomere shortening (for example, secondary to partial telomerase deficiency in the rare disease dyskeratosis congenita) causes tissue pathology, but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Mice lacking telomerase (for example, mTR(-/-) telomerase RNA template mutants) provide a model for investigating pathogenesis. In such mice, after several generations of telomerase deficiency telomeres shorten to the point of uncapping, causing defects most pronounced in high-turnover tissues including intestinal epithelium...
March 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299479/l-glutamine-and-l-arginine-protect-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-infection-via-intestinal-innate-immunity-in-mice
#20
Gang Liu, Wenkai Ren, Jun Fang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guiping Guan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jie Yin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Shuai Chen, Yuanyi Peng, Yulong Yin
Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells...
March 15, 2017: Amino Acids
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