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Wakana Ohashi, Shunsuke Kimura, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Yukihiro Furusawa, Tarou Irié, Hironori Izumi, Takashi Watanabe, Atsushi Hijikata, Takafumi Hara, Osamu Ohara, Haruhiko Koseki, Toshiro Sato, Sylvie Robine, Hisashi Mori, Yuichi Hattori, Hiroshi Watarai, Kenji Mishima, Hiroshi Ohno, Koji Hase, Toshiyuki Fukada
Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Katarzyna Taran, Tomasz FrÄ Czek, Anita Sikora-Szubert, Anna Sitkiewicz, Wojciech Må Ynarski, Józef Kobos, Piotr Paneth
The paper describes a novel approach to investigating Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma) biology at the atomic level. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) was used to directly assess the isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon in 84 Wilms' tumour tissue samples from 28 cases representing the histological spectrum of nephroblastoma. Marked differences in nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios were found between nephroblastoma histological types and along the course of cancer disease, with a breakout in isotope ratio of the examined elements in tumour tissue found between stages 2 and 3...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Dermot P B McGovern
Pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) involves immune and microbial dysregulation, induced by environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. There are believed to be multiple subtypes of CD, which contributes to its observed clinical heterogeneity. This concept has been reinforced by recognition of the complexity of the genetic, microbial, immune, and environmental factors that affect risk for CD. Paneth cells mediate immunity in and maintain the small intestinal epithelium; defects in activities of these cells have been observed in high proportions of patients with CD, and associated with more aggressive CD phenotype...
October 8, 2016: Gastroenterology
Tabasum Sidiq, Sayuri Yoshihama, Isaac Downs, Koichi S Kobayashi
The human intestinal tract harbors large bacterial community consisting of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic strains, which are constantly interacting with the intestinal immune system. This interaction elicits a non-pathological basal level of immune responses and contributes to shaping both the intestinal immune system and bacterial community. Recent studies on human microbiota are revealing the critical role of intestinal bacterial community in the pathogenesis of both systemic and intestinal diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Ta-Chiang Liu, Bhaskar Gurram, Megan T Baldridge, Richard Head, Vy Lam, Chengwei Luo, Yumei Cao, Pippa Simpson, Michael Hayward, Mary L Holtz, Pavlos Bousounis, Joshua Noe, Diana Lerner, Jose Cabrera, Vincent Biank, Michael Stephens, Curtis Huttenhower, Dermot P B McGovern, Ramnik J Xavier, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Nita H Salzman
BACKGROUND: Paneth cell dysfunction has been implicated in a subset of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We previously stratified clinical outcomes of CD patients by using Paneth cell phenotypes, which we defined by the intracellular distribution of antimicrobial proteins. Animal studies suggest that Paneth cells shape the intestinal microbiome. However, it is unclear whether Paneth cell phenotypes alter the microbiome complexity in CD subjects. Therefore, we analyzed the correlation of Paneth cell phenotypes with mucosal microbiome composition and ileal RNA expression in pediatric CD and noninflammatory bowel disease (non-IBD) patients...
June 2, 2016: JCI Insight
Wei Gong, Mengzheng Guo, Zhibo Han, Yan Wang, Ping Yang, Chang Xu, Qin Wang, Liqing Du, Qian Li, Hui Zhao, Feiyue Fan, Qiang Liu
The loss of stem cells residing in the base of the intestinal crypt has a key role in radiation-induced intestinal injury. In particular, Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are indispensable for intestinal regeneration following exposure to radiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have previously been shown to improve intestinal epithelial repair in a mouse model of radiation injury, and, therefore, it was hypothesized that this protective effect is related to Lgr5(+) ISCs. In this study, it was found that, following exposure to radiation, transplantation of MSCs improved the survival of the mice, ameliorated intestinal injury and increased the number of regenerating crypts...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Maria I Pinto-Sánchez, Edgardo C Smecuol, Maria P Temprano, Emilia Sugai, Andrea González, María L Moreno, Xianxi Huang, Premysl Bercik, Ana Cabanne, Horacio Vázquez, Sonia Niveloni, Roberto Mazure, Eduardo Mauriño, Elena F Verdú, Julio C Bai
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown a reduction of gastrointestinal symptoms after the oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis Natren Life Start super strain (NLS-SS) in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients. The symptomatic improvement was not associated with changes in intestinal permeability or serum levels of cytokines, chemokines, or growth factors. Therefore, we hypothesized that the beneficial symptomatic effect observed previously in patients with CD treated with B. infantis may be related to the modulation of innate immunity...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Cui Zhu, Zhuang Chen, Zongyong Jiang
Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs) represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1-11) have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes), goblet cells and Paneth cells...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sophie Yvon, Maïwenn Olier, Mathilde Leveque, Gwenaëlle Jard, Helene Tormo, Djamila Ali Haimoud-Lekhal, Magali Peter, Hélène Eutamène
PURPOSE: In this study, we showed the beneficial effects of donkey milk (DM) on inflammatory damages, endogenous antimicrobial peptides levels and fecal microbiota profile in a mice model of Crohn's disease. Nowadays, new strategies of microbiome manipulations are on the light involving specific diets to induce and/or to maintain clinical remission. Interest of DM is explained by its high levels of antimicrobial peptides which confer it anti-inflammatory properties. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were orally administered with or without indomethacin for 5 days and co-treated with vehicle, DM or heated DM during 7 days...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Nobuo Sasaki, Norman Sachs, Kay Wiebrands, Saskia I J Ellenbroek, Arianna Fumagalli, Anna Lyubimova, Harry Begthel, Maaike van den Born, Johan H van Es, Wouter R Karthaus, Vivian S W Li, Carmen López-Iglesias, Peter J Peters, Jacco van Rheenen, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Hans Clevers
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5(+)) stem cells reside at crypt bottoms of the small and large intestine. Small intestinal Paneth cells supply Wnt3, EGF, and Notch signals to neighboring Lgr5(+) stem cells. Whereas the colon lacks Paneth cells, deep crypt secretory (DCS) cells are intermingled with Lgr5(+) stem cells at crypt bottoms. Here, we report regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (Reg4) as a marker of DCS cells. To investigate a niche function, we eliminated DCS cells by using the diphtheria-toxin receptor gene knocked into the murine Reg4 locus...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jennifer Lee, Pedro M Moraes-Vieira, Angela Castoldi, Pratik Aryal, Eric U Yee, Christopher Vickers, Oren Parnas, Cynthia J Donaldson, Alan Saghatelian, Barbara B Kahn
We recently discovered a structurally novel class of endogenous lipids, branched palmitic acid esters of hydroxy stearic acids (PAHSAs), with beneficial metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. We tested whether PAHSAs protect against colitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease driven predominantly by defects in the innate mucosal barrier and adaptive immune system. There is an unmet clinical need for safe and well tolerated oral therapeutics with direct anti-inflammatory effects. Wild-type mice were pretreated orally with vehicle or 5-PAHSA (10 mg/kg) and 9-PAHSA (5 mg/kg) once daily for 3 days, followed by 10 days of either 0% or 2% dextran sulfate sodium water with continued vehicle or PAHSA treatment...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tao Yu, Hong-Sheng Yang, Xi-Ji Lu, Zhong-Sheng Xia, Hui Ouyang, Ti-Dong Shan, Can-Ze Huang, Qi-Kui Chen
BACKGROUND Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with increased risks of enteric infection. Paneth cells constitute the first line of the gut defense. Little is known about the impact of T1DM on the bactericidal function of intestinal Paneth cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS A T1DM mouse model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin. The analysis of intestinal microbiota and the mucosal bactericidal assay were conducted to evaluate intestinal innate defense. Numbers of Paneth cells and their expression of related antimicrobial peptides were analyzed...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Kevin P O'Rourke, Lukas E Dow, Scott W Lowe
Immunofluorescent staining of organoids can be performed to visualize molecular markers of cell behavior. For example, cell proliferation marked by incorporation of nucleotide (EdU), or to observe markers of intestinal differentiation including paneth cells, goblet cells, or enterocytes (see Figure 1). In this protocol we detail a method to fix, permeabilize, stain and mount intestinal organoids for analysis by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy.
February 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
Gao Tan, Erbo Liang, Kaili Liao, Feihong Deng, Wendi Zhang, Yuqing Chen, Jun Xu, Fachao Zhi
IL-23p19 plays important roles in intestinal antimicrobial immunity, while its over-expression can lead to intestinal inflammation. However, the bacterial compounds and the type of pattern recognition receptor involved in the inducible expression of IL-23p19 in Paneth cells remain unclear. Here we show that the mRNA expression of IL-23p19 was increased in Paneth cell (PC)-like cells stimulated by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligands, peptidoglycan (PGN) and Pam3CSK4, and was further increased in the presence of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2)-ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP)...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Nhan T Ho, Julia V Busik, James H Resau, Nigel Paneth, Sok Kean Khoo
Unfrozen archived newborn blood spots (NBS) have been shown to retain sufficient messenger RNA (mRNA) for gene expression profiling. However, the effect of storage time at ambient temperature for NBS samples in relation to the quality of gene expression data is relatively unknown. Here, we evaluated mRNA expression from quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and microarray data obtained from NBS samples stored at ambient temperature to determine the effect of storage time on the quality of gene expression. These data were generated in a previous case-control study examining NBS in 53 children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 53 matched controls...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Shinya Imada, Yoji Murata, Takenori Kotani, Masaki Hatano, Chunxiao Sun, Tasuku Konno, Jung-Ha Park, Yasuaki Kitamura, Yasuyuki Saito, Hideki Ohdan, Takashi Matozaki
Proper regulation of epithelial cell turnover is important for the structural integrity and homeostasis of various tissues including the intestine. Here we show that ablation of Csk, a negative regulator of Src family kinases (SFKs), specifically in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) resulted in the development of hyperplasia throughout the intestinal epithelium of mice. Such conditional ablation of Csk also increased the proliferative activity and turnover of IECs, disturbed the differentiation of Paneth and goblet cells, reduced the number of intestinal stem cells, and attenuated the expression of Wnt target genes in the intestine...
August 22, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Haim Belinson, Adam K Savage, Douglas Fadrosh, Yien-Ming Kuo, Din Lin, Ricardo Valladares, Ysbrand Nusse, Anthony Wynshaw-Boris, Susan V Lynch, Richard M Locksley, Ophir D Klein
Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is controlled by complex interactions between epithelial and immune cells and the resident microbiota. Here, we studied the role of Wnt signaling in GI homeostasis using Disheveled 1 knockout (Dvl1 (-/-)) mice, which display an increase in whole gut transit time. This phenotype is associated with a reduction and mislocalization of Paneth cells and an increase in CD8(+) T cells in the lamina propria. Bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrated that GI dysfunction requires abnormalities in both epithelial and immune cells...
July 7, 2016: JCI Insight
John Hilkens, Nikki C Timmer, Mandy Boer, Gerjon J Ikink, Matthias Schewe, Andrea Sacchetti, Martijn A J Koppens, Ji-Ying Song, Elvira R M Bakker
OBJECTIVE: The gross majority of colorectal cancer cases results from aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signalling through adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or CTNNB1 mutations. However, a subset of human colon tumours harbour, mutually exclusive with APC and CTNNB1 mutations, gene fusions in RSPO2 or RSPO3, leading to enhanced expression of these R-spondin genes. This suggested that RSPO activation can substitute for the most common mutations as an alternative driver for intestinal cancer. Involvement of RSPO3 in tumour growth was recently shown in RSPO3-fusion-positive xenograft models...
August 10, 2016: Gut
Yueyue Yu, Lei Lu, Jun Sun, Elaine O Petrof, Erika C Claud
Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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