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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336073/hypoxia-ischemia-and-brain-injury-in-infants-born-preterm
#1
Nigel Paneth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324356/inflammation-induced-er-stress-affects-absorptive-intestinal-epithelial-cells-function-and-integrity
#2
Sucheera Chotikatum, Hassan Y Naim, Nahed El-Najjar
Recent studies have linked impairment of intestinal epithelial function in inflammatory bowel disease to the disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis (ER) in response to stress. Most studies are on goblet and Paneth cells, which are considered more susceptible to stress due to their role in the protection of intestinal epithelium against microbes and harmful substances. However, studies on the role of inflammation-induced ER stress in absorptive intestinal cells are scarce. In this study, we show, using Caco-2 cells as a model of intestinal epithelial barrier, that inducing ER stress using a cocktail mixture of pro-inflammatory mediators [TNFα (50ng/ml), MCP1 (50ng/ml), and IL-1β (25ng/ml)] as observed in IBD patients induces ER stress and leads to significant changes in key proteins of the apical (sucrase-isomaltase (SI), dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPPIV), and ezrin) and basolateral (E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), and connexin-43) membranes...
January 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322871/are-extremely-low-gestational-age-newborns-born-to-obese-women-at-increased-risk-of-cerebral-palsy-at-2-years
#3
Jelske W van der Burg, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban, Elizabeth N Allred, Nigel Paneth, Olaf Dammann, Alan Leviton
The authors hypothesized that the risk of cerebral palsy at 2 years in children born extremely preterm to overweight and obese women is increased relative to the risk among children born to neither overweight nor obese women. In a multicenter prospective cohort study, the authors created multinomial logistic regression models of the risk of diparetic, quadriparetic, and hemiparetic cerebral palsy that included the prepregnancy body mass index of mothers of 1014 children born extremely preterm, cerebral palsy diagnoses of children at 2 years, as well as information about potential confounders...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321057/influenza-a-virus-infection-impacts-systemic-microbiota-dynamics-and-causes-quantitative-enteric-dysbiosis
#4
Soner Yildiz, Béryl Mazel-Sanchez, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Balaji Manicassamy, Mirco Schmolke
BACKGROUND: Microbiota integrity is essential for a growing number of physiological processes. Consequently, disruption of microbiota homeostasis correlates with a variety of pathological states. Importantly, commensal microbiota provide a shield against invading bacterial pathogens, probably by direct competition. The impact of viral infections on host microbiota composition and dynamics is poorly understood. Influenza A viruses (IAV) are common respiratory pathogens causing acute infections...
January 10, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316348/ultrastructural-and-immunohistochemical-study-on-the-lamina-propria-cells-beneath-paneth-cells-in-the-rat-ileum
#5
Youhei Mantani, Miho Nishida, Kyouji Yamamoto, Kazuki Miyamoto, Hideto Yuasa, Natsumi Masuda, Takuya Omotehara, Hiroki Tsuruta, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Paneth cells secrete bactericidal substances in response to bacterial proliferation on the mucosal surface without directly contacting bacteria. However, the induction mechanism of this transient secretion has not been clarified, although nervous system and/or immunocompetent cells in the lamina propria (LP) might be involved. In the present study, we ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically investigated which LP cells are localized beneath Paneth cells and examined the relationship between the Paneth cell-derived cellular processes which extended into the LP and the LP cells...
January 6, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310907/co-occurrence-and-severity-of-neurodevelopmental-burden-cognitive-impairment-cerebral-palsy-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-epilepsy-at-age-10-years-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#6
Rachel G Hirschberger, Karl C K Kuban, Thomas M O'Shea, Robert M Joseph, Tim Heeren, Laurie Douglass, Carl E Stafstrom, Hernan Jara, Jean A Frazier, Deborah Hirtz, Julie Rollins, Nigel Paneth
BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairments at age ten years among children born extremely preterm (less than 28 weeks gestational age) and to offer a framework for categorizing neurological limitations. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective cohort follow-up study recruited 889 ten-year-old children born from 2002 to 2004. We assessed prevalence of cognitive impairment, measured by intelligent quotient and tests of executive function, cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and epilepsy singly and in combination...
November 13, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310734/differential-methylation-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-in-offspring-of-physically-active-pregnant-women
#7
M R Marshall, N Paneth, J A Gerlach, L M Mudd, L Biery, D P Ferguson, J M Pivarnik
Several studies have suggested that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy may influence long-term health of offspring by altering the offspring epigenome. Whether maternal leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy might have this effect is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal LTPA during pregnancy and offspring DNA methylation. Participants were recruited from the Archive for Research on Child Health study. At enrollment, participants' demographic information and self-reported LTPA during pregnancy were determined...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297501/t-bet-independent-th1-response-induces-intestinal-immunopathology-during-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#8
Américo H López-Yglesias, Elise Burger, Alessandra Araujo, Andrew T Martin, Felix Yarovinsky
Coordinated production of IFN-γ by innate and adaptive immune cells is central for host defense, but can also trigger immunopathology. The investigation of the lymphoid cell-specific contribution to the IFN-γ-mediated intestinal pathology during Toxoplasma gondii infection identified CD4+ T cells as a key cell population responsible for IFN-γ-dependent intestinal inflammation and Paneth cell loss, where T-bet-dependent group 1 innate lymphoid cells have a minor role in driving the parasite-induced immunopathology...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297494/neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-prostate
#9
Samson W Fine
Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in tumors of the prostate or in the setting of prostate cancer (PCa) is rare. A survey of these lesions is presented, including usual PCa with focal NE marker-positive cells, Paneth cell-like change, prostatic 'carcinoid', high-grade NE carcinoma, as well as other tumors that do not fit neatly into these categories. The most significant clinical and pathologic features, emerging molecular evidence and the importance of differentiating NE tumors involving the prostate from secondary involvement are highlighted...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286377/the-organoid-reconstitution-assay-ora-for-the-functional-analysis-of-intestinal-stem-and-niche-cells
#10
Matthias Schewe, Andrea Sacchetti, Mark Schmitt, Riccardo Fodde
The intestinal epithelium is characterized by an extremely rapid turnover rate. In mammals, the entire epithelial lining is renewed within 4 - 5 days. Adult intestinal stem cells reside at the bottom of the crypts of Lieberkühn, are earmarked by expression of the Lgr5 gene, and preserve homeostasis through their characteristic high proliferative rate1. Throughout the small intestine, Lgr5+ stem cells are intermingled with specialized secretory cells called Paneth cells. Paneth cells secrete antibacterial compounds (i...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277155/wnt-takes-two-to-tango-molecular-links-between-the-circadian-clock-and-the-cell-cycle-in-adult-stem-cells
#11
Toru Matsu-Ura, Sean R Moore, Christian I Hong
Like two dancers, the circadian clock and cell cycle are biological oscillators engaged in bidirectional communication, resulting in circadian clock-gated cell division cycles in species ranging from cyanobacteria to mammals. The identified mechanisms for this phenomenon have expanded beyond intracellular molecular coupling components to include intercellular connections. However, detailed molecular mechanisms, dynamics, and physiological functions of the circadian clock and cell cycle as coupled oscillators remain largely unknown...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251351/3d-stromal-tissue-equivalent-affects-intestinal-epithelium-morphogenesis-in-vitro
#12
Vincenza De Gregorio, Giorgia Imparato, Francesco Urciuolo, Paolo A Netti
Current in vitro models of human intestine commonly fail to mimic the complex intestinal functions and features required for drug development and disease research. Here we deeply investigate the interaction existing between epithelium and the underneath stroma, and its role in the epithelium morphogenesis. We cultured human intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) in two different 3D configurations: 3D-collagen gel equivalent (3D-CGE) and 3D cell-synthetized stromal equivalent (3D-CSSE). The 3D-CGEs were obtained by means of the traditional collagen-based cell technique and the 3D-CSSE were obtained by bottom-up tissue engineering strategy...
December 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236523/associations-between-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-vitamin-d
#13
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Rodrigo Gallhardi Gasparini
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are increasing sharply, and the common medications are not effective for most patients. Vitamin D (VD) has been considerate to reduce inflammatory processes and may be helpful in IBD. The aim of this review was to perform an update on the potential role of VD in the IBD. We performed a search for articles associating VD and IBD published in MEDLINE-PubMed and EMBASE. The focused question used for the search was "What is the association between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Vitamin D?" The exclusion criteria for this search were studies not in English, editorials, case reports, or poster presentations...
December 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186150/in-vitro-enteroid-derived-three-dimensional-tissue-model-of-human-small-intestinal-epithelium-with-innate-immune-responses
#14
Ying Chen, Wenda Zhou, Terrence Roh, Mary K Estes, David L Kaplan
There is a need for functional in vitro 3D human intestine systems that can bridge the gap between conventional cell culture studies and human trials. The successful engineering in vitro of human intestinal tissues relies on the use of the appropriate cell sources, biomimetic scaffolds, and 3D culture conditions to support vital organ functions. We previously established a compartmentalized scaffold consisting of a hollow space within a porous bulk matrix, in which a functional and physiologically relevant intestinal epithelium system was generated using intestinal cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186118/corrigendum-a-randomized-synbiotic-trial-to-prevent-sepsis-among-infants-in-rural-india
#15
Pinaki Panigrahi, Sailajanandan Parida, Nimai C Nanda, Radhanath Satpathy, Lingaraj Pradhan, Dinesh S Chandel, Lorena Baccaglini, Arjit Mohapatra, Subhranshu S Mohapatra, Pravas R Misra, Rama Chaudhry, Hegang H Chen, Judith A Johnson, J Glenn Morris, Nigel Paneth, Ira H Gewolb
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature23480.
November 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184701/paneth-cells-in-intestinal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#16
REVIEW
Nikolaus Gassler
Small intestinal mucosa is characterised by villus forming connective tissues with highly specialised surface lining epithelial cells essentially contributing to the establishment of the intestinal border. In order to perform these diverse functions, spatially distinct compartments of epithelial differentiation are found along the crypt-villus axis, including Paneth cells as a highly specialised cell type. Paneth cells locate in crypts and assist undifferentiated columnar cells, called crypt base columnar cells, and rapidly amplifying cells in the regeneration of absorptive and secretory cell types...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177131/recent-advances-in-intestinal-stem-cells
#17
Laura R McCabe, Narayanan Parameswaran
Purpose of review: The intestine is a dynamic organ with rapid stem cell division generating epithelial cells that mature and apoptose in 3-5 days. Rapid turnover maintains the epithelial barrier and homeostasis. Current insights on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their regulation are discussed here. Recent findings: The Lgr5+ ISCs maintain intestinal homeostasis by dividing asymmetrically, but also divide symmetrically to extinguish or replace ISCs. Following radiation or mucosal injury, reserve BMI1+ ISCs as well as other crypt cells can de-differentiate into Lgr5+ ISCs...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157080/secretory-autophagy-holds-the-key-to-lysozyme-secretion-during-bacterial-infection-of-the-intestine
#18
Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Daniel J Klionsky
In 2013, Dr. Lora Hooper and colleagues described the induction of antibacterial macroautophagy/autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells as a cytoprotective host defense mechanism against invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Canonical autophagy functions in a primarily degradative capacity to safeguard cells and ensure survival during stress conditions, including pathogen infection. In contrast, secretory autophagy has emerged as an alternative nondegradative mechanism for cellular trafficking and unconventional protein secretion...
November 20, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151645/management-of-staphylococcus-mediated-systemic-infection-by-enhancing-the-resurging-activity-of-co-trimoxazole-in-presence-of-cryptdin-2
#19
Amrita Kaur, Shiv Kumar Chabba, Ujjwal Jit Kaur, Arashdeep Kaur, Simran Preet, Praveen Rishi
Resurgence of sensitivity of the antibiotics, to which the pathogen had developed resistance in the past, requires special attention for strengthening the reservoir of antimicrobial compounds. Reports in the recent past have suggested that co-trimoxazole (COT) has regained its activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The present study exploited the use of COT in the presence of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP), cryptdin-2 (a murine Paneth cell alpha defensin), in order to reduce the selective pressure of the antibiotic on the pathogen...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144463/a-single-cell-survey-of-the-small-intestinal-epithelium
#20
Adam L Haber, Moshe Biton, Noga Rogel, Rebecca H Herbst, Karthik Shekhar, Christopher Smillie, Grace Burgin, Toni M Delorey, Michael R Howitt, Yarden Katz, Itay Tirosh, Semir Beyaz, Danielle Dionne, Mei Zhang, Raktima Raychowdhury, Wendy S Garrett, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Hai Ning Shi, Omer Yilmaz, Ramnik J Xavier, Aviv Regev
Intestinal epithelial cells absorb nutrients, respond to microbes, function as a barrier and help to coordinate immune responses. Here we report profiling of 53,193 individual epithelial cells from the small intestine and organoids of mice, which enabled the identification and characterization of previously unknown subtypes of intestinal epithelial cell and their gene signatures. We found unexpected diversity in hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells and constructed the taxonomy of newly identified subtypes, and distinguished between two subtypes of tuft cell, one of which expresses the epithelial cytokine Tslp and the pan-immune marker CD45, which was not previously associated with non-haematopoietic cells...
November 16, 2017: Nature
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