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Mental disorder

Patrícia Romano Opasso, Simone Dos Santos Barreto, Karin Zazo Ortiz
Objective: To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. Methods: The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters...
July 2016: Einstein
Amir A Afkhami
The world is currently in the midst of the largest refugee crisis since World War II, with the highest interval of mass displacement in recorded history according to the United Nations. The United States has pledged to maintain its position as one of the world's top resettlement countries in response to this crisis. These new immigrants will arrive with exceptional chronic and acute medical needs, including higher rates of behavioral health disorders. The author describes the health care challenges experienced by refugees seeking asylum in the United States and outlines the ways in which our health care system is currently deficient in helping refugee patients to overcome these challenges...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Xiao-Fan Zhang, Wei Zou, Yuan Yang
Depression is an important post-stroke sequela with negative impact on mortality, functional outcome and quality of life. Changes in cytokines have been hypothesized to be associated with the etiology of post-stroke depression (PSD). The altere dhypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning is associated with the onset of depression. The activity of HPA could induce the fluctuations of cortisol levels. In this study, we prospectively checked interleukin 6 (IL-6) and cortisol levels in patients with early ischemic stroke...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Venu Duddu, Abdulhakim Rhouma, Masood Qureshi, Imran Bashir Chaudhry, Terry Drake, Altaf Sumra, Nusrat Husain
Aims and method The need for an age-appropriate in-patient service for 16- to 17-year-olds led to the development of a 6-bed acute admissions unit in a non-metropolitan county in the UK. We provide a descriptive evaluation of the first 2 years of its operation. All admissions from April 2010 to March 2012 were reviewed, clinical details systematically recorded and descriptively analysed. Results Ninety-seven young people were admitted during this period (a third were compulsorily detained under the Mental Health Act 1983)...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Paul M Harris, Lynne M Drummond
Aims and method To examine how often referring community mental health teams (CMHTs) utilised treatment recommendations made by the national highly specialised service for patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We analysed all patient notes for admissions to the unit (August 2012-August 2014) and recorded how many treatment recommendations were implemented by CMHTs prior to admission and at 6 months post-discharge. Results Overall, 66% of our recommendations were met by CMHTs prior to admission and 74% after discharge...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Pauliina Mattila-Holappa, Matti Joensuu, Kirsi Ahola, Aki Koskinen, Katinka Tuisku, Jenni Ervasti, Marianna Virtanen
BACKGROUND: We examined the extent to which psychotherapeutic and work-oriented interventions were included in a medical treatment and rehabilitation plan and whether they predicted future employment among young adults with work disability due to a mental disorder. METHODS: Data were obtained from the treatment and rehabilitation plans of 1163 young adults aged 18‒34 years, who in 2008 were granted fixed-term work disability compensation due to a mental disorder and were followed for 5 years...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Tianda Chen, Qinwei Wu, Yang Zhang, Tianlan Lu, Weihua Yue, Dai Zhang
Background: Transcription factor 4 (TCF4) is found to be associated with schizophrenia. TCF4 mutations also cause Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with severe mental retardation. However, the function of TCF4 during brain development remains unclear. Results: Here, we report that Tcf4 is expressed in the developing cerebral cortex. In utero suppression of Tcf4 arrested neuronal migration, leading to accumulation of ectopic neurons in the intermediate zone. Knockdown of Tcf4 impaired leading process formation...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Galen E Switzer, Jessica Bruce, Deidre M Kiefer, Hati Kobusingye, Rebecca Drexler, RaeAnne M Besser, Dennis L Confer, Mary M Horowitz, Roberta J King, Bronwen E Shaw, Marcie Riches, Brandon Hayes-Lattin, Michael Linenberger, Brian Bolwell, Scott D Rowley, Mark R Litzow, Michael A Pulsipher
The increasing number of older adults with blood-related disorders and the introduction of reduced intensity conditioning regimens has led to increases in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation among older adults and a corresponding increase in the age of siblings who donate HSCs to these patients. Data regarding the donation-related experiences of older donors is lacking. The Related Donor Safety Study (RDSafe) aimed to examine/compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older versus younger HSC donors...
October 14, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
J Norton, M David, C Gandubert, C Bouvier, L-A Gutierrez, A Frangeuil, A Macgregor, A Oude Engberink, A Mann, D Capdevielle
OBJECTIVES: The general practitioner (GP) is the most frequently consulted health professional by patients with common mental disorders (CMD). Yet approximately half of cases are not detected by the GP. Many factors linked to the patient, the doctor and the health care system influence detection. For example, detection rates are higher when patients are better known to their GP. On the other hand, patients visiting a different GP for reasons of dissatisfaction with previous care are more likely to be detected on the survey-day...
October 14, 2016: L'Encéphale
Julia Schellong, Franziska Epple, Kerstin Weidner, Andrea Möllering
A non-neglectable portion of people that have fled to Germany have been subjected to expulsion, violence, torture and grave human loss. In some of them, signs of secondary mental problems are obvious. In the light of the efforts at integration, these diseases must not be neglected. Outlined are the federal legal requirements and how the cost coverage, as well as the admission to health care system, is structured. Additionally, 2 exemplary regional models for psychosomatic health care are being introduced: Dresden's "Stepped Care Model for Psychologically Vulnerable Refugees" includes phased offers for prevention and treatment of acute mental crises, as well as somatoform disorders in refugees and their volunteer helpers...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Jonas Schaffrath, Mario Schmitz-Buhl, Ali Kemal Gün, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
Medical and psychological care of refugees is among the most important current challenges in German health politics. Work with patients from this heterogeneous group who have often faced severe stress before, during and after their migration is currently based on a thin data foundation. Based on introductory information on current knowledge concerning psychiatric morbidity of refugees this article presents the psychiatric care of refugees at LVR Clinics Cologne - a psychiatric specialty hospital situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Andrew Stickley, Ai Koyanagi, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Yoko Kamio
Prior research has produced conflicting findings on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pain, while studies among community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and pain in the general adult population, and the extent to which this association is influenced by comorbid common mental disorders (CMDs). Data came from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey which included a representative sample of the English adult household population aged ≥16 years (N=7403)...
October 3, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Gillian Fergie, Kate Hunt, Shona Hilton
Social media offer opportunities to both produce and consume content related to health experiences. However, people's social media practices are likely to be influenced by a range of individual, social and environmental factors. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how engagement with user-generated content can support people with long-term health conditions, and what limits users' adoption of these technologies in the everyday experience of their health condition. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults, aged between 18 and 30 years, with experience of diabetes or a common mental health disorder (CMHD)...
October 8, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Jonathan Avery, Bernadine H Han, Erin Zerbo, Guojiao Wu, Elizabeth Mauer, Joseph Avery, Stephen Ross, Julie B Penzner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychiatry residents provide care for individuals diagnosed with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders (SUDs). Small studies have shown that clinicians in general possess negative attitudes towards these dually diagnosed individuals. This is a serious concern, as clinicians' stigmatizing attitudes towards individuals with mental illnesses may have a particularly potent adverse impact on treatment. The goal of this study was to examine the attitudes of psychiatry residents towards individuals with diagnoses of schizophrenia, multiple SUDs, co-occurring schizophrenia and SUDs, and major depressive disorder...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
María Martín-Fernández, Josep Lluís Matalí, Sara García-Sánchez, Marta Pardo, María Lleras, Carmina Castellano-Tejedor
Demand for treatment for problems related to the use of video games have increased significantly in adolescents. Most cases have a comorbid mental disorder that jeopardises both pathologies. The aim of this study is to describe profiles of adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) according to comorbidity and analyze treatment response at 3 and 6 months. A sample of 86 patients which consulted in the Addictive Behavior Unit of a hospital was assessed with diagnostic criteria for IGD, the interview K-SADS-PL for mental disorders and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) to treatment progress...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Lídia Teixidor López, Cindy Frías-Torres, José Moreno-España, Lluisa Ortega, Pablo Barrio, Antoni Gual
Many alcohol-dependent patients suffer from cognitive impairment of variable severity, manifested by alterations in retrograde and anterograde memory, visuospatial processing, cognitive abilities and attention, some of which are reversible. In this context, cognitive remediation therapies could significantly improve patients' performance; therefore, these are considered a valuable alternative. The aim of this study was to implement cognitive remediation therapy in patients with alcohol dependence and cognitive impairment and evaluate its viability and effectiveness...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Felix Inchausti, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Nancy V García-Poveda, Alejandro Ballesteros-Prados
BACKGROUND: The term metacognition reflects a spectrum of psychological activities that allows people to form and integrate representations about their own mental states and those of others. The main goal of this study was to examine whether people with substance abuse disorders (SUDs), and treated in therapeutic community regime, displayed specific patterns of metacognitive deficits on Self-reflectivity, Understanding others’ mind, Decentration, and Mastery, comparing their scores with two clinical groups of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and anxiety disorders...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Eija Haukka, Anneli Ojajärvi, Leena Kaila-Kangas, Päivi Leino-Arjas
We identified factors protective of all-cause sickness absence (SA) among subjects with multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSP). The nationally representative source sample comprised 3420 actively working Finns aged 30-55 in year 2000 and alive at follow-up. Pain in 18 body locations was combined into four sites (neck, low back, upper limbs, lower limbs). The baseline prevalence of MSP (pain in ≥ 2 sites) was 32 %. Baseline data on sociodemographic factors, work ability, work, health, and lifestyle were gathered by questionnaire, interview and clinical examination and linked with national registers on all-cause SA (periods lasting ≥10 workdays) for 2002-2008...
October 3, 2016: Pain
Francesca Martino, Andrea Norcini Pala, Barbara Valenti, Rossella Capelli, Domenico Berardi, Rohini Bagrodia, Marco Menchetti
The aim of the current study was to validate the Italian version of the Attitude Toward Personality Disorders Questionnaire (APDQ), assess its psychometric properties, and investigate nurses' attitudes toward patients with personality disorders. An Italian version of the APDQ was produced and administered to nurses working in the Bologna Mental Health Department. The instrument demonstrated good psychometric proprieties and a robust structure and supported the five-factor solution of the original English version...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Irene Alvarez-Tomás, Joaquim Soler, Arturo Bados, Ana Martín-Blanco, Matilde Elices, Cristina Carmona, Joana Bauzà, Juan Carlos Pascual
The aim of this prospective study was to expand previously reported evidence on the 10-year clinical and functional course of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a Spanish sample. Participants diagnosed with BPD were assessed at baseline and at 10-year follow-up to evaluate BPD symptomatology and other relevant clinical measures, suicidal behavior, dimensional personality traits, Axis I and II comorbidity, use of mental health resources, and psychosocial functioning. At the 10-year follow up, significant improvements were observed on BPD domains, suicidal behavior, and other clinical measures...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
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