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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820748/disclosure-of-diagnosis-in-early-recognition-of-psychosis
#1
Andreas Blessing, Anna Studer, Amelie Gross, L Forest Gruss, Roland Schneider, Gerhard Dammann
There is a debate concerning risks and benefits of early intervention in psychosis, especially concerning diagnosis disclosure. The present study reports preliminary findings on self-reported locus of control and psychological distress after the disclosure of diagnosis in an early recognition center. We compared the ratings of the locus of control and psychological distress before and after communication of diagnosis. The study included individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) (n = 10), schizophrenia (n = 9), and other psychiatric disorders (n = 11)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819790/contemplative-meditation-and-neuroscience-prospects-for-mental-health
#2
Denis Larrivee, Luis Echarte
Numerous studies show that personal spirituality developed through prayer positively influences mental health. Phenomenological and neuroscientific studies of mindfulness, an Eastern meditative prayer form, reveal significant health benefits now yielding important insights useful for guiding treatment of psychological disorders. By contrast, and despite its practice for millennia, Christian meditation is largely unrepresented in studies of clinical efficacy. Resemblances between mindfulness and disciplinary acts in Christian meditation taken from the ancient Greek practice of askesis suggest that Christian meditation will prove similarly beneficial; furthermore, psychological and neuroscientific studies suggest that its retention of a dialogical and transcendent praxis will additionally benefit social and existential psychotherapy...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819693/the-mindmap-project-mental-well-being-in-urban-environments-design-and-first-results-of-a%C3%A2-survey-on-healthcare-planning-policies-strategies-and-programmes-that-address-mental-health-promotion-and-mental-disorder-prevention-for-older-people-in-europe
#3
REVIEW
L Neumann, U Dapp, W Jacobsen, F van Lenthe, W von Renteln-Kruse
BACKGROUND: The MINDMAP consortium (2016-2019) aims to identify opportunities provided by the urban environment for the promotion of mental well-being and functioning of older people in Europe by bringing together European cities with urban longitudinal ageing studies: GLOBE, HAPIEE, HUNT, LASA, LUCAS, RECORD, Rotterdam Study, Turin Study. A survey on mental healthcare planning policies and programmes dedicated to older persons covering the range from health promotion to need of nursing care was performed for profound data interpretation in Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Hamburg, Helsinki, Kaunas, Krakow, London, Nord-Trøndelag, Paris, Prague, Rotterdam and Turin...
August 17, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819570/hcv-integrated-care-a-randomized-trial-to-increase-treatment-initiation-and-svr-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#4
Erik J Groessl, Lin Liu, Marisa Sklar, Samuel B Ho
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Psychiatric or substance use disorders are barriers to successful HCV antiviral treatment. In a randomized, controlled trial (RCT), the effects of HCV Integrated Care (IC) for increasing treatment rates and sustained viral response (SVR) were studied with direct acting antivirals (DAA). METHODS: In 2012-13, VA patients, whose screening was positive for depression, PTSD, or substance use (N = 79), were randomized to IC or Usual Care (UC). IC consisted of brief psychological interventions and case management...
2017: International Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819532/a-case-of-enterobiasis-presenting-as-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-a-curious-case-of-the-infection-with-predominant-mental-health-symptoms-presenting-for-the-first-time-in-the-settings-of-a-refugee-camp
#5
Georgios Karamitros, Nikolaos Kitsos, Fotios Athanasopoulos
Enterobiasis (oxyuriasis) is a common infection in human caused by Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis), a human intestinal helminth. Because of the easy way of its transmission among people, it has an extremely high prevalence in overcrowded conditions, such as nurseries and primary schools. Oxyuriasis's symptoms are extremely diverse in children, ranging from nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, irritability, recurrent cellulitis, loss of appetite, nightmares and endometritis. Here we report a curious case of oxyuriasis in the settings of a refugee camp in Greece...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819289/escrt-iii-membrane-trafficking-misregulation-contributes-to-fragile-x-syndrome-synaptic-defects
#6
Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
The leading cause of heritable intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is caused by loss of the mRNA-binding translational suppressor Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). In the Drosophila FXS disease model, we found FMRP binds shrub mRNA (human Chmp4) to repress Shrub expression, causing overexpression during the disease state early-use critical period. The FXS hallmark is synaptic overelaboration causing circuit hyperconnectivity. Testing innervation of a central brain learning/memory center, we found FMRP loss and Shrub overexpression similarly increase connectivity...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819243/temporal-profiling-of-depression-vulnerability-in-a-preclinical-model-of-sustained-depression
#7
D Riga, L J M Schmitz, W J G Hoogendijk, A B Smit, S Spijker
Major Depression is a prevalent mental disorder that is characterized by negative mood and reduced motivation, and frequently results in social withdrawal and memory-related deficits. Repeated stressors, such as adverse life events, increase the risk for development of the disorder. Consequently, individual variability in stress response greatly weighs on depression-vulnerability and -resilience. Here, we employed the social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS) paradigm to identify depression-prone individuals and to examine the temporal development of depression in the months following exposure to brief defeat stress...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818613/network-analysis-a-new-way-of-understanding-psychopathology
#8
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero
Current taxonomic systems are based on a descriptive and categorical approach where psychopathological symptoms and signs are caused by a hypothetical underlying mental disorder. In order to circumvent the limitations of classification systems, it is necessary to incorporate new conceptual and psychometric models that allow to understand, analyze and intervene in psychopathological phenomena from another perspective. The main goal was to present a new approach called network analysis for its application in the field of psychopathology...
August 14, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818420/predicting-sexual-assault-perpetration-in-the-u-s-army-using-administrative-data
#9
Anthony J Rosellini, John Monahan, Amy E Street, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, David M Benedek, Paul Bliese, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
INTRODUCTION: The Department of Defense uses a universal prevention framework for sexual assault prevention, with each branch implementing its own branch-wide programs. Intensive interventions exist, but would be cost effective only if targeted at high-risk personnel. This study developed actuarial models to identify male U.S. Army soldiers at high risk of administratively recorded sexual assault perpetration. METHODS: This study investigated administratively recorded sexual assault perpetration among the 821,807 male Army soldiers serving 2004-2009...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818243/mental-health-problems-and-cancer-risk-factors-among-young-adults
#10
Greta M Massetti, Cheryll C Thomas, Jessica King, Kathleen Ragan, Natasha Buchanan Lunsford
INTRODUCTION: Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. METHODS: In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818121/different-places-different-ideas-reimagining-practice-in-american-psychiatric-nursing-after-world-war-ii
#11
Kylie M Smith
In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing...
January 1, 2018: Nursing History Review: Official Journal of the American Association for the History of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817764/limited-functioning-after-remission-of-an-anxiety-disorder-as-a-trait-effect-versus-a-scar-effect-results-of-a-longitudinal-general-population-study
#12
Simone M E Schopman, Margreet Ten Have, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Ron de Graaf, Neeltje M Batelaan
OBJECTIVE: After remission of an anxiety disorder, subjects often experience persistent functional impairments. We examined whether impairments in mental and physical functioning following remission are a continuation of premorbid lower functioning (trait effect), due to impairments that develop during the anxiety disorder and persist beyond recovery (scar effect), or both. METHODS: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a prospective psychiatric epidemiologic study among the general population with a 3-wave design (6-year follow-up, with the study starting in 2007 and ending in 2015)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817734/treatment-gap-and-barriers-for-mental-health-care-a-cross-sectional-community-survey-in-nepal
#13
Nagendra P Luitel, Mark J D Jordans, Brandon A Kohrt, Sujit D Rathod, Ivan H Komproe
CONTEXT: There is limited research on the gap between the burden of mental disorders and treatment use in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the treatment gap among adults with depressive disorder (DD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to examine possible barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment in Nepal. METHODS: A three-stage sampling technique was used in the study to select 1,983 adults from 10 Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Chitwan district...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817578/deliberate-self-harm-behavior-among-young-violent-offenders
#14
Natalie Laporte, Andrejs Ozolins, Sofie Westling, Åsa Westrin, Eva Billstedt, Björn Hofvander, Märta Wallinius
Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person's quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817303/chrna7-deletions-are-enriched-in-risperidone-treated-children-and-adolescents
#15
Madelyn A Gillentine, Janson J White, Christopher M Grochowski, James R Lupski, Christian P Schaaf, Chadi A Calarge
OBJECTIVE: Aggression is among the most common indications for referral to child and adolescent mental health services and is often challenging to treat. Understanding the biological underpinnings of aggression could help optimize treatment efficacy. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), specifically the α7 nAChR, encoded by the gene CHRNA7, have been implicated in aggressive behaviors in animal models as well as humans. Copy number variants (CNVs) of CHRNA7 are found in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders, often with comorbid aggression...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817238/stakeholders-in-psychiatry-and-their-attitudes-toward-receiving-pertinent-and-incident-findings-in-genomic-research
#16
Anna Sundby, Merete W Boolsen, Kristoffer S Burgdorf, Henrik Ullum, Thomas F Hansen, Anna Middleton, Ole Mors
Increasingly more psychiatric research studies use whole genome sequencing or whole exome sequencing. Consequently, researchers face difficult questions, such as which genomic findings to return to research participants and how. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes among potential research participants and health professionals toward receiving pertinent and incidental findings. A cross-sectional online survey was developed to investigate the attitudes among research participants toward receiving genomic findings...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816544/animal-inflammation-based-models-of-depression-and-their-application-to-drug-discovery
#17
Li Ma, Konstantin A Demin, Tatyana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Kharsko, Xiaokang Zhu, Xiaodong Yuan, Cai Song, Darya A Meshalkina, Brian E Leonard, Li Tian, Allan V Kalueff
Depression, anxiety and other affective disorders are globally widespread and severely debilitating human brain diseases. Despite their high prevalence and mental health impact, affective pathogenesis is poorly understood, and often remains recurrent and resistant to treatment. The lack of efficient antidepressants and presently limited conceptual innovation necessitate novel approaches and new drug targets in the field of antidepressant therapy. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss the emerging role of neuro-immune interactions in affective pathogenesis, which can become useful targets for CNS drug discovery, including modulating neuroinflammatory pathways to alleviate affective pathogenesis...
August 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816509/shp465-mixed-amphetamine-salts-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#18
Matthew Brams, Ann C Childress, Michael Greenbaum, Ming Yu, Brian Yan, Margo Jaffee, Brigitte Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind dose-optimization study enrolled children and adolescents (6-17 years) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision ADHD criteria and having baseline ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores ≥28...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816498/the-relationship-between-gaming-disorder-and-addiction-requires-a-behavioral-analysis
#19
Richard J E James, Richard J Tunney
In their position paper, Aarseth et al. (2016) bring to light several timely issues concerning the categorization of gaming disorder as a form of addiction and as a discrete mental disorder. In our commentary, we welcome their caution toward this move and their discussion of the equivocal scientific data in its support and the potential negative consequences for gamers. We suggest that a more heterogeneous approach is required for understanding any behavioral addiction, as concepts from gambling appear to be more relevant for aspects of mobile gaming than for video games more generally...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816496/icd-11-gaming-disorder-needed-and-just-in-time-or-dangerous-and%C3%A2-much%C3%A2-too%C3%A2-early
#20
Wim van den Brink
In their debate contribution, Aarseth et al. (2016) strongly argue against the proposal of WHO ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases, 11th revision) to include Gaming Disorder as a new diagnostic category emphasizing the fact that no consensus exists on the definition and the risk that gaming will be demonized and gamers stigmatized resulting in a tsunami of false positive referrals to treatment. In this commentary, it is argued that gaming is indeed just another relatively innocent recreational activity with only a small minority losing control resulting in gaming-related problems...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
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