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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427418/immunity-as-a-predictor-of-anti-malarial-treatment-failure-a-systematic-review
#1
Katherine O'Flaherty, Julia Maguire, Julie A Simpson, Freya J I Fowkes
BACKGROUND: Naturally acquired immunity can reduce parasitaemia and potentially influence anti-malarial treatment outcomes; however, evidence for this in the current literature provides conflicted results. The available evidence was synthesized to determine and quantify the association between host immunity and anti-malarial treatment failure. METHODS: Four databases were searched to identify studies investigating malaria antibody levels in patients receiving anti-malarial treatment for symptomatic malaria with treatment failure recorded according to the World Health Organization classification...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420403/molecular-surveillance-of-plasmodium-falciparum-drug-resistance-in-the-republic-of-congo-four-and-nine-years-after-the-introduction-of-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy
#2
Felix Koukouikila-Koussounda, Sankarganesh Jeyaraj, Christian N Nguetse, Charles Nchotebah Nkonganyi, Kossiwa Clarisse Kokou, Mandingha K Etoka-Beka, Francine Ntoumi, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarial drugs hinders efforts on malaria elimination and eradication. Following the global spread of chloroquine-resistant parasites, the Republic of Congo adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2006 as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. To assess the impacts after implementation of ACT, a molecular surveillance for anti-malarial drug resistance was conducted in Congo 4 and 9 years after the introduction of ACT. METHODS: Blood samples of 431 febrile children aged 1-10 years were utilized from two previous studies conducted in 2010 (N = 311) and 2015 (N = 120)...
April 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407772/the-end-of-a-dogma-the-safety-of-doxycycline-use-in-young-children-for-malaria-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Tiphaine Gaillard, Sébastien Briolant, Marylin Madamet, Bruno Pradines
Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails...
April 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400231/antiplasmodial-%C3%AE-triketones-from-the-flowers-of-the-australian-tree-angophora-woodsiana
#4
Sarath P D Senadeera, Sandra Duffy, Vicky M Avery, Anthony R Carroll
Chemical investigations of the MeOH extract of air dried flowers of the Australian tree Angophora woodsiana (Myrtaceae) yielded two new β-triketones, woodsianones A and B (1, 2) and nine known β-triketones (3-11). Woodsianone A is a β-triketone-sesquiterpene adduct and woodsianone B is a β-triketone epoxide derivative. The structures of the new and known compounds were elucidated from the analysis of 1D/2D NMR and MS data. The relative configurations of the compounds were determined from analysis of (1)H-(1)H coupling constants and ROESY correlations...
March 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389278/prenylated-flavonoids-from-the-stems-and-roots-of-tripterygium-wilfordii
#5
Yang Chen, Jianping Zhao, Yixing Qiu, Hanwen Yuan, Shabana I Khan, Nusrat Hussain, M Iqbal Choudhary, Feng Zeng, De-An Guo, Ikhlas A Khan, Wei Wang
Phytochemical investigation on the stems and roots of Tripterygium wilfordii led to the isolation and characterization of three new prenylated flavanones, tripteryols A-C (1-3), along with (±)-5,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-6',6″-dimethypyraro-(2″,3″:7,8)-6-methyflavanone (4), and ((2S)-5,7,4'-trihydroxy-2'-methoxy-8,5'-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-6-methylflavanone (5). Structures of the compounds 1-5 were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, such as UV, IR, NMR (1D and 2D), and HRESI-MS. Tripteryols B (2) was found active in the antimicrobial assay against Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values in the range of 2...
April 5, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384505/the-vivax-surveyor-online-mapping-database-for-plasmodium-vivax-clinical-trials
#6
REVIEW
R J Commons, K Thriemer, G Humphreys, I Suay, C H Sibley, P J Guerin, R N Price
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent P. vivax infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although radical cure can reduce recurrent infection, it is confounded by antimalarial resistance and the lack of safe and effective hypnozoitocidal treatment. This study documents the available literature of published clinical trials of P. vivax, providing an up to date, online, open access tool to view and download available information. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines to identify prospective P...
March 24, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377317/dehydroascorbate-derivatized-chitosan-particles-for-targeting-antimalarial-agents-to-infected-erythrocytes
#7
Hasham Shafi, D V Siva Reddy, Tabassum Khan, Rajeev Ranjan, Ashish Srivastava, Suniti Vaishya, Tanuj Sharma, Mohammad Imran Siddiqui, Saman Habib, Amit Misra
The mammalian glucose transporter GLUT-1 and Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter PfHT1 are overexpressed on human RBC infected with the parasite (iRBC), presumably for enhanced glucose uptake. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) competes out glucose in GLUT-1 binding. We prepared particles containing chloroquine phosphate using novel derivatives of chitosan (CSN). CSN was either pre-derivatized with DHA (PRE) or particles made of CSN were derivatized by surface-grafting DHA (POST). The optimized formulations were analyzed for size (170-200nm) drug content (about 40%) entrapment efficiency (50-57%), in vitro drug release (80% in 72h, Higuchi's model), hemolysis on exposure to whole blood or RBC at 5% hematocrit, cytotoxicity towards cultured HEK 293T (kidney) and HepG2 (hepatic) cells, targeting iRBC and in vitro efficacy against P...
April 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376874/genetic-polymorphisms-in-plasmodium-falciparum-chloroquine-resistance-genes-pfcrt-and-pfmdr1-in-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#8
Patrick Reteng, Visia Vrisca, Inka Sukarno, Ilham Habib Djarkoni, Jane Angela Kalangi, George Eduardo Jacobs, Lucky Ronald Runtuwene, Yuki Eshita, Ryuichiro Maeda, Yutaka Suzuki, Arthur Elia Mongan, Sarah Maria Warouw, Junya Yamagishi, Josef Tuda
BACKGROUND: Malaria still poses one of the major threats to human health. Development of effective antimalarial drugs has decreased this threat; however, the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, a cause of Malaria, is disconcerting. The antimalarial drug chloroquine has been effectively used, but resistant parasites have spread worldwide. Interestingly, the withdrawal of the drug reportedly leads to an increased population of susceptible parasites in some cases. We examined the prevalence of genomic polymorphisms in a malaria parasite P...
April 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360437/introducing-new-antimalarial-analogues-of-chloroquine-and-amodiaquine-a-narrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Arezoo Rafiee Parhizgar, Azar Tahghighi
Antimalarial drugs with the 4-aminoquinoline scaffold such as the important drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ), have been used to prevent and treat malaria for many years. The importance of these drugs is related to their simple usage, high efficacy, affordability, and cost-effectiveness of their synthesis. In recent years, with the spread of parasite resistance to CQ and cross-resistance to its other analogues have decreased their consumption in many geographical areas. On the other hand, AQ is an effective antimalarial drug which its usage has been restricted due to hepatic and hematological toxicities...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359249/autophagy-inhibition-in-childhood-nephroblastoma-and-the-therapeutic-significance
#10
Lin-Jie Li, Yi-Long Wang, Lin-Qing Yuan, Wei-Zhong Gu, Kun Zhu, Min Yang, Duo Zhou, Yao Lv, Min-Ju Li, Zheng-Yan Zhao, Jin-Hu Wang, Xi Chen
Autophagy is a physiological pathway characterized by lysosome-dependent self-digestion to recycle damaged or superfluous cellular content. Deregulation of autophagy hampers the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and contributes to tumorigenesis. However, during anticancer therapy, autophagy activation contributes to development of resistance. Thus autophagy has been recognized as an important pathway and a therapeutic target in cancer. Nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumor) is a common childhood malignancy, the prognosis of the metastatic and relapsed cases remains poor...
March 30, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357581/malaria-an-update
#11
REVIEW
Srikanta Basu, Puneet Kaur Sahi
India is endemic for malaria with unstable transmission inhibiting the development of immunity and predisposing all age groups to the disease. Children under five are the greatest sufferers with maximum mortality. P. falciparum and P. vivax cause majority of cases. Fever is the cardinal symptom, though no set of signs and symptoms reliably distinguishes malaria from other causes of fever. In all suspected cases parasitological diagnosis should be confirmed before starting the treatment. Microscopy of blood smears is the gold standard for diagnosis...
March 30, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355531/using-a-genome-scale-metabolic-network-model-to-elucidate-the-mechanism-of-chloroquine-action-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#12
Shivendra G Tewari, Sean T Prigge, Jaques Reifman, Anders Wallqvist
Chloroquine, long the default first-line treatment against malaria, is now abandoned in large parts of the world because of widespread drug-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. In spite of its importance as a cost-effective and efficient drug, a coherent understanding of the cellular mechanisms affected by chloroquine and how they influence the fitness and survival of the parasite remains elusive. Here, we used a systems biology approach to integrate genome-scale transcriptomics to map out the effects of chloroquine, identify targeted metabolic pathways, and translate these findings into mechanistic insights...
March 22, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347314/reemergence-of-chloroquine-sensitive-pfcrt-k76-plasmodium-falciparum-genotype-in-southeastern-cameroon
#13
Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Leonardo K Basco, Vincent Foumane Ngane, Ahidjo Ayouba, Eitel Mpoudi Ngolle, Philippe Deloron, Martine Peeters, Rachida Tahar
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine had been used extensively during the last five decades in Cameroon. Its decreasing clinical effectiveness, supported by high proportions of clinical isolates carrying the mutant pfcrt haplotype (CVIET), led the health authorities to resort to amodiaquine monotherapy in 2002 and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2004 (artesunate-amodiaquine, with artemether-lumefantrine as an alternative since 2006) as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria...
March 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340622/anti-plasmodial-activity-of-norcaesalpin-d-and-extracts-of-four-medicinal-plants-used-traditionally-for-treatment-of-malaria
#14
Ramadhani Selemani Omari Nondo, Mainen Julius Moshi, Paul Erasto, Pax Jessey Masimba, Francis Machumi, Abdul Waziri Kidukuli, Matthias Heydenreich, Denis Zofou
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an old life-threatening parasitic disease that is still affecting many people, mainly children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of effective antimalarial drugs played a significant role in the treatment and control of malaria. However, recent information on the emergence of P. falciparum parasites resistant to one of the artemisinin-based combination therapies suggests the need for discovery of new drug molecules. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of extracts, fractions and isolated compound from medicinal plants traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Tanzania...
March 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333961/phytochemical-investigation-of-aloe-pulcherrima-roots-and-evaluation-for-its-antibacterial-and-antiplasmodial-activities
#15
Dele Abdissa, Girma Geleta, Ketema Bacha, Negera Abdissa
Medicinal plants with documented traditional uses remain an important source for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. Evidence shows that majority of the Ethiopian population are still dependent on traditional medicine. Aloe pulcherrima Gilbert & Sebsebe is one of the endemic Aloe species traditionally used for the treatment of malaria and wound healing in central, Southern and Northern part of Ethiopia. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to isolate active compounds from roots of A. pulcherrima and evaluate for their antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities using standard test strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333717/effect-of-resistance-exercise-on-muscle-metabolism-and-autophagy-in-sibm
#16
Jae-Hoon Jeong, Dae-Seung Yang, Dong-Ju Hwang, Joon-Yong Cho, Eun-Bum Kang
PURPOSE: Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), a muscular degenerative disease in the elderly, is an inflammatory myopathy characterized by muscle weakness in the wrist flexor, quadriceps, and tibialis anterior muscles. We aimed to identify the therapeutic effect of resistance exercise (RE) in improving sIBM symptoms in an sIBM animal model. METHODS: Six-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into a sham group (sham, n = 12), chloroquine-control group (CQ-con, n = 12), and chloroquine-RE group (CQ-RE, n = 12)...
March 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332319/piperazine-linked-4-aminoquinoline-chalcone-ferrocenyl-chalcone-conjugates-synthesis-and-anti-plasmodial-evaluation
#17
Amandeep Singh, Anu Rani, Jiri Gut, Philip J Rosenthal, Vipan Kumar
A series of piperazine-linked 4-aminoquinoline-chalcone/ferrocenyl-chalcone conjugates were prepared with a view to evaluate their activities against Plasmodium falciparum. The synthesized conjugates had in vitro IC50 values from 0.41-2.38 μM against chloroquine-resistant and mefloquine sensitive W2 strain of P. falciparum. The sub-micromolar activities of most of the synthesized conjugates suggest that such molecular frameworks can act as therapeutic templates for the design and synthesis of new antimalarials...
March 23, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320254/antimalarial-and-antiplasmodial-activity-of-husk-extract-and-fractions-of-zea-mays
#18
Jude E Okokon, Bassey S Antia, Dinesh Mohanakrishnan, Dinkar Sahal
CONTEXT: Zea mays L. (Poacae) husk decoctions are traditionally used in the treatment of malaria by various tribes in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To assess the antimalarial and antiplasmodial potentials of the husk extract and fractions on malaria parasites using in vivo and in vitro models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanol husk extract and fractions (187-748 mg/kg, p.o.) of Zea mays were investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei using rodent (mice) malaria models and in vitro activity against chloroquine sensitive (Pf 3D7) and resistant (Pf INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum using the SRBR green assay method...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318947/docking-synthesis-and-antimalarial-activity-of-novel-4-anilinoquinoline-derivatives
#19
Shilpa Vijayaraghavan, Supriya Mahajan
A series of 4-anilinoquinoline triazine derivatives were designed, synthesized and screened for in vivo antimalarial activity against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei. The compounds were further subjected to in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-resistant W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum and β-haematin inhibition studies. All the compounds exhibited in vivo antimalarial activity better than that shown by the standard drug, chloroquine. Twelve out of fifteen compounds showed better inhibition than that of chloroquine against chloroquine-resistant W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum...
March 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315598/n-piperonyl-substitution-on-aminoquinoline-pyrimidine-hybrids-effect-on-the-antiplasmodial-potency
#20
Rohit Kholiya, Shabana I Khan, Aparna Bahuguna, Mohit Tripathi, Diwan S Rawat
A series of 4-aminoquinoline-piperonyl-pyrimidine hybrids were synthesized with the aim of identifying compounds with enhanced antimalarial activity. All the synthesized molecules were evaluated in vitro against cultured Plasmodium falciparum W2 and D6 strains and exhibited potent antiplasmodial activities with IC50 values in the range of 0.02-5.16 μM. Out of the 22 synthesised hybrids, 12 were found to be better (up to eight-fold more active) than chloroquine (CQ), particularly against the CQ-resistant W2 strain of P...
March 11, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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