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Martin Pekař, Wendy U Dittmer, Nenad Mihajlović, Gijs van Soest, Nico de Jong
The information in an ultrasound image depends on the frequency that is used. In a clinical examination it may therefore be beneficial to generate ultrasound images acquired at multiple frequencies, which is difficult to achieve with conventional transducers. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) offer a frequency response that is tunable by the bias voltage. In this study we investigate this frequency tunability for ultrasonic imaging. We characterized a CMUT array operated at bias voltages up to three times higher than the collapse-voltage...
October 6, 2016: Ultrasonics
François Seghers, Xavier Yerna, Nadège Zanou, Olivier Devuyst, Rudi Vennekens, Bernd Nilius, Philippe Gailly
The renin - angiotensin system is a crucial blood pressure regulation system. It consists of a hormonal cascade where the rate-limiting enzyme is renin, which is secreted in blood flow by renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells in response to low pressure in the renal afferent arteriole. In contrast, an increase in blood pressure results in a decreased renin secretion. This is accompanied by a transitory increase in [Ca(2+) ]i of JG cells. The inverse relationship between [Ca(2+) ]i and renin secretion has been called the "calcium paradox" of renin release...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Harriet Lea-Banks, Boon Teo, Eleanor Stride, Constantin C Coussios
A significant barrier to successful drug delivery is the limited penetration of nanoscale therapeutics beyond the vasculature. Building on recent in vivo findings in the context of cancer drug delivery, the current study investigates whether modification of nanoparticle drug-carriers to increase their density can be used to enhance their penetration into viscoelastic materials under ultrasound exposure. A computational model is first presented to predict the transport of identically sized nanoparticles of different densities in an ultrasonic field in the presence of an oscillating microbubble, by a combination of primary and secondary acoustic radiation forces, acoustic streaming and microstreaming...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Luke Osborn, Rahul Kaliki, Alcimar Soares, Nitish Thakor
Upper limb amputees lack the valuable tactile sensing that helps provide context about the surrounding environment. Here we utilize tactile information to provide active touch feedback to a prosthetic hand. First, we developed fingertip tactile sensors for producing biomimetic spiking responses for monitoring contact, release, and slip of an object grasped by a prosthetic hand. We convert the sensor output into pulses, mimicking the rapid and slowly adapting spiking responses of receptor afferents found in the human body...
April 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Maurício Fabro, Sara Raquel Fabro, Rafael Santiago Oliveira de Sales, Luiz Pedro de Souza Júnior, Julian Catalan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
Andreas Horn, Laura Kipp, Antonio Meola, Andrea A Kühn, Christoph Leithner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Neurology
Frédéric London, Andre Philippe Peeters, Thierry Duprez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Neurology
Alexis Heller
BACKGROUND: Specimens of endometrial biopsies can sometimes present with an artifact within blood, composed of optically clear vacuoles mimicking adipose tissue, pseudolipomatosis. This artifact can be mistaken for adipose tissue and lead to an overdiagnosis of uterine perforation. CASE: We describe the case of pseudolipomatosis seen within the evacuated products of conception from a missed abortion. RESULTS: Areas of vacuolization in the blood clot mimicked adipose tissue...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Brie Sorrenson, Emmanuelle Cognard, Kathryn L Lee, Waruni C Dissanayake, Yanyun Fu, Weiping Han, William E Hughes, Peter R Shepherd
The processes regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and its modulation by incretins in pancreatic β-cells are only partly understood. Here we investigate the involvement of β-catenin in these processes. Reducing β-catenin levels using siRNA knockdown attenuated GSIS in a range of β-cell models and blocked the ability of GLP-1 agonists and the depolarizing agent KCl to potentiate this. This could be mimicked in both β-cell models and isolated islets by short-term exposure to the β-catenin inhibitory drug pyrvinium...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hiroshi Yokota, Yuki Ida, Daisuke Wajima, Fumihiko Nishimura, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: A Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) with non-hemorrhagic rupture mimicking pituitary apoplexy has been rarely reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 52-year-old woman, previously diagnosed with asymptomatic RCC, came to us with a severe headache, along with visual dysfunction and symptoms of pituitary insufficiency. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse hyper-intensity in the cerebral cisterns, while watery clear cerebrospinal fluid was obtained by lumbar puncture...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Takashi Yamashita, Yoshihide Asano, Takashi Taniguchi, Kouki Nakamura, Ryosuke Saigusa, Shunsuke Miura, Tetsuo Toyama, Takehiro Takahashi, Yohei Ichimura, Ayumi Yoshizaki, Maria Trojanowska, Shinichi Sato
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem inflammatory and vascular disease resulting in extensive tissue fibrosis. Glycyrrhizin, clinically used for chronic hepatic diseases and itching dermatitis, modulates the pathological processes of inflammation, vasculopathy, and fibrosis in human diseases and their animal models. Therefore, we investigated a potential impact of glycyrrhizin on the key pathological manifestations of SSc, including inflammation, vasculopathy, and tissue fibrosis, with bleomycin (BLM)-treated mice mimicking the fibrotic and inflammatory components of SSc and endothelial cell-specific Fli1 knockout mice recapitulating SSc vasculopathy...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Sven Jarius, Marius Ringelstein, Jürgen Haas, Irina I Serysheva, Lars Komorowski, Kai Fechner, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Philipp Albrecht, Harald Hefter, Andreas Moser, Eva Neuen-Jacob, Hans-Peter Hartung, Brigitte Wildemann, Orhan Aktas
BACKGROUND: Recently, we described a novel autoantibody, anti-Sj/ITPR1-IgG, that targets the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1) in patients with cerebellar ataxia. However, ITPR1 is expressed not only by Purkinje cells but also in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, in the substantia gelatinosa and in the motor, sensory (including the dorsal root ganglia) and autonomic peripheral nervous system, suggesting that the clinical spectrum associated with autoimmunity to ITPR1 may be broader than initially thought...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Aleš Ulrych, Nela Holečková, Jana Goldová, Linda Doubravová, Oldřich Benada, Olga Kofroňová, Petr Halada, Pavel Branny
BACKGROUND: Reversible protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases is the primary mechanism for signal transduction in all living organisms. Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a single Ser/Thr protein kinase, StkP, which plays a role in virulence, stress resistance and the regulation of cell wall synthesis and cell division. However, the role of its cognate phosphatase, PhpP, is not well defined. RESULTS: Here, we report the successful construction of a ΔphpP mutant in the unencapsulated S...
October 24, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Hoon-Seong Choi, Dae-Hyun Roh, Seo-Yeon Yoon, Soon-Gu Kwon, Sheu-Ran Choi, Suk-Yun Kang, Ji-Young Moon, Ho-Jae Han, Hyun-Woo Kim, Alvin J Beitz, Jang-Hern Lee
Although we have recently demonstrated that carrageenan-induced inflammation upregulates the expression of spinal interleukin (IL)-1β, which inhibits spinal astrocyte activation and results in the delayed development of Mirror-Image Pain (MIP), little is known regarding the mechanisms that underlie how spinal IL-1β inhibits the astrocyte activation. In this study, we examined the effect of spinal IL-1β on astrocyte gap junctions (GJ) and the development of MIP. Following unilateral carrageenan (CA) injection, mechanical allodynia (MA) was evaluated at various time points...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Abbas Agaimy, Matthias Bieg, Michael Michal, Helene Geddert, Bruno Märkl, Jan Seitz, Evgeny A Moskalev, Matthias Schlesner, Markus Metzler, Arndt Hartmann, Stefan Wiemann, Michal Michal, Thomas Mentzel, Florian Haller
Infantile myofibroma (MF) is an uncommon benign myofibroblastic tumor of infancy and childhood. Solitary adult MF shares similar features with infantile MF. The lesions occur in 3 clinicopathologic settings: solitary, multicentric, and generalized and can be either sporadic or familial. Traditionally, infantile MF has been included in the spectrum of infantile hemangiopericytoma. The recent World Health Organization classification listed MF, angioleiomyoma, and myopericytoma under the general heading of perivascular tumors in the sense of a morphologic spectrum of perivascular myoid cell neoplasms...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Joyce Hsu, Leo Jia, Darko Pucar, Hadyn Williams, Jayanth Keshavamurthy
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare form of preinvasive lung lesion associated with indolent carcinoid tumor formation. This disease is characterized by multiple small pulmonary nodules with low SUVmax on F-FDG PET. Biopsy and immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers confirm diagnosis. There is no consensus for treatment, which typically involves surgical excision or management of symptoms with steroid-based therapies. We report an unusual case of DIPNECH colocalizing with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation mimicking high-grade aggressive malignancy on FDG-PET and a typical case of DIPNECH for comparison with low FDG avidity...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Zhe Wang, Fuwu Zhang, Zhantong Wang, Xiao Fu, Albert Jin, Bryant C Yung, Jing Fan, Xiangyu Yang, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Molecular design of biomaterials with unique features reca-pitulating nature's niche to influence biological activities has been a prolific area of investigation in chemistry and material science. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a wealth of bioactive molecules in supporting cell proliferation, migra-tion and differentiation. The well-patterned fibril and inter-twining architecture of the ECM profoundly influences cell behavior and development. Inspired by those features from the ECM, we attempted to integrate essential biological fac-tors from the ECM to design bioactive molecules to construct artificial self-supportive ECM mimics to advance stem cell culture...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Monika B Dolinska, Nicole Kus, Katie Farney, Paul T Wingfield, Brian P Brooks, Yuri V Sergeev
: Oculocutaneous albinism Type 1 (OCA1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the tyrosinase gene. Two subtypes of OCA1 have been described: severe OCA1A with complete absence of tyrosinase activity and less severe OCA1B with residual tyrosinase activity. Here, we characterize the recombinant human tyrosinase intra-melanosomal domain and mutant variants, which mimic genetic changes in both subtypes of OCA1 patients. Proteins were prepared using site-directed mutagenesis, expressed in insect larvae, purified by chromatography, and characterized by enzymatic activities- tryptophan fluorescence, and Gibbs free energy changes...
October 24, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Peter R Wiecha, Arnaud Arbouet, Christian Girard, Aurélie Lecestre, Guilhem Larrieu, Vincent Paillard
The rational design of photonic nanostructures consists of anticipating their optical response from systematic variations of simple models. This strategy, however, has limited success when multiple objectives are simultaneously targeted, because it requires demanding computational schemes. To this end, evolutionary algorithms can drive the morphology of a nano-object towards an optimum through several cycles of selection, mutation and cross-over, mimicking the process of natural selection. Here, we present a numerical technique that can allow the design of photonic nanostructures with optical properties optimized along several arbitrary objectives...
October 24, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Mazdak A Khalighi, Monica P Revelo, Josephine D Abraham, Fuad Shihab, Faris Ahmed
Kidney injury related to paraproteinemia is common and typically occurs after the 4(th) decade of life in association with an underlying plasma cell dyscrasia or other lymphoproliferative disease. Kidney transplantation in paraprotein-related kidney disease can be successful in conjunction with treatment of the underlying hematopoietic process; however, when hematologic response to therapy is not achieved, recurrent kidney injury is frequently seen. We describe a young male patient who presented with end stage kidney disease at the age of 23 years thought to be secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis who ultimately received two kidney allografts...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
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