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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332217/a-novel-glucuronoyl-esterase-from-aspergillus-fumigatus-the-role-of-conserved-lys-residue-in-the-preference-for-4-o-methyl-glucuronoyl-esters
#1
Hung Hiep Huynh, Nozomi Ishii, Ichiro Matsuo, Manabu Arioka
Cellulose in plant cell walls is mainly covered by hemicellulose and lignin, and thus efficient removal of these components is thought to be a key step in the optimal utilization of lignocellulose. The recently discovered carbohydrate esterase (CE) 15 family of glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) which cleave the linkages between the free carboxyl group of D-glucuronic acid in hemicellulose and the benzyl groups in lignin residues could contribute to this process. Herein, we report the identification, functional expression, and enzymatic characterization of a GE, AfGE, from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus...
January 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332211/testosterone-mediated-upregulation-of-delayed-rectifier-potassium-channel-in-cardiomyocytes-causes-abbreviation-of-qt-intervals-in-rats
#2
Kimiko Masuda, Hiroki Takanari, Masaki Morishima, FangFang Ma, Yan Wang, Naohiko Takahashi, Katsushige Ono
Men have shorter rate-corrected QT intervals (QTc) than women, especially at the period of adolescence or later. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term effects of testosterone on cardiac excitability parameters including electrocardiogram (ECG) and potassium channel current. Testosterone shortened QT intervals in ECG in castrated male rats, not immediately after, but on day 2 or later. Expression of Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) mRNA was significantly upregulated by testosterone in cardiomyocytes of male and female rats...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332201/gouty-involvement-of-the-patella-and-extensor-mechanism-of-the-knee-mimicking-aggressive-neoplasm-a-case-series
#3
Christopher Kester, Matthew T Wallace, James Jelinek, Albert Aboulafia
Gout is a common inflammatory crystal deposition disease that occurs in many joints throughout the body. Active gout is most often associated with painful synovitis causing searing joint pains, but gout can also produce large masses of space-occupying deposits called tophi. Tophi are most frequently seen in juxta-articular locations with or without bony erosion and are often misdiagnosed as degenerative joint disease. Soft tissue deposits and tendon involvement are also known manifestations of gout, but can present with indeterminate and alarming findings on imaging...
January 14, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331998/torsion-and-rupture-of-a-non-communicating-rudimentary-horn-in-a-17-week-gestation-in-a-16-year-old-girl-lessons-learnt
#4
Namrata Kumar, Vinita Das, Amita Pandey, Smriti Agrawal
A unicornuate uterus with non-communicating rudimentary horn has always been notorious and poses threat to continuation of pregnancy with dismal consequences. We are reporting an interesting case of uterine malformation with a 90° rotation of uterine axis which ultimately ruptured during termination of pregnancy. The rarity in our case was not only conception in non-communicating horn but also the complete twisting of axis which made the pregnant horn come in front of the non-gravid unicornuate uterus, mimicking normal pregnancy...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331927/honeycomb-like-polysulphone-polyurethane-nanofiber-filter-for-the-removal-of-organic-inorganic-species-from-air-streams
#5
Xin Chen, Yang Xu, Meimei Liang, Qinfei Ke, Yuanyuan Fang, He Xu, Xiangyu Jin, Chen Huang
Nanofiber nonwoven filters, especially those prepared by electrospinning, are of particular interest because of their high filtration efficiency. However, existing electrospun filters suffer from inherent limitations in that both strengths and filtration resistances of the filters leave much to be desired. Herein, we present a novel nonwoven filter that is composed of polysulphone and polyurethane nanofibers. By mimicking the honeycomb structure, a heterogeneous distribution of both fiber diameter and fiber density has been achieved...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331450/mapping-stimulus-feature-selectivity-in-macaque-v1-by-two-photon-ca2-imaging-encoding-model-analysis-of-fluorescence-responses-to-natural-movies
#6
REVIEW
Koji Ikezoe, Mahya Amano, Shinji Nishimoto, Ichiro Fujita
In vivo calcium (Ca2+) imaging using two-photon microscopy allows activity to be monitored simultaneously from hundreds of individual neurons within a local population. While this allows us to gain important insights into how cortical neurons represent sensory information, factors such as photo-bleaching of the Ca2+ indicator limit imaging duration (and thus the numbers of stimuli that can be tested), which in turn hampers the full characterization of neuronal response properties. Here, we demonstrate that using an encoding model combined with presentation of natural movies results in detailed characterization of receptive field (RF) properties despite the relatively short time for data collection...
January 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331421/hyperglycaemia-induced-mir-301a-promotes-cell-proliferation-by-repressing-p21-and-smad4-in-prostate-cancer
#7
Xiaojuan Li, Jun Li, Yi Cai, Shubin Peng, Jun Wang, Zhaoming Xiao, Yu Wang, Yiran Tao, Jun Li, Qu Leng, Dinglan Wu, Shaodong Yang, Ziliang Ji, Yuefu Han, Liren Li, Xin Gao, Chunxian Zeng, Xingqiao Wen
Hyperglycaemia promotes the development of Prostate cancer (PCa). However, the roles of miRNAs in this disease process and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we recruited 391 PCa patients in China and found that PCa patients with high level blood glucose (≥100 mg/dL) trended to have high Gleason score (GS≥7). miRNA-301a levels were significantly higher in prostate cancer than that in normal prostate tissues. Hyperglycaemia or high glucose treatment induced miR-301a expression in prostate tissues or PCa cell lines...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330249/is-it-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-or-not
#8
REVIEW
Mary Salvatore, Genta Ishikawa, Maria Padilla
Pulmonary fibrosis is not uncommon. Usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common of the idiopathic pulmonary fibrotic diseases and has the worst prognosis with a mean life expectancy of 3.8 years. The American Thoracic Society has provided guidelines for the accurate diagnosis of IPF.In 2014, 2 antifibrotic medications were approved in the United States that target the multiple fibrotic pathways of UIP, which increased the need for early and accurate diagnosis of IPF...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329469/pigment-dispersion-syndrome-mimicking-congenital-horner-syndrome
#9
Bao Khanh Tran, Aki Kawasaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329133/cutaneous-angiosarcoma-of-the-eyelid-mimicking-morbihan-disease
#10
Donna C Ferguson, Louise A Mawn, Rami N Al-Rohil
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous angiosarcoma presents clinically in numerous ways, and can be mistaken for a different clinical entity, particularly when arising at unusual anatomic locations such as the eyelid. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of eyelid swelling. Concurrent imaging was also suggestive of an edematous process. Multiple superficial biopsies showed nonspecific dermal inflammation and interstitial edema. A diagnosis of Morbihan disease (chronic and idiopathic lymphedema of the eyelid) was rendered, and the patient was treated with compression and local therapy without clinical improvement...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329032/targeting-expression-of-adenosine-receptors-during-hypoxia-induced-angiogenesis-a-study-using-zebrafish-model
#11
Navina Panneerselvan, Malathi Ragunathan
Hypoxia is known to be a major player during pathological angiogenesis and adenosine as a negative feedback signaling to maintain oxygen delivery in pathological ischemic condition. We mimicked hypoxic condition and studied angiogenesis by inducing adenosine receptors using forskolin, a plant compound and NECA analogue of adenosine using zebrafish model. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play a key role during pathological angiogenesis and regulated by the factors HIF1a under hypoxic condition and recently Notch is proposed to play a negative feedback loop mechanism along with VEGF signaling but the role of adenosine receptor during the process is not known...
January 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328633/size-induced-segregation-in-the-stepwise-microhydration-of-hydantoin-and-its-role-on-proton-induced-charge-transfer
#12
Florent Calvo, Marie-Christine Bacchus-Montabonel
Recent photochemistry experiments provided evidence for the formation of hydantoin by irradiation of interstellar ice analogues. The significance of these results and the importance of hydantoin in prebiotic chemistry and polypeptide synthesis motivate the present theoretical investigation, in which we analyzed the effects of stepwise hydration on the structures, electronic and thermodynamical properties of microhydrated hydantoin using a variety of computational approaches. We generally find microhydration to proceed around the hydantoin heterocycle until 5 water molecules are reached, at which stage hydration becomes segregated with a water cluster forming aside the heterocycle...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328623/mimicking-biological-synaptic-functionality-with-an-indium-phosphide-synaptic-device-on-silicon-for-scalable-neuromorphic-computing
#13
Debarghya Sarkar, Jun Tao, Wei Wang, Qingfeng Lin, Matthew Yeung, Chenhao Ren, Rehan Kapadia
Neuromorphic or "brain-like" computation is a leading candidate for efficient, fault-tolerant processing of large-scale data, as well as real-time sensing and transduction of complex multivariate systems and networks such as self-driving vehicles or Internet of Things applications. In biology, the synapse serves as an active memory unit in the neural system, and is the component responsible for learning and memory. Electronically emulating this element via a compact, scalable technology which can be integrated in a 3-D architecture is critical for future implementations of neuromorphic processors...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328521/the-central-vein-sign-differentiates-ms-from-cns-inflammatory-vasculopathies
#14
Pietro Maggi, Martina Absinta, Matteo Grammatico, Luisa Vuolo, Giacomo Emmi, Giovanna Carlucci, Gregorio Spagni, Alessandro Barilaro, Anna Maria Repice, Lorenzo Emmi, Domenico Prisco, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberta Scotti, Niloufar Sadeghi, Gaetano Perrotta, Pascal Sati, Bernard Dachy, Daniel S Reich, Massimo Filippi, Luca Massacesi
OBJECTIVES: In multiple sclerosis (MS), MRI is a sensitive tool for detecting white matter lesions, but its diagnostic specificity is still suboptimal; ambiguous cases are frequent in clinical practice. Detection of perivenular lesions in the brain (the "central vein sign") improves the pathological specificity of MS diagnosis, but comprehensive evaluation of this MRI biomarker in MS-mimicking inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases, such as CNS inflammatory vasculopathies, is missing...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327940/the-different-faces-of-renal-angiomyolipomas-on-radiologic-imaging-a-pictorial-review
#15
Shanigarn Thiravit, Wanwarang Teerasamit, Phakphoom Thiravit
Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is an uncommon renal tumour, generally composed of mature adipose tissue, dysmorphic blood vessels, and smooth muscle. Identification of intratumoural fat on unenhanced CT images (UECT) is the most reliable finding for establishing the diagnosis of renal AML. However, AMLs sometimes exhibit atypical findings, including cystic as well as solid forms; some of these variants overlap with the appearance of other renal tumours. A rare type of AML, the epithelioid type, possesses malignant potential...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327715/de-novo-pure-erythroid-leukemia-refining-the-clinicopathologic-and-cytogenetic-characteristics-of-a-rare-entity
#16
Erica F Reinig, Patricia T Greipp, April Chiu, Matthew T Howard, Kaaren K Reichard
Per the revised fourth edition World Health Organization classification of acute myeloid leukemia, pure erythroid leukemia is now the sole type of acute erythroid leukemia. The diagnosis of this rare entity is often challenging and the cytologic overlap with non-neoplastic (eg, megaloblastic anemia) and neoplastic entities (eg, other types of acute leukemia and non-hematopoietic malignancies) warrants a significant degree of clinical, laboratory, immunophenotypic, and genetic investigation. Given the limited number of reports of this rare and diagnostically challenging entity, we report detailed clinicopathologic characteristics from 15 patients, the largest series thus far, of primary de novo pure erythroid leukemia to provide further diagnostic insights into this entity and reveal strategies for making the diagnosis...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327586/composite-hydrogel-modified-by-igf-1c-domain-improves-stem-cell-therapy-for-limb-ischemia
#17
Xiaomin Wang, Jimin Zhang, Weilong Cui, Yuan Fang, Li Li, Shenglu Ji, Duo Mao, Tingyu Ke, Xin Yao, Dan Ding, Guowei Feng, Deling Kong
Stem cell treatment for critical limb ischemia yields a limited therapeutic effect due to cell loss and dysfunction caused by local ischemic environment. Biomimetic scaffolds emerge as ideal cell delivery vehicles for regulating cell fate via mimicking the components of stem cell niche. Herein, we prepared a bioactive hydrogel by mixing chitosan and hyaluronic acid that is immobilized with C domain peptide of IGF-1 (IGF-1C), and examined whether this hydrogel could augment stem cell survival and therapeutic potential...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327436/effect-of-patterned-electrospun-hierarchical-structures-on-alignment-and-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-biomimicking-bone
#18
Sharanya Sankar, Manohar Kakunuri, Sindhuja D E, Chandra S Sharma, Subha N Rath
Considering the complex hierarchical structure of bone, biomimicking the micro and nano level features should be an integral part of scaffold fabrication for successful bone regeneration. We aim to biomimic the micro- and nano-structure of bone and study the effect of physical cues on cell alignment, proliferation and differentiation. To achieve this, we have divided the scaffolds into groups: electrospun SU-8 nanofibers, electrospun SU-8 nanofibers with UV treatment and micropatterned (20 μm sized ridges and grooves) SU-8 nanofibers by photolithography with UV treatment...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327428/an-endochondral-ossification-approach-to-early-stage-bone-repair-use-of-tissue-engineered-hypertrophic-cartilage-constructs-as-primordial-templates-for-weight-bearing-bone-repair
#19
Amos Matsiko, Emmet M Thompson, Cai Lloyd-Griffith, Gráinne M Cunniffe, Tatiana Vinardell, John P Gleeson, Daniel J Kelly, Fergal J O'Brien
Mimicking endochondral ossification to engineer constructs offers a novel solution to overcoming the problems associated with poor vascularisation in bone repair. This can be achieved by harnessing the angiogenic potency of hypertrophic cartilage. In this study, we demonstrate that tissue-engineered hypertrophically-primed cartilage constructs can be developed from collagen-based scaffolds cultured with mesenchymal stem cells. These constructs were subsequently implanted into femoral defects in rats. It was evident that the constructs could support enhanced early-stage healing at 4 weeks of these weight-bearing femoral bone defects compared to untreated defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326520/the-so-called-garr%C3%A3-s-osteomyelitis-of-jaws-and-the-pivotal-utility-of-computed-tomography-scan
#20
Marco Túllio Brazão-Silva, Tiago Novaes Pinheiro
The present paper draw the attention of clinicians to investigate multiple slices of the computed tomography (CT) scan looking for a safe diagnosis of the so-called Garrè's osteomyelitis (GO) of jaws, a not uncommon disease characterized by astonishing bone growth. We report a case involving the left mandible of a 12-year-old girl presenting with a bony enlargement at left mandible. Initial examination revealed carious process of tooth 36 with radiographic apical rarefaction. However, we need to take care with this diagnosis because other aggressive diseases may cause bone enlargement mimicking GO...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
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