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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945001/organ-on-a-chip-technology-for-reproducing-multiorgan-physiology
#1
REVIEW
Seung Hwan Lee, Jong Hwan Sung
In the drug development process, the accurate prediction of drug efficacy and toxicity is important in order to reduce the cost, labor, and effort involved. For this purpose, conventional 2D cell culture models are used in the early phase of drug development. However, the differences between the in vitro and the in vivo systems have caused the failure of drugs in the later phase of the drug-development process. Therefore, there is a need for a novel in vitro model system that can provide accurate information for evaluating the drug efficacy and toxicity through a closer recapitulation of the in vivo system...
September 25, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944810/microfluidic-step-emulsification-in-axisymmetric-geometry
#2
I Chakraborty, J Ricouvier, P Yazhgur, P Tabeling, A M Leshansky
Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step...
September 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944756/primary-extramedullary-plasmacytoma-mimicking-oral-lichen-planus
#3
Ju Hee Han, Young Jun Woo, Hoon Kang, Jung Eun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944337/two-pseudotumor-cases-mimicking-liver-malignancy
#4
Mikail Çakır, Sefa Tüzün, Anıl Savaş, Yılmaz Tosyalı
Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver is a rare benign tumor that can be confused with malignant tumors of the liver. It is usually diagnosed after pathologic evaluation of the resected lesion. If a mass lesion in the liver is suspicious for malignancy on radiologic evaluation then surgical resection is planned for suitable patients rather than a biopsy. Inflammatory pseudotumors are similar to malignant tumors on macroscopic assessment, but microscopically they are characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells...
2017: Turk J Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944237/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-the-mutational-landscape-of-clinically-diagnosed-usher-syndrome-copy-number-variations-phenocopies-a-predominant-target-for-translational-read-through-and-pex26-mutated-in-heimler-syndrome
#5
Christine Neuhaus, Tobias Eisenberger, Christian Decker, Sandra Nagl, Cornelia Blank, Markus Pfister, Ingo Kennerknecht, Cornelie Müller-Hofstede, Peter Charbel Issa, Raoul Heller, Bodo Beck, Klaus Rüther, Diana Mitter, Klaus Rohrschneider, Ute Steinhauer, Heike M Korbmacher, Dagmar Huhle, Solaf M Elsayed, Hesham M Taha, Shahid M Baig, Heidi Stöhr, Markus Preising, Susanne Markus, Fabian Moeller, Birgit Lorenz, Kerstin Nagel-Wolfrum, Arif O Khan, Hanno J Bolz
BACKGROUND: Combined retinal degeneration and sensorineural hearing impairment is mostly due to autosomal recessive Usher syndrome (USH1: congenital deafness, early retinitis pigmentosa (RP); USH2: progressive hearing impairment, RP). METHODS: Sanger sequencing and NGS of 112 genes (Usher syndrome, nonsyndromic deafness, overlapping conditions), MLPA, and array-CGH were conducted in 138 patients clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome. RESULTS: A molecular diagnosis was achieved in 97% of both USH1 and USH2 patients, with biallelic mutations in 97% (USH1) and 90% (USH2), respectively...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943874/a-genome-wide-prediction-and-identification-of-intergenic-small-rnas-by-comparative-analysis-in-mesorhizobium-huakuii-7653r
#6
Xie Fuli, Zhao Wenlong, Wang Xiao, Zhang Jing, Hao Baohai, Zou Zhengzheng, Ma Bin-Guang, Li Youguo
In bacteria, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are critical regulators of cellular adaptation to changes in metabolism, physiology, or the external environment. In the last decade, more than 2000 of sRNA families have been reported in the Rfam database and have been shown to exert various regulatory functions in bacterial transcription and translation. However, little is known about sRNAs and their functions in Mesorhizobium. Here, we predicted putative sRNAs in the intergenic regions (IGRs) of M. huakuii 7653R by genome-wide comparisons with four related Mesorhizobial strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943536/multiple-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-of-the-trachea
#7
Daisuke Minami, Chihiro Ando, Ken Sato, Kaori Moriwaki, Fumihiro Sugahara, Takamasa Nakasuka, Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Keiichi Fujiwara, Takuo Shibayama, Toshirou Yonei, Toshio Sato
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a common type of primary pulmonary carcinoma, but the presence of polypoid nodules is extremely rare. We herein report two cases with multiple nodules in the trachea. One case involved polypoid nodules and airway stenosis mimicking asthma; the other case had concurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. The diagnosis of both cases was confirmed by bronchoscopy. The two cases were sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, respectively.
September 25, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942668/recent-exposure-to-hypoglycemia-increases-glucose-variability-following-a-hyper-hypoglycemic-metabolic-challenge-in-t1d
#8
Chiara Fabris, Leon S Farhy, Stacey M Anderson, Ralf M Nass, Boris P Kovatchev, Marc D Breton
AIMS: In type 1 diabetes (T1D), repeated hypoglycemic episodes may reduce hormonal defenses and increase the risk for severe hypoglycemia. In this work, we investigate the effect of a structured hyper/hypoglycemic metabolic challenge on the postintervention glucose variability in T1D subjects studied at home. METHODS: Thirty T1D subjects using insulin pump were monitored with blood glucose meters (SMBG) during a 1-month observation period. After 2 weeks of monitoring, participants were admitted at the University of Virginia Clinical Research Unit to undergo an 8-hour metabolic challenge...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942415/confusion-and-abdominal-symptoms-following-a-rugby-tackle
#9
Demetris Ioannides, Madeleine Davies, Stefan Kluzek
A 19-year-old man was sent to the emergency department following a pitch-side assessment for suspected concussion, unexplained upper abdominal tenderness and vomiting, following a high-impact tackle during a rugby match. A Focussed Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan performed in the emergency department suggested intra-abdominal free fluid, and subsequent head and abdominal CT imaging showed no intracranial lesion but confirmed a significant haemoperitoneum due to large splenic tear and bleeding...
September 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942405/congenital-melanocytic-nevus-mimicking-a-turban-tumour-in-an-18-year-old-filipino-male
#10
Maria Elinor Grace Sison, Eileen Cubillan, Bernard U Tansipek
Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are nevi that are present at birth or arise within the first few weeks of life. They are often found on the trunk, head and neck and extremities. We report herein an unusual presentation of a CMN as a cerebriform tumour presenting as secondary cutis verticis gyrata on the scalp of an 18-year-old Filipino male.
September 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942265/functionalization-of-single-solid-state-nanopores-to-mimic-biological-ion-channels-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Mathilde Lepoitevin, Tianji Ma, Mikhael Bechelany, Jean-Marc Janot, Sebastien Balme
In nature, ion channels are highly selective pores and act as gate to ensure selective ion transport, allowing ions to cross the membrane. By mimicking them, single solid state nanopore devices emerge as a new, powerful class of molecule sensors that allow for the label-free detection of biomolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins), non-biological polymers, as well as small molecules. In this review, we exhaustively describe the fabrication and functionalization techniques to design highly robust and selective solid state nanopores...
September 14, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942227/case-report-breast-seroma-mimicking-breast-implants
#12
Amalie Sylvester-Hvid, Magnus B Avnstorp, Lene Wagenblast, Jørgen Lock-Andersen, Steen H Matzen
Introduction Breast seroma may be caused by a variety of factors including lymphatic disruption, continuous inflammation and foreign bodies such as breast implants. In cases of breast implants associated seroma the diagnosis of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) should be investigated. Presentation of Case A 45-year-old Caucasian woman was referred with bilateral swelling of the breasts causing tension and pain. MRI showed accumulations compatible with bilateral silicone implants. Ultrasound-guided aspiration showed no malignancy or silicone...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942008/transport-of-ellipsoid-fibers-in-oscillatory-shear-flows-implications-for-aerosol-deposition-in-deep-airways
#13
Lihi Shachar-Berman, Yan Ostrovski, Alessandro De Rosis, Stavros Kassinos, Josué Sznitman
It is widely acknowledged that inhaled fibers, e.g. air pollutants and anthropogenic particulate matter, hold the ability to deposit deep into the lungs reaching the distal pulmonary acinar airways as a result of their aerodynamic properties; these particles tend to align with the flow and thus stay longer airborne relative to their spherical counterpart, due to higher drag forces that resist sedimentation. Together with a high surface-to-volume ratio, such characteristics may render non-spherical particles, and fibers in particular, potentially attractive airborne carriers for drug delivery...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941795/avoiding-escalation-from-play-to-aggression-in-adult-male-rats-the-role-of-ultrasonic-calls
#14
Candace J Burke, Theresa M Kisko, Sergio M Pellis, David R Euston
Play fighting is most commonly associated with juvenile animals, but in some species, including rats, it can continue into adulthood. Post-pubertal engagement in play fighting is often rougher and has an increased chance of escalation to aggression, making the use of play signals to regulate the encounter more critical. During play, both juvenile and adult rats emit many 50-kHz calls and some of these may function as play facilitating signals. In the present study, unfamiliar adult male rats were introduced in a neutral enclosure and their social interactions were recorded...
September 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941626/deletion-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-obliterates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-myocardial-dysfunction-through-regulation-of-autophagy
#15
Shuyi Wang, Xiyao Chen, Sreejayan Nair, Dongdong Sun, Xiaoming Wang, Jun Ren
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been demonstrated to prompt various cardiovascular risks although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) serves as an essential negative regulator for insulin signaling. This study examined the role of PTP1B in ER stress-induced myocardial anomalies and underlying mechanism involved with a focus on autophagy. WT and PTP1B knockout mice were subjected to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (1mg/kg). Cardiac function was evaluated with echocardiography and an Ion-Optix MyoCam system...
September 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941150/brentuximab-vedotin-exerts-profound-antiproliferative-and-pro-apoptotic-efficacy-in-cd30-positive-as-well-as-cocultured-cd30-negative-germ-cell-tumour-cell-lines
#16
Stefan Schönberger, Cornelius van Beekum, Barbara Götz, Daniel Nettersheim, Hubert Schorle, Dominik T Schneider, Anna Casati, Rogerio B Craveiro, Gabriele Calaminus, Dagmar Dilloo
Prognosis in patients suffering from high-risk, refractory and relapsed germ cell tumours (GCT) often comprising of CD30-positive embryonal carcinoma (EC) components remains poor. Thus, novel treatment strategies are warranted. The antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) brentuximab vedotin delivers the potent antimitotic drug monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to CD30-expressing tumour cells. After CD30 binding, internalization and intracellular linker cleavage cytotoxic MMAE can efflux and eradicate neighbouring CD30-negative cells...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941004/comparison-between-small-bowel-manometric-patterns-and-full-thickness-biopsy-histopathology-in-severe-intestinal-dysmotility
#17
C Malagelada, T B Karunaratne, A Accarino, R F Cogliandro, S Landolfi, A Gori, E Boschetti, J R Malagelada, V Stanghellini, F Azpiroz, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Intestinal manometry is the current standard for direct evaluation of small bowel dysmotility. Patients with abnormal motility can either be diagnosed of pseudo-obstruction when there are radiological findings mimicking mechanical intestinal obstruction or of enteric dysmotility when these findings are absent. The aim of the present study was to prospectively compare small bowel manometric abnormalities with histopathological findings in intestinal full-thickness biopsies in patients with severe dysmotility disorders...
September 22, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940870/assessment-of-cerebral-perfusion-with-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-during-constriction-of-the-neck-mimicking-malposition-of-the-bd-odon-device%C3%A2-a-study-in-newborn-piglets
#18
C de Lange, O D Saugstad, R Solberg
OBJECTIVE: The BD Odon Device™ is a new instrument for operative vaginal birth with potential for preventing maternal, fetal and newborn morbidity/mortality during a complicated second stage of labour. The device is a plastic sleeve with an air chamber inflated around the baby's head which is gently pulled through the birth canal. The aim was to monitor changes in cerebral circulation during constriction of the neck to evaluate a risk of potential malposition of the device. DESIGN: Randomised prospective study...
September 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940544/chronic-granulomatous-dermatitis-induced-by-talimogene-laherparepvec-therapy-of-melanoma-metastases
#19
Ashlyn S Everett, Peter G Pavlidakey, Carlo M Contreras, Jennifer F De Los Santos, Ju Y Kim, Svetlana B McKee, Howard L Kaufman, Robert M Conry
Talimogene laherparepvec is the first oncolytic viral immunotherapy approved by the FDA, for advanced melanoma consisting of genetically modified herpes simplex type 1 virus which selectively replicates causing tumor lysis, expressing GM-CSF and activating dendritic cells. Intratumoral injection of TVEC produces objective response in 41% of stage IIB-IV M1a melanoma. However, clinical response assessments can be problematic due to immune-related inflammation at established tumor sites. Herein, we report 5 cases of granulomatous dermatitis developing at sites of TVEC injection associated with pathologic complete response in 4 of 5 patients...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940363/tick-bite-mimicking-indeterminate-cell-histiocytosis
#20
Thomas Stringer, Elizabeth Ghazi, Gilberto Alvarez Del Manzano, Jenna Beasley, Nooshin Brinster, Vikash S Oza
Ticks are a well-known vector for viral, bacterial, and rickettsial infections, many of which are accompanied by cutaneous eruptions, but the bite itself can induce a spectrum of inflammatory reactions, including foreign body granuloma, tick bite alopecia, and cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. We describe the development of an indeterminate cell histiocytic infiltrate at the site of a tick bite. Although the etiology of intermediate cell histiocytosis is not well understood, this case raises the possibility that such infiltrates may represent an inflammatory reaction in some patients...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
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