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Yuanhan Bai, Xi Yang, Zhiqiang Zeng, Haichen Yang
BACKGROUND: Ritualistic behaviors are common in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), while catatonic stupor occasionally occurs in psychotic or mood disorders. Schizoaffective disorder is a specific mental disorder involving both psychotic and affective symptoms. The syndrome usually represents a specific diagnosis, as in the case of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) or the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)...
March 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Margaret O Akinhanmi, Joanna M Biernacka, Stephen M Strakowski, Susan L McElroy, Joyce E Balls Berry, Kathleen R Merikangas, Shervin Assari, Melvin G McInnis, Thomas G Schulze, Marion LeBoyer, Carol Tamminga, Christi Patten, Mark A Frye
OBJECTIVES: Health disparities between individuals of African and European ancestry are well documented. The disparities in bipolar disorder may be driven by racial bias superimposed on established factors contributing to misdiagnosis, including: evolving empirically based diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Diseases [ICD], Research Diagnostic Criteria [RDC] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]), multiple symptom domains (i.e. mania, depression and psychosis), and multimodal medical and additional psychiatric comorbidity...
March 12, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Lea Ludwig, Joëlle A Pasman, Timothy Nicholson, Selma Aybek, Anthony S David, Sharon Tuck, Richard A Kanaan, Karin Roelofs, Alan Carson, Jon Stone
BACKGROUND: Stressful life events and maltreatment have traditionally been considered crucial in the development of conversion (functional neurological) disorder, but the evidence underpinning this association is not clear. We aimed to assess the association between stressors and functional neurological disorder. METHODS: We systematically reviewed controlled studies reporting stressors occurring in childhood or adulthood, such as stressful life events and maltreatment (including sexual, physical abuse, and emotional neglect) and functional neurological disorder...
March 8, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
J Steiner, H Prüß, S Köhler, A Hasan, P Falkai
Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM‑5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics...
March 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Juan C Stagnaro
Since the late 19th century, Argentinean psychiatrists have been developing classifcations of psychiatric disorders. Their work has had local originality and fruitful exchange with international controversies on the subject. The thinking of some Argentinean psychiatrists transcended the borders of the country and was adopted in the South American region, as was the case with the classifcation proposed by José T. Borda. There were also historical anticipations of concepts that were not known in other latitudes: "oligotimia", a category created by Enrique Pichon-Rivière, preceded the characterization of early childhood autism by Leo Kanner...
May 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Karina Limburg, Chloe Y Shu, Hunna J Watson, Kimberley J Hoiles, Sarah J Egan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10 eating disorders (ED) nomenclatures to assess their value in the classification of pediatric eating disorders. We investigated the prevalence of the disorders in accordance with each system's diagnostic criteria, diagnostic concordance between the systems, and interrater reliability. METHOD: Participants were 1062 children and adolescents assessed at intake to a specialist Eating Disorders Program (91...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
H C Gustafsson, P G Grieve, E A Werner, P Desai, C Monk
Maternal perinatal depression exerts pervasive effects on the developing brain, as evidenced by electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns that differ between children of women who do and do not meet DSM or ICD diagnostic criteria. However, little research has examined if the same EEG pattern of right-frontal alpha asymmetry exists in newborns and thus originates in utero independent of postnatal influences, and if depressive symptoms are associated with this neural signature. Utilizing 125-lead EEG (n=18), this study considered clinician-rated maternal prenatal depressive symptoms in relation to newborn EEG...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Caroline A Smith, Mike Armour, Myeong Soo Lee, Li-Qiong Wang, Phillipa J Hay
BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression...
March 4, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bo Bach, Joost Hutsebaut
This study examined the utility of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form 2.0 (LPFS-BF 2.0) in measuring features corresponding to self-other impairment of personality functioning as defined in the new general diagnostic guidelines for Personality Disorder in DSM-5 Section III and ICD-11. A mixed clinical sample (N = 228) composed of 121 psychiatric outpatients and 107 incarcerated addicts was administered the LPFS-BF 2.0, World Health Organization Wellbeing Index (WHO-5), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), and the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Danilo Bzdok, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
The nature of mental illness remains a conundrum. Traditional disease categories are increasingly suspected to misrepresent the causes underlying mental disturbance. Yet psychiatrists and investigators now have an unprecedented opportunity to benefit from complex patterns in brain, behavior, and genes using methods from machine learning (e.g., support vector machines, modern neural-network algorithms, cross-validation procedures). Combining these analysis techniques with a wealth of data from consortia and repositories has the potential to advance a biologically grounded redefinition of major psychiatric disorders...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Irina Trofimova
This paper applies evolutionary and functional constructivism approaches to the discussion of psychological taxonomies, as implemented in the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET). FET asserts that neurochemical systems developed in evolution to regulate functional-dynamical aspects of construction of actions: orientation, selection (integration), energetic maintenance, and management of automatic behavioural elements. As an example, the paper reviews the neurochemical mechanisms of interlocking between emotional dispositions and performance capacities...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Sebastian Euler, Dominik Stöbi, Julia Sowislo, Franziska Ritzler, Christian G Huber, Undine E Lang, Johannes Wrege, Marc Walter
BACKGROUND: Little is known about narcissistic traits in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This exploratory study aimed to illustrate the associations between total, grandiose, and vulnerable narcissism and gender, diagnostic features of BPD and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), and psychopathology in BPD patients. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The Pathological Narcissism Inventory and psychometric measures for impulsivity, anger, borderline symptom severity, personality organization, depression, and rejection sensitivity were completed by 65 BPD patients...
February 21, 2018: Psychopathology
Sufei He, Miao Wang, Jinhua Si, Tianyi Zhang, Hong Cui, Xiumei Gao
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated childhood psychiatric disorders. The analogous diagnosis adopted in Europe is hyperkinetic disorder, which is defined in the WHO's International Classification of Diseases 10th edition (ICD-10). Hyperkinetic disorder includes more severe conditions. Ginkgo preparations are used in the treatment of ADHD. The present study will assess the efficacy and safety of ginkgo preparations in the treatment of ADHD in the currently published literature...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Michael Schredl, Anja S Göritz
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Even though the common diagnostic criteria (ICSD-3, DSM-5) acknowledge that nightmares do not only contain anxiety/fear (definition of the ICD-10) but also other emotions such as grief, disgust, and anger, the definition of a nightmare still focuses on threats to survival, security, or physical integrity. However, empirical studies on nightmare content in larger samples are scarce. METHODS: The current study elicited 1,216 of the most recent nightmares including childhood nightmares of a population-based sample...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Michael O Ogundele
Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Jun-Cheng Weng, Yu-Syuan Chou, Guo-Joe Huang, Yeu-Sheng Tyan, Ming-Chou Ho
RATIONALE: The World Health Organization regards betel quid (BQ) as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with its heavy use. BQ's possible effects of an enhanced reward system and disrupted inhibitory control may increase the likelihood of habitual substance use. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to employ resting-state fMRI to examine the hypothesized enhanced reward system (e.g., the basal forebrain system) and disrupted inhibitory control (e...
February 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Matthias L Schroeter, Sarah Pawelke, Sandrine Bisenius, Jana Kynast, Katharina Schuemberg, Maryna Polyakova, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Adrian Danek, Klaus Fassbender, Holger Jahn, Frank Jessen, Johannes Kornhuber, Martin Lauer, Johannes Prudlo, Anja Schneider, Ingo Uttner, Angelika Thöne-Otto, Markus Otto, Janine Diehl-Schmid
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by deep alterations in behavior and personality. Although revised diagnostic criteria agree for executive dysfunction as most characteristic, impairments in social cognition are also suggested. The study aimed at identifying those neuropsychological and behavioral parameters best discriminating between bvFTD and healthy controls. Eighty six patients were diagnosed with possible or probable bvFTD according to Rascovsky et al. (2011) and compared with 43 healthy age-matched controls...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Tae Young Lee, Junhee Lee, Minah Kim, Eugenie Choe, Jun Soo Kwon
Recent evidence has suggested that psychosis could develop not only in people at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P) but also in those with clinical risk syndromes for emergent nonpsychotic mental disorders. The proportion of people with these clinical risk syndromes who will develop psychosis rather than to other nonpsychotic mental disorders is undetermined. Electronic databases were searched for studies reporting on clinical risk syndromes for the development of emergent nonpsychotic mental disorders...
February 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Erika Alejandra Giraldo Gallo, Tiago Neuenfeld Munhoz, Christian Loret de Mola, Joseph Murray
Child maltreatment has well-documented long-term, adverse effects on mental health, but it is not clear whether there are gender differences in these effects. We conducted a systematic review to investigate whether there are gender differences in the effects of maltreatment on adult depression and anxiety. Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Lilacs were searched for relevant studies published up to May 2016. Eligible studies included population-based studies (with a cohort, case-control or cross-sectional design) which assessed maltreatment during childhood or adolescence (≤18 years) and its association with major depression or generalized anxiety disorder (DSM/ICD diagnostic criteria) in adulthood (>18 years) separately for females and males...
February 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Lee Seng Esmond Seow, Edimansyah Abdin, Sherilyn Chang, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: Insomnia symptoms are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders, and this mandates the need to identify the best self-administered sleep measure to screen for clinical insomnia among them. METHODS: A total of 400 psychiatric outpatients completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Flinders Fatigue Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale in a cross-sectional study...
January 2018: Sleep Medicine
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