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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454211/seasonality-water-use-and-community-management-of-water-systems-in-rural-settings-qualitative-evidence-from-ghana-kenya-and-zambia
#1
Emma Kelly, Katherine F Shields, Ryan Cronk, Kristen Lee, Nikki Behnke, Tori Klug, Jamie Bartram
The sustainability of rural, community-managed water systems in sub-Saharan Africa depends in part on the ability of local water committees to repair breakdowns and carry out the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the system. Much of sub-Saharan Africa has two distinct seasons that affect the availability of water sources and how people use water. Little is known about how seasonality affects water system management. This qualitative study is based on 320 interviews and focus group discussions and examines the effects of season on community water use and management in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453841/beyond-cost-benefit-analysis-in-the-governance-of-synthetic-biology
#2
Wendell Wallach, Marc Saner, Gary Marchant
For many innovations, oversight fits nicely within existing governance mechanisms; nevertheless, others pose unique public health, environmental, and ethical challenges. Synthetic artemisinin, for example, has many precursors in laboratory-developed drugs that emulate natural forms of the same drug. The policy challenges posed by synthetic artemisinin do not differ significantly in kind from other laboratory-formulated drugs. Synthetic biofuels and gene drives, however, fit less clearly into existing governance structures...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453255/endophyte-mediated-modulation-of-defense-responsive-genes-and-systemic-resistance-in-withania-somnifera-l-dunal-under-alternaria-alternata-stress
#3
Aradhana Mishra, Satyendra Pratap Singh, Sahil Mahfooz, Surendra Pratap Singh, Arpita Bhattacharya, Nishtha Mishra, C S Nautiyal
Endophytes have been explored to perform an important role in plant health. However, their effects on the host physiological function and disease management remains elusive. The present study was aimed to assess the potential of endophytes singly as well as in combination on various physiological parameters and systemic defense mechanism against Alternaria alternata in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Seed priming with endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Pseudomonas fluorescens individually and in combination demonstrated enhanced vigor index and germination rate...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452191/recent-advances-of-medical-foods-in-china-the-opportunities-and-challenges-under-standardization
#4
Xusheng Li, Xinwei Jiang, Jianxia Sun, Cuijuan Zhu, Weibin Bai
Malnutrition with high incidence in hospitalized patients in China has brought a significant burden of disease. Although many clinical studies have demonstrated the importance of nutritional for patients with malnutrition, the application of medical foods in China is still restricted. For the classification, limits, production and registration of medical foods, the Chinese government newly enacted a series of regulations. In this review, comparing the policy, researches, and product variety of medical foods in China with other countries, although the current status of the development of medical foods in China is still far behind that of developed countries, some of regulations are stricter than those of many other countries or organizations...
February 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451037/esophageal-hiatal-hernia-risk-diagnosis-and-management
#5
Hai-Xiang Yu, Chun-Shan Han, Jin-Ru Xue, Zhi-Feng Han, Hua Xin
Esophageal hiatal hernia involves abnormal abdominal entry into thoracic cavity. It is classified based on orientation between esophageal junction and diaphragm. Sliding hiatal hernia (Type-I) comprises the most frequent category, emanating from right crus of diaphragm. Type-II esophageal hernia engages both left and right muscular crura. Type-III and IV additionally include the left crus. Age and increased body mass index are key risk factors, and congenital skeletal aberrations trigger pathogenesis through intestinal malrotations...
February 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448990/open-abdomen-in-liver-transplantation
#6
T Chan, M S Bleszynski, D S Youssef, M Segedi, S Chung, C H Scudamore, A K Buczkowski
INTRODUCTION: Damage control laparotomy with vacuum assisted closure (VAC) is used for selective cases in trauma. In liver transplantation, VAC has also been applied for management of intra-operative hemorrhage. The primary objective was to evaluate peri-operative blood loss and blood product utilization in VAC compared to primary abdominal closure (PAC) at the index transplant operation. METHODS: Retrospective review of all adults undergoing deceased donor liver transplantation (2007-2011) at a single center tertiary care institution...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447375/coupling-individual-kernel-filling-processes-with-source-sink-interactions-into-greenlab-maize
#7
Yuntao Ma, Youjia Chen, Jinyu Zhu, Lei Meng, Yan Guo, Baoguo Li, Gerrit Hoogenboom
Background and Aims: Failure to account for the variation of kernel growth in a cereal crop simulation model may cause serious deviations in the estimates of crop yield. The goal of this research was to revise the GREENLAB-Maize model to incorporate source- and sink-limited allocation approaches to simulate the dry matter accumulation of individual kernels of an ear (GREENLAB-Maize-Kernel). Methods: The model used potential individual kernel growth rates to characterize the individual potential sink demand...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447192/enhancing-response-coordination-through-the-assessment-of-response-network-structural-dynamics
#8
Alireza Abbasi, Abolghasem Sadeghi-Niaraki, Mahdi Jalili, Soo-Mi Choi
Preparing for intensifying threats of emergencies in unexpected, dangerous, and serious natural or man-made events, and consequent management of the situation, is highly demanding in terms of coordinating the personnel and resources to support human lives and the environment. This necessitates prompt action to manage the uncertainties and risks imposed by such extreme events, which requires collaborative operation among different stakeholders (i.e., the personnel from both the state and local communities). This research aims to find a way to enhance the coordination of multi-organizational response operations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445293/clinical-utility-of-ustekinumab-in-crohn-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Christopher Ma, Abdulelah Almutairdi, Remo Panaccione
The introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy marked an important milestone in the management of moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease (CD). However, there remains a pressing demand for alternative therapeutic options for patients with primary nonresponse, secondary loss of response, or intolerable side effects to conventional treatment and TNF antagonists. Ustekinumab (UST) is a fully human IgG1κ monoclonal antibody that inhibits the p40 subunit shared by the proinflammatory cytokines, the interleukin (IL)-12 and -23...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444736/recognition-of-the-complexity-facing-residential-care-homes-a-practitioner-inquiry
#10
Jenny Dudman, Julienne Meyer, Cheryl Holman, Wendy Moyle
Aim To explore the experiences and challenges for residential care home staff when managing the healthcare needs of their residents, in particular those living with dementia. BACKGROUND: Increasing number of older people, with complex health and social care needs are living in residential care homes. Yet there is limited appreciation of why staff sometimes struggle to manage residents' healthcare needs, or understanding of their working relationship with district nurses (DNs), whose responsibility it is to provide nursing support...
February 15, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444580/-our-experience-with-left-sided-retroperitoneal-approach-to-resection-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#11
B Čertík, V Třeška, J Moláček, M Čechura, R Šulc, K Houdek
INTRODUCTION: At most vascular surgery departments, transperitoneal approach predominates in resections of the aortic aneurysms. For difficult reconstructions of the aorta in the visceral segment, a left flank retroperitoneal approach is used most frequently. METHOD: The authors retrospectively evaluate the left retroperitoneal approach in the management of abdominal aortic aneurysms during a 10-year period. From the total number of 445 operated patients, the left-sided retroperitoneal approach was used in 23 cases...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444132/a-linear-bi-level-multi-objective-program-for-optimal-allocation-of-water-resources
#12
Ijaz Ahmad, Fan Zhang, Junguo Liu, Muhammad Naveed Anjum, Muhammad Zaman, Muhammad Tayyab, Muhammad Waseem, Hafiz Umar Farid
This paper presents a simple bi-level multi-objective linear program (BLMOLP) with a hierarchical structure consisting of reservoir managers and several water use sectors under a multi-objective framework for the optimal allocation of limited water resources. Being the upper level decision makers (i.e., leader) in the hierarchy, the reservoir managers control the water allocation system and tend to create a balance among the competing water users thereby maximizing the total benefits to the society. On the other hand, the competing water use sectors, being the lower level decision makers (i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441816/-it-was-not-me-that-was-sick-it-was-the-building-rhetorical-identity-management-strategies-in-the-context-of-observed-or-suspected-indoor-air-problems-in-workplaces
#13
Eerika Finell, Tuija Seppälä, Eero Suoninen
Suffering from a contested illness poses a serious threat to one's identity. We analyzed the rhetorical identity management strategies respondents used when depicting their health problems and lives in the context of observed or suspected indoor air (IA) problems in the workplace. The data consisted of essays collected by the Finnish Literature Society. We used discourse-oriented methods to interpret a variety of language uses in the construction of identity strategies. Six strategies were identified: respondents described themselves as normal and good citizens with strong characters, and as IA sufferers who received acknowledge from others, offered positive meanings to their in-group, and demanded recognition...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439372/work-related-threats-and-violence-in-human-service-sectors-the-importance-of-the-psycho-social-work-environment-examined-in-a-multilevel-prospective-study
#14
Lars Peter Andersen, Annie Hogh, Karin Biering, Charlotte Ann Gadegaard
BACKGROUND: Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related threats and violence in four high risk human service sectors. METHODS: Questionnaire data was collected from 3011 employees working at psychiatric wards, in the elder sector, in the Prison and Probation Service and at Special Schools...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437014/drug-induced-epistaxis-an-often-neglected-adverse-effect
#15
Sara Meirinho, Ricardo Relvas, Gilberto Alves
BACKGROUND: Epistaxis is an active nose bleeding with a population occurrence of approximately 60%. Although epistaxis is a common clinical complaint, the majority of the cases are benign and caused by local induced factors (e.g., trauma and local inflammation). Nevertheless, it is also recognised that epistaxis can be induced after some drugs intake. AIMS: Due to the increasing use of drugs or drug combinations that potentially may induce epistaxis, this review aims to alert healthcare professionals for this often neglected adverse drug effect and its possible complications...
February 12, 2018: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436505/-drip-and-drive-shipping-the-neurointerventionalist-to-provide-mechanical-thrombectomy-in-primary-stroke-centers
#16
Caspar Brekenfeld, Einar Goebell, Holger Schmidt, Henning Henningsen, Christoffer Kraemer, Jörg Tebben, Fabian Flottmann, Götz Thomalla, Jens Fiehler
BACKGROUND: To satisfy the increasing demand of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke treatment, new organizational concepts for patient care are required. This study evaluates time intervals of acute stroke management in two stroke care models, including one based on transportation of the interventionalist from a comprehensive stroke center (CSC) to treat patients in two primary stroke centers (PSC). We hypothesized that time intervals were not inferior for the 'drip-and-drive' concept compared with the traditional 'drip-and-ship' concept...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436107/rationale-and-developmental-methodology-for-the-simple-approach-a-systematised-interdisciplinary-malnutrition-pathway-for-implementation-and-evaluation-in-hospitals
#17
Jack J Bell, Adrienne Young, Jan Hill, Merrilyn Banks, Tracy Comans, Rhiannon Barnes, Heather H Keller
AIM: Changing population demographics, service demands, and healthcare provider expectations suggest that a shift is required regarding how malnutrition care is managed in hospitals. The present study aims to build the reason for required change, and to describe the process used to develop a model for managing malnutrition for implementation across six Queensland hospitals. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of approaches to managing malnutrition in Queensland public hospitals, and development of a new model of care (guided by Knowledge-to-Action Framework and qualitative interviews) for testing within a broader implementation program...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435624/arthroscopic-soft-tissue-reconstruction-in-anterior-shoulder-instability
#18
REVIEW
R M Frank, A A Romeo
Anterior glenohumeral instability remains a difficult problem in the athletic and working patient populations. Treatment strategies are variable and range from nonoperative approaches incorporating immobilization and rehabilitation to surgical management. Surgical decision-making can be challenging, especially with a high-level patient who wishes to return to high-demand activities. Operative options range from open soft tissue stabilization to arthroscopic soft tissue stabilization, with both open and arthroscopic options for bony reconstruction in the setting of clinically significant anterior glenoid bone loss...
February 2018: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433070/speed-speed-variation-and-crash-relationships-for-urban-arterials
#19
Xuesong Wang, Qingya Zhou, Mohammed Quddus, Tianxiang Fan, Shou'en Fang
Speed and speed variation are closely associated with traffic safety. There is, however, a dearth of research on this subject for the case of urban arterials in general, and in the context of developing nations. In downtown Shanghai, the traffic conditions in each direction are very different by time of day, and speed characteristics during peak hours are also greatly different from those during off-peak hours. Considering that traffic demand changes with time and in different directions, arterials in this study were divided into one-way segments by the direction of flow, and time of day was differentiated and controlled for...
February 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432971/assessing-the-costs-of-disposable-and-reusable-supplies-wasted-during-surgeries
#20
V Chasseigne, G Leguelinel-Blache, T L Nguyen, R de Tayrac, M Prudhomme, J M Kinowski, P Costa
BACKGROUND: The management of disposable and reusable supplies might have an impact on the cost efficiency of the Operating Room (OR). This study aimed to evaluate the cost and reasons for wasted supplies in the OR during surgical procedures. METHODS: We conducted an observational and prospective study in a French university hospital. We assessed the cost of wasted supplies in the OR (defined by opened unused devices), the reasons for the wastage, and the circulator retrievals...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
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