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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092150/issues-in-nutrition-dietary-supplements
#1
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090096/a-bioinformatics-practicum-to-develop-student-understanding-of-immunological-rejection-of-protein-drugs
#2
Lauren A O'Donnell, Wilson S Meng, Benjamin J Andrick, Alexa M Borello
Objectives. To design and implement a bioinformatics exercise that applies immunological principles to predicting rejection of protein drugs based upon patient genotype. Design. Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students used the Immune Epitope Database, a freely available bioinformatics tool. Over a 2-week laboratory, students interrogated whether a protein drug would be predicted to induce an immune response based upon patient genotype. Results were presented at the last laboratory session, and students completed reports discussing their findings...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089400/selective-sequential-separation-of-abs-hips-and-pvc-from-automobile-and-electronic-waste-shredder-residue-by-hybrid-nano-fe-ca-cao-assisted-ozonisation-process
#3
Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byoung Ho Lee, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Cristian Simion
The separation of plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFR) like (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue (ASR/ESR) are a major concern for thermal recycling. In laboratory scale tests using a hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonation treatment has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics, enhancing ABS wettability and thereby promoting its separation from ASR/ESR by means of froth flotation...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089270/coordinated-underground-measurements-of-gamma-ray-emitting-radionuclides-for-plasma-physics-research
#4
Faidra Tzika, Mikael Hult, András Fenyvesi, Iulian Bandac, Detlev Degering, Aldo Ianni, Matthias Laubenstein, Anne de Vismes-Ott, Gerd Marissens, Heiko Stroh, Guillaume Lutter, Soohyun Son, Suk-Ho Hong, Jun Young Kim, Junghee Kim, Mun Seung Cheon, Jungmin Jo, Mihály Braun, József Németh, Sándor Zoletnik, Georges Bonheure
Forty-eight samples made of CaF2, LiF and YVO4 were placed inside the KSTAR Tokamak and irradiated by neutrons and charged particles from eight plasma pulses. The aim was to provide information for plasma diagnostics. Due to the short pulse durations, the activities induced in the samples were low and therefore measurements were performed in five low-background underground laboratories. Details of the underground measurements, together with data on the quality control amongst the radiometric laboratories, are presented...
December 24, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089268/analysis-of-radioxenon-and-krypton-85-at-the-bfs-noble-gas-laboratory
#5
C Schlosser, A Bollhöfer, S Schmid, R Krais, J Bieringer, M Konrad
Proportional counters and a β-γ coincidence system and their performance characteristics are described, with emphasis on internal and external quality controls. Typical limits of detection (LD) are 8mBqm(-3) for (85)Kr and 4mBqm(-3) for (133)Xe for the proportional counters, while for similar xenon volumes the LD for (133)Xe in the β-γ system is approximately 4 times lower. Results of comparative analyses agree above the limit of quantification. Xenon-133 levels in southern Germany are presently at or below the LD of the proportional counters, but above the LD of the β-γ system, which is now routinely used for analysis of environmental samples...
December 28, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088628/methods-needed-to-measure-predictive-accuracy-a-study-of-diabetic-patients
#6
Hafiz M R Khan, Sarah Mende, Aamrin Rafiq, Kemesha Gabbidon, P Hemachandra Reddy
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it can result in several complications such as kidney failure, heart failure, stroke, and blindness making it a major medical and public health concern in the United States. Statistical methods are important to detect risk factors and identify the best sampling plan to determine predictive bounds for diabetic patients' data. The main objective of this paper is to identify the best fit bootstrapping sampling method and to draw the predictive bound considering diabetes patient data...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088419/hexanal-as-biomarker-for-milk-oxidative-stress-induced-by-copper-ions
#7
Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Franco Biasioli, Maria Stella Cosio, Matteo Schampicchio
Milk flavor varies greatly due to its oxidative stress during storage. Several studies have documented the use of volatile biomarkers for determining milk oxidation, but only a few have focused on the development of inline procedures enabling the monitoring of milk oxidative stress. In this work, oxidative stress was induced in pasteurized milk samples by spiking increasing concentrations of copper ions (from 0 to 32 mg·L(-1)). During storage (4°C), hexanal evolution was monitored by a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088418/laboratory-silo-type-and-inoculation-effects-on-nutritional-composition-fermentation-and-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-of-oat-silage
#8
J J Romero, Y Zhao, M A Balseca-Paredes, F Tiezzi, E Gutierrez-Rodriguez, M S Castillo
The objectives were to evaluate (1) the use of 2 types of experimental silos (S) to characterize whole-crop oat (Avena sativa L.) silage with or without addition of an inoculant (I), and (2) the effect of inoculation on the microbial community structure of oats ensiled using only plastic bucket silos (BKT). From each of 6 sections in a field, oats were harvested, treated (INO) or not (CON) with inoculant, packed into 19-L BKT or vacuum bags (BG), and ensiled for 217 d. The inoculant added contained Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus (4 × 10(5) and 1 × 10(5) cfu/g of fresh oats, respectively)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088415/qualitative-and-quantitative-adulteration-identification-of-milk-powder-using-the-dna-with-novel-extraction-method
#9
J Liao, Y F Liu, T Ku, M H Liu, Y Huang
The extraction of high-quality DNA from processed dairy products can often represent the crucial step in an authentication process by PCR-based methods. In this study, we optimized a novel DNA extraction method for milk powder and used the extracted DNA for identification of milk powder based on PCR analysis. The DNA quality was assessed by amplifying target sequences from mitochondrial genes, as well as by monitoring the yield, purity, and integrity of the extracted DNA. In addition, a laboratory adulteration model of milk powder was detected by PCR-based methods (PCR and real-time PCR) using primers targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087785/thermolytic-degradation-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-chemical-exposures-and-pharmacological-consequences
#10
Brian F Thomas, Timothy W Lefever, Ricardo A Cortes, Alexander L Kovach, Anderson O Cox, Purvi R Patel, Gerald T Pollard, Julie A Marusich, Richard A Kevin, Thomas F Gamage, Jenny L Wiley
Synthetic cannabinoids are manufactured clandestinely with little quality control and are distributed as herbal "Spice" for smoking or as bulk compound for mixing with a solvent and inhalation via electronic vaporizers. Intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with seizure, excited delirium, coma, kidney damage, and other disorders. The chemical alterations produced by heating these structurally novel compounds for consumption are largely unknown. Here we show that heating synthetic cannabinoids containing tetramethylcyclopropyl-ring substituents produced thermal degradants with pharmacological activity that varied considerably from their parent compounds...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087127/the-route-from-problem-to-solution-in-multistep-continuous-flow-synthesis-of-pharmaceutical-compounds
#11
Péter Bana, Róbert Örkényi, Klára Lövei, Ágnes Lakó, György István Túrós, János Éles, Ferenc Faigl, István Greiner
Recent advances in the field of continuous flow chemistry allow the multistep preparation of complex molecules such as APIs (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) in a telescoped manner. Numerous examples of laboratory-scale applications are described, which are pointing towards novel manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical compounds, in accordance with recent regulatory, economical and quality guidances. The chemical and technical knowledge gained during these studies is considerable; nevertheless, connecting several individual chemical transformations and the attached analytics and purification holds hidden traps...
December 29, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079875/early-postnatal-illness-severity-scores-predict-neurodevelopmental-impairments-at-10-years-of-age-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#12
J W Logan, O Dammann, E N Allred, C Dammann, K Beam, R M Joseph, T M O'Shea, A Leviton, K C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: A neonatal illness severity score, The Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II (SNAP-II), predicts neurodevelopmental impairments at two years of age among children born extremely preterm. We sought to evaluate to what extent SNAP-II is predictive of cognitive and other neurodevelopmental impairments at 10 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort of 874 children born before 28 weeks of gestation, we prospectively collected clinical, physiologic and laboratory data to calculate SNAP-II for each infant...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079620/clostridium-difficile-infection-and-risk-of-colectomy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-bias-adjusted-meta-analysis
#13
Yingxi Chen, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Suhail A Doi, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Martyn Kirk
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common complication of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and is associated with worse outcome. Variable rates of colectomy have been reported among IBD complicated by CDI. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to assess the association between CDI and colectomy among patients with IBD. METHODS: The literature was systematically searched using PubMed from inception through April 2016...
January 10, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079592/implementation-science-the-laboratory-as-a-command-centre
#14
Debrah I Boeras, John N Nkengasong, Rosanna W Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in point-of-care technologies to ensure universal access to affordable quality-assured diagnostics have the potential to transform patient management, surveillance programmes, and control of infectious diseases. Decentralization of testing can put tremendous stresses on fragile health systems if the laboratory is not involved in the planning, introduction, and scale-up strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of investments in novel technologies can only be realized if these tests are evaluated, adopted, and scaled up within the healthcare system with appropriate planning and understanding of the local contexts in which these technologies will be used...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078809/three-year-analysis-of-repeated-laboratory-tests-for-the-markers-total-cholesterol-ferritin-vitamin-d-vitamin-b12-and-folate-in-a-large-research-and-teaching-hospital-in-italy
#15
Monica Lanzoni, Marco Fornili, Irene Felicetta, Rita Maiavacca, Elia Biganzoli, Silvana Castaldi
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The increasing number of diagnostic tests requests all over the world is a problem that can partially be explained by inappropriate testing. Impact on the total costs of health systems becomes relevant when tests are performed in a large amount. In this paper, retesting of total cholesterol, ferritin, vitamin B12 , vitamin D, and folate is assessed. METHODS: The Quality Unit of Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano (Fondazione) decided to perform a first assessment of the appropriate use of the laboratory tests cholesterol, ferritin, vitamin B12 , vitamin D, and folate focusing on the retesting interval for the same patient in the time period January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014, in every care setting...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078776/performance-of-the-forenseq-tm-dna-signature-prep-kit-on-highly-degraded-samples
#16
Paolo Fattorini, Carlo Previderé, Ilaria Carboni, Giorgio Marrubini, Solange Sorçaburu-Cigliero, Pierangela Grignani, Barbara Bertoglio, Paolo Vatta, Ugo Ricci
Next generation sequencing (NGS) is the emerging technology in forensic genomics laboratories. It offers higher resolution to address most problems of human identification, greater efficiency and potential ability to interrogate very challenging forensic casework samples. In the present study, a trial set of DNA samples was artificially degraded, by progressive aqueous hydrolysis, and analyzed together with the corresponding unmodified DNA sample and control sample 2800M, to test the performance and reliability of the ForenSeq(TM) DNA Signature Prep kit using the MiSeq Sequencer (Illumina)...
January 12, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078721/use-of-the-fluorescent-dye-tetramethylrhodamine-methyl-ester-perchlorate-for-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-assessment-in-human-spermatozoa
#17
P Uribe, J V Villegas, R Boguen, F Treulen, R Sánchez, P Mallmann, V Isachenko, G Rahimi, E Isachenko
Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) is an indicator of sperm quality and its evaluation complements the standard semen analysis. The fluorescent dye JC-1 has been widely used to assess sperm ΔΨm; however, some problems have been detected under certain experimental conditions. Another fluorescent compound, tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester perchlorate (TMRM), has been used in somatic cells and bovine spermatozoa but not in human spermatozoa. TMRM accumulates in hyperpolarised mitochondria and the fluorescence intensity of this compound correlates with ΔΨm...
January 11, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077399/her2-testing-and-clinical-decision-making-in-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-guideline-from-the-college-of-american-pathologists-american-society-for-clinical-pathology-and-american-society-of-clinical-oncology
#18
REVIEW
Angela N Bartley, Mary Kay Washington, Christina B Ventura, Nofisat Ismaila, Carol Colasacco, Al B Benson, Alfredo Carrato, Margaret L Gulley, Dhanpat Jain, Sanjay Kakar, Helen J Mackay, Catherine Streutker, Laura Tang, Megan Troxell, Jaffer A Ajani
CONTEXT: ERBB2 (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 or HER2) is currently the only biomarker established for selection of a specific therapy for patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA). However, there are no comprehensive guidelines for the assessment of HER2 in patients with GEA. OBJECTIVES: To establish an evidence-based guideline for HER2 testing in patients with GEA, to formalize the algorithms for methods to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing while addressing which patients and tumor specimens are appropriate, and to provide guidance on clinical decision making...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075425/management-of-fibromyalgia-practical-guides-from-recent-evidence-based-guidelines
#19
Winfried Häuser, Jacob Ablin, Serge Perrot, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent and costly condition worldwide, affecting approximately 2% of the general population. Recent evidence- and consensus-based guidelines from Canada, Germany, Israel and the European League Against Rheumatism aim to support physicians in achieving a comprehensive diagnostic work-up of patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP) and to assist patients and physicians in shared decision making on treament options. Every patient with CWP requires at the first medical evaluation a complete history, medical examination and some laboratory tests (complete blood count, C-reactive protein, serum calcium, creatine phosphokinase, thyroid stimulating hormone, 25-OH vitamin D) to screen for metabolic or inflammatory causes of CWP...
January 4, 2017: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074125/shiga-vero-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-hospital-foods-virulence-factors-o-serogroups-and-antimicrobial-resistance-properties
#20
Reza Ranjbar, Mojtaba Masoudimanesh, Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi, Nematollah Jonaidi-Jafari, Ebrahim Rahimi
BACKGROUND: According to the presence of the weak, diabetic and immunosuppressive patients in hospitals, hospital foods should have a high quality and safety. Cooking a lot of foods higher than daily requirement, storage of cooked foods in an inappropriate condition and presence of nurses and servants in distribution of food to patients are the main reasons caused contamination of hospital foods. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the common cause of food poisoning in hospitals...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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