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objective assessment built environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166249/qualitative-exploration-of-cross-sector-perspectives-on-the-contributions-of-local-health-departments-in-land-use-and-transportation-policy
#1
Meera Sreedhara, Karin Valentine Goins, Semra A Aytur, Rodney Lyn, Jay E Maddock, Robin Riessman, Thomas L Schmid, Heather Wooten, Stephenie C Lemon
INTRODUCTION: Transportation and land-use policies can affect the physical activity of populations. Local health departments (LHDs) are encouraged to participate in built-environment policy processes, which are outside their traditional expertise. Cross-sector collaborations are needed, yet stakeholders' perceptions of LHD involvement are not well understood. The objective of this study was to describe the perceived value of LHD participation in transportation and land-use decision making and potential contributions to these processes among stakeholders...
November 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161656/comparing-objective-measures-of-the-built-environment-in-their-associations-with-youth-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-across-heterogeneous-geographies
#2
Melissa N Poulsen, Emily A Knapp, Annemarie G Hirsch, Lisa Bailey-Davis, Jonathan Pollak, Brian S Schwartz
We compared two strategies for measuring built environment features in their associations with youth physical activity and sedentary behavior across heterogeneous geographies of Pennsylvania. Physical activity environments of communities representing a rural-to-urban gradient were characterized through direct observation and spatially referenced archival data subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. Stratified regression analyses assessed associations between environmental measures and behavioral outcomes by community type...
November 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145884/systematic-literature-review-of-built-environment-effects-on-physical-activity-and-active-transport-an-update-and-new-findings-on-health-equity
#3
REVIEW
Melody Smith, Jamie Hosking, Alistair Woodward, Karen Witten, Alexandra MacMillan, Adrian Field, Peter Baas, Hamish Mackie
BACKGROUND: Evidence is mounting to suggest a causal relationship between the built environment and people's physical activity behaviours, particularly active transport. The evidence base has been hindered to date by restricted consideration of cost and economic factors associated with built environment interventions, investigation of socioeconomic or ethnic differences in intervention effects, and an inability to isolate the effect of the built environment from other intervention types...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065897/associations-of-the-perceived-and-objective-neighborhood-environment-with-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-in-new-zealand-adolescents
#4
Erica Hinckson, Ester Cerin, Suzanne Mavoa, Melody Smith, Hannah Badland, Tom Stewart, Scott Duncan, Grant Schofield
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence supporting the association between neighborhood built environments and adults' physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST); however, few studies have investigated these associations in adolescents. A better understanding of the features of the built environment that encourage PA or ST is therefore of critical importance to promote health and wellbeing in adolescents. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of GIS-determined and perceived walkability components in individual residential buffer zones with accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and ST in adolescents...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061128/effects-of-a-multi-level-intervention-on-the-pattern-of-physical-activity-among-in-school-adolescents-in-oyo-state-nigeria-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#5
Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu, Oladimeji Oladepo
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity contributes to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. The pattern of physical activity in adulthood are often established during adolescence and sedentary behaviours in the early years could influence the development of diseases later in life. Studies on physical activity in Nigeria have focused largely on individual behaviours and the effects of school-based interventions have not been well investigated. The aim of the proposed study is to identify factors influencing; and evaluate the effects of a multi-level intervention on the physical activity behaviours of in-school adolescents in Oyo state, Nigeria...
October 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059704/toward-probabilistic-prediction-of-flash-flood-human-impacts
#6
Galateia Terti, Isabelle Ruin, Jonathan J Gourley, Pierre Kirstetter, Zachary Flamig, Juliette Blanchet, Ami Arthur, Sandrine Anquetin
This article focuses on conceptual and methodological developments allowing the integration of physical and social dynamics leading to model forecasts of circumstance-specific human losses during a flash flood. To reach this objective, a random forest classifier is applied to assess the likelihood of fatality occurrence for a given circumstance as a function of representative indicators. Here, vehicle-related circumstance is chosen as the literature indicates that most fatalities from flash flooding fall in this category...
October 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043763/status-report-geographic-retail-food-environment-measures-for-use-in-public-health
#7
Ahalya Mahendra, Jane Y Polsky, Éric Robitaille, Marc Lefebvre, Tina McBrien, Leia M Minaker
The Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario (APHEO) Core Indicators Work Group standardizes definitions and calculation methods for over 120 public health indicators to enhance accurate and standardized community health status reporting across public health units in Ontario. The Built Environment Subgroup is a multi-disciplinary group made up of planners, researchers, policy analysts, registered dietitians, geographic information systems (GIS) analysts and epidemiologists. The Subgroup selected and operationalized a suite of objective, standardized indicators intended to help public health units and regional health authorities assess their community retail food environments...
October 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954718/log-in-to-experiential-learning-theory-supporting-web-based-faculty-development
#8
Selma Omer, Sunhea Choi, Sarah Brien, Marcus Parry
BACKGROUND: For an increasingly busy and geographically dispersed faculty, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, developed a range of Web-based faculty development modules, based on Kolb's experiential learning cycle, to complement the faculty's face-to-face workshops. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess users' views and perceptions of the effectiveness of Web-based faculty development modules based on Kolb's experiential learning cycle...
September 27, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919837/rethinking-the-measurement-of-energy-poverty-in-europe-a-critical-analysis-of-indicators-and-data
#9
Harriet Thomson, Stefan Bouzarovski, Carolyn Snell
Energy poverty - which has also been recognised via terms such as 'fuel poverty' and 'energy vulnerability' - occurs when a household experiences inadequate levels of energy services in the home. Measuring energy poverty is challenging, as it is a culturally sensitive and private condition, which is temporally and spatially dynamic. This is compounded by the limited availability of appropriate data and indicators, and lack of consensus on how energy poverty should be conceptualised and measured. Statistical indicators of energy poverty are an important and necessary part of the research and policy landscape...
August 2017: Indoor + Built Environment: the Journal of the International Society of the Built Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910813/the-neighborhood-built-environment-and-cognitive-function-of-older-persons-results-from-the-singapore-longitudinal-ageing-study
#10
Tze Pin Ng, Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Faysal Kabir Shuvo, Jia Yen Eng, Keng Bee Yap, Li Min Hee, Siew Pang Chan, Samuel Scherer
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association of subjective (perceived) and objective (geographical information system [GIS]-based) measures of the neighborhood built environment (BE) attributes with cognitive function among older persons, and the mediating effect of transportation physical activity (TPA) and leisure time (physical, social and productive) activities (LTA). METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 402 residents aged 55 years and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866989/the-mismatch-between-observational-measures-and-residents-perspectives-on-the-retail-food-environment-a-mixed-methods-approach-in-the-heart-healthy-hoods-study
#11
Julia Díez, Roberto Valiente, Carmen Ramos, Reyes García, Joel Gittelsohn, Manuel Franco
OBJECTIVE: To gain a deeper understanding of the retail food environment by investigating similarities and differences between objective measures and residents' perspectives. DESIGN: The study incorporated Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measures, in-store surveys and the results from a larger photovoice project. We combined these data using a convergent parallel mixed-methods approach. SETTING: We conducted this study in a low-income neighbourhood in Madrid (Spain) in 2016...
September 4, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863871/neighborhood-built-environment-and-socio-economic-status-in-relation-to-multiple-health-outcomes-in-adolescents
#12
Javier Molina-García, Ana Queralt, Marc A Adams, Terry L Conway, James F Sallis
The study aim was to examine associations of neighborhood built environment and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES) with multiple physical activity (PA) behaviors, sedentary time, and obesity indicators among adolescents. Cross-sectional study of 325 adolescents aged 14-18years recruited from schools in Valencia, Spain. Participants' home neighborhoods were classified according to walkability and SES levels. Walkability was defined as an index of three built environment characteristics (i.e., residential density, land use mix, and street connectivity) based on geographic information system data...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845063/spread-of-water-borne-pollutants-at-traffic-accidents-on-roads
#13
Bo Olofsson, Hedi Rasul, Annika Lundmark
Traffic accidents sometimes lead to the spread of hazardous compounds to the environment. Accidental spills of hazardous compounds on roads in the vicinity of vulnerable objects such as water supplies pose a serious threat to water quality and have to be assessed. This study compared three different assessment methods, electrical resistivity measurements, analytical flow calculations, and 1D and 2D dynamic flow modeling, to describe rapid transport processes in the road shoulder and roadside verge after a major spill...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832552/does-physical-activity-mediate-the-associations-between-local-area-descriptive-norms-built-environment-walkability-and-glycosylated-hemoglobin
#14
Suzanne J Carroll, Theo Niyonsenga, Neil T Coffee, Anne W Taylor, Mark Daniel
Associations between local-area residential features and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) may be mediated by individual-level health behaviors. Such indirect effects have rarely been tested. This study assessed whether individual-level self-reported physical activity mediated the influence of local-area descriptive norms and objectively expressed walkability on 10-year change in HbA1c. HbA1c was assessed three times for adults in a 10-year population-based biomedical cohort (n = 4056). Local-area norms specific to each participant were calculated, aggregating responses from a separate statewide surveillance survey for 1600 m road-network buffers centered on participant addresses (local prevalence of overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m²) and physical inactivity (<150 min/week))...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725452/mapmysmoke-feasibility-of-a-new-quit-cigarette-smoking-mobile-phone-application-using-integrated-geo-positioning-technology-and-motivational-messaging-within-a-primary-care-setting
#15
Robert S Schick, Thomas W Kelsey, John Marston, Kay Samson, Gerald W Humphris
BACKGROUND: Approximately 11,000 people die in Scotland each year as a result of smoking-related causes. Quitting smoking is relatively easy; maintaining a quit attempt is a very difficult task with success rates for unaided quit attempts stubbornly remaining in the single digits. Pharmaceutical treatment can improve these rates by lowering the overall reward factor of nicotine. However, these and related nicotine replacement therapies do not operate on, or address, the spatial and contextual aspects of smoking behaviour...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486413/hospitalizations-in-pediatric-and-adult-patients-for-all-cancer-type-in-italy-the-epikit-study-under-the-e-u-coheirs-project-on-environment-and-health
#16
Prisco Piscitelli, Immacolata Marino, Andrea Falco, Matteo Rivezzi, Roberto Romano, Restituta Mazzella, Cosimo Neglia, Giulia Della Rosa, Giuseppe Pellerano, Giuseppe Militerno, Adriana Bonifacino, Gaetano Rivezzi, Roberto Romizi, Giuseppe Miserotti, Maurizio Montella, Fabrizio Bianchi, Alessandra Marinelli, Antonella De Donno, Giovanni De Filippis, Giuseppe Serravezza, Gianluca Di Tanna, Dennis Black, Valerio Gennaro, Mario Ascolese, Alessandro Distante, Ernesto Burgio, Massimo Crespi, Annamaria Colao
Background: Cancer Registries (CRs) remain the gold standard for providing official epidemiological estimations. However, due to CRs' partial population coverage, hospitalization records might represent a valuable tool to provide additional information on cancer occurrence and expenditures at national/regional level for research purposes. The Epidemiology of Cancer in Italy (EPIKIT) study group has been built up, within the framework of the Civic Observers for Health and Environment: Initiative of Responsibility and Sustainability (COHEIRS) project under the auspices of the Europe for Citizens Program, to assess population health indicators...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360867/focal-and-ambient-processing-of-built-environments-intellectual-and-atmospheric-experiences-of-architecture
#17
Kevin K Rooney, Robert J Condia, Lester C Loschky
Neuroscience has well established that human vision divides into the central and peripheral fields of view. Central vision extends from the point of gaze (where we are looking) out to about 5° of visual angle (the width of one's fist at arm's length), while peripheral vision is the vast remainder of the visual field. These visual fields project to the parvo and magno ganglion cells, which process distinctly different types of information from the world around us and project that information to the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320422/do-associations-between-objectively-assessed-physical-activity-and-neighbourhood-environment-attributes-vary-by-time-of-the-day-and-day-of-the-week-ipen-adult-study
#18
Ester Cerin, Josef Mitáš, Kelli L Cain, Terry L Conway, Marc A Adams, Grant Schofield, Olga L Sarmiento, Rodrigo Siqueira Reis, Jasper Schipperijn, Rachel Davey, Deborah Salvo, Rosario Orzanco-Garralda, Duncan J Macfarlane, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Neville Owen, James F Sallis, Delfien Van Dyck
BACKGROUND: To more accurately quantify the potential impact of the neighbourhood environment on adults' physical activity (PA), it is important to compare environment-PA associations between periods of the day or week when adults are more versus less likely to be in their neighbourhood and utilise its PA resources. We examined whether, among adults from 10 countries, associations between objectively-assessed neighbourhood environment attributes and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) varied by time of the day and day of the week...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316911/electronic-media-time-and-sedentary-behaviors-in-children-findings-from-the-built-environment-and-active-play-study-in-the-washington-dc-area
#19
Jennifer D Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Rashawn Ray, Brandon Knight, Brian E Saelens
An objective of the Built Environment and Active Play (BEAP) Study was to examine whether home built environment, bedroom electronic presence, parental rules and demographics predicted children's sedentary behavior (SB). In 2014, BEAP Study questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents of children (7-12 years) within the Washington DC area. SB-Duration (hours/day) and SB-Frequency (days/week) were assessed by two questions with multiple subparts relating to SB activity type (e.g. car riding) and SB companionship (e...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298264/ecological-momentary-assessment-in-behavioral-research-addressing-technological-and-human-participant-challenges
#20
Lora E Burke, Saul Shiffman, Edvin Music, Mindi A Styn, Andrea Kriska, Asim Smailagic, Daniel Siewiorek, Linda J Ewing, Eileen Chasens, Brian French, Juliet Mancino, Dara Mendez, Patrick Strollo, Stephen L Rathbun
BACKGROUND: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) assesses individuals' current experiences, behaviors, and moods as they occur in real time and in their natural environment. EMA studies, particularly those of longer duration, are complex and require an infrastructure to support the data flow and monitoring of EMA completion. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to provide a practical guide to developing and implementing an EMA study, with a focus on the methods and logistics of conducting such a study...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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