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objective assessment built environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432790/neighborhood-built-environment-and-socioeconomic-status-in-relation-to-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-weight-status-of-adolescents
#1
James F Sallis, Terry L Conway, Kelli L Cain, Jordan A Carlson, Lawrence D Frank, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz, James E Chapman, Brian E Saelens
INTRODUCTION: The study examined the association of neighborhood walkability to multiple activity-related outcomes and BMI among adolescents and evaluated socioeconomic status as an effect modifier. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, with adolescents recruited from neighborhoods that met criteria for a 2 × 2 matrix defined by high/low GIS-defined walkability and high/low median income. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n = 928) were recruited from selected neighborhoods in Maryland and King County, Washington regions in 2009-2011...
February 9, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412329/characteristics-of-the-environmental-microscale-and-walking-and-bicycling-for-transportation-among-adults-in-curitiba-paran%C3%A3-state-brazil
#2
Adalberto Aparecido Dos Santos Lopes, Marilson Kienteka, Rogério César Fermino, Rodrigo Siqueira Reis
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the characteristics of the built and social and environmental microscale and walking and bicycling for transportation in adults in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2009 with a household survey that included 1,419 adults. Objective evaluation of environment was performed on the resident's street segments, using an instrument for systematic observation consisting of six dimensions: "land use", "public transportation", "streetscape", "conditions and aesthetics", "places for walking and bicycling", and "social environment"...
February 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398408/neighbourhood-walkability-and-incidence-of-hypertension-findings-from-the-study-of-429-334-uk-biobank-participants
#3
Chinmoy Sarkar, Chris Webster, John Gallacher
BACKGROUND: With an estimated one billion hypertension cases worldwide, the role of the built environment in its prevention and control is still uncertain. The present study aims to examine the associations between neighbourhood walkability and hypertension in a large and diverse population-based cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the association between neighbourhood walkability and blood pressure outcomes for N = 429,334 participants drawn from the UK Biobank and aged 38-73 years...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329276/the-safety-of-the-neighborhood-environment-and-physical-activity-in-czech-and-polish-adolescents
#4
Josef Mitáš, Krzysztof Sas-Nowosielski, Dorota Groffik, Karel Frömel
(1) Background: An increase in or at least the sustainment of walking activities across a wide section of the population is a crucial health-related task for Central and East European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between adolescents' walking activities and various levels of perceived safety of the built environment in differing socio-demographic backgrounds of Poland and the Czech Republic. Furthermore, we aimed to determine major moderators affecting the walking habits of adolescents in areas with different levels of walkability...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316641/neighborhood-perceptions-and-cumulative-impacts-of-low-level-chronic-exposure-to-fine-particular-matter-pm2-5-on-cardiopulmonary-health
#5
Kristen M C Malecki, Amy A Schultz, Rachel S Bergmans
Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166249/qualitative-exploration-of-cross-sector-perspectives-on-the-contributions-of-local-health-departments-in-land-use-and-transportation-policy
#6
Meera Sreedhara, Karin Valentine Goins, Semra A Aytur, Rodney Lyn, Jay E Maddock, Robin Riessman, Thomas L Schmid, Heather Wooten, Stephenie C Lemon
INTRODUCTION: Transportation and land-use policies can affect the physical activity of populations. Local health departments (LHDs) are encouraged to participate in built-environment policy processes, which are outside their traditional expertise. Cross-sector collaborations are needed, yet stakeholders' perceptions of LHD involvement are not well understood. The objective of this study was to describe the perceived value of LHD participation in transportation and land-use decision making and potential contributions to these processes among stakeholders...
November 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161656/comparing-objective-measures-of-the-built-environment-in-their-associations-with-youth-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-across-heterogeneous-geographies
#7
Melissa N Poulsen, Emily A Knapp, Annemarie G Hirsch, Lisa Bailey-Davis, Jonathan Pollak, Brian S Schwartz
We compared two strategies for measuring built environment features in their associations with youth physical activity and sedentary behavior across heterogeneous geographies of Pennsylvania. Physical activity environments of communities representing a rural-to-urban gradient were characterized through direct observation and spatially referenced archival data subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. Stratified regression analyses assessed associations between environmental measures and behavioral outcomes by community type...
November 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145884/systematic-literature-review-of-built-environment-effects-on-physical-activity-and-active-transport-an-update-and-new-findings-on-health-equity
#8
REVIEW
Melody Smith, Jamie Hosking, Alistair Woodward, Karen Witten, Alexandra MacMillan, Adrian Field, Peter Baas, Hamish Mackie
BACKGROUND: Evidence is mounting to suggest a causal relationship between the built environment and people's physical activity behaviours, particularly active transport. The evidence base has been hindered to date by restricted consideration of cost and economic factors associated with built environment interventions, investigation of socioeconomic or ethnic differences in intervention effects, and an inability to isolate the effect of the built environment from other intervention types...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065897/associations-of-the-perceived-and-objective-neighborhood-environment-with-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-in-new-zealand-adolescents
#9
Erica Hinckson, Ester Cerin, Suzanne Mavoa, Melody Smith, Hannah Badland, Tom Stewart, Scott Duncan, Grant Schofield
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence supporting the association between neighborhood built environments and adults' physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST); however, few studies have investigated these associations in adolescents. A better understanding of the features of the built environment that encourage PA or ST is therefore of critical importance to promote health and wellbeing in adolescents. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of GIS-determined and perceived walkability components in individual residential buffer zones with accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and ST in adolescents...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061128/effects-of-a-multi-level-intervention-on-the-pattern-of-physical-activity-among-in-school-adolescents-in-oyo-state-nigeria-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#10
Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu, Oladimeji Oladepo
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity contributes to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. The pattern of physical activity in adulthood are often established during adolescence and sedentary behaviours in the early years could influence the development of diseases later in life. Studies on physical activity in Nigeria have focused largely on individual behaviours and the effects of school-based interventions have not been well investigated. The aim of the proposed study is to identify factors influencing; and evaluate the effects of a multi-level intervention on the physical activity behaviours of in-school adolescents in Oyo state, Nigeria...
October 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059704/toward-probabilistic-prediction-of-flash-flood-human-impacts
#11
Galateia Terti, Isabelle Ruin, Jonathan J Gourley, Pierre Kirstetter, Zachary Flamig, Juliette Blanchet, Ami Arthur, Sandrine Anquetin
This article focuses on conceptual and methodological developments allowing the integration of physical and social dynamics leading to model forecasts of circumstance-specific human losses during a flash flood. To reach this objective, a random forest classifier is applied to assess the likelihood of fatality occurrence for a given circumstance as a function of representative indicators. Here, vehicle-related circumstance is chosen as the literature indicates that most fatalities from flash flooding fall in this category...
October 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043763/status-report-geographic-retail-food-environment-measures-for-use-in-public-health
#12
Ahalya Mahendra, Jane Y Polsky, Éric Robitaille, Marc Lefebvre, Tina McBrien, Leia M Minaker
The Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario (APHEO) Core Indicators Work Group standardizes definitions and calculation methods for over 120 public health indicators to enhance accurate and standardized community health status reporting across public health units in Ontario. The Built Environment Subgroup is a multi-disciplinary group made up of planners, researchers, policy analysts, registered dietitians, geographic information systems (GIS) analysts and epidemiologists. The Subgroup selected and operationalized a suite of objective, standardized indicators intended to help public health units and regional health authorities assess their community retail food environments...
October 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954718/log-in-to-experiential-learning-theory-supporting-web-based-faculty-development
#13
Selma Omer, Sunhea Choi, Sarah Brien, Marcus Parry
BACKGROUND: For an increasingly busy and geographically dispersed faculty, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, developed a range of Web-based faculty development modules, based on Kolb's experiential learning cycle, to complement the faculty's face-to-face workshops. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess users' views and perceptions of the effectiveness of Web-based faculty development modules based on Kolb's experiential learning cycle...
September 27, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919837/rethinking-the-measurement-of-energy-poverty-in-europe-a-critical-analysis-of-indicators-and-data
#14
Harriet Thomson, Stefan Bouzarovski, Carolyn Snell
Energy poverty - which has also been recognised via terms such as 'fuel poverty' and 'energy vulnerability' - occurs when a household experiences inadequate levels of energy services in the home. Measuring energy poverty is challenging, as it is a culturally sensitive and private condition, which is temporally and spatially dynamic. This is compounded by the limited availability of appropriate data and indicators, and lack of consensus on how energy poverty should be conceptualised and measured. Statistical indicators of energy poverty are an important and necessary part of the research and policy landscape...
August 2017: Indoor + Built Environment: the Journal of the International Society of the Built Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910813/the-neighborhood-built-environment-and-cognitive-function-of-older-persons-results-from-the-singapore-longitudinal-ageing-study
#15
Tze Pin Ng, Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Faysal Kabir Shuvo, Jia Yen Eng, Keng Bee Yap, Li Min Hee, Siew Pang Chan, Samuel Scherer
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association of subjective (perceived) and objective (geographical information system [GIS]-based) measures of the neighborhood built environment (BE) attributes with cognitive function among older persons, and the mediating effect of transportation physical activity (TPA) and leisure time (physical, social and productive) activities (LTA). METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 402 residents aged 55 years and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866989/the-mismatch-between-observational-measures-and-residents-perspectives-on-the-retail-food-environment-a-mixed-methods-approach-in-the-heart-healthy-hoods-study
#16
Julia Díez, Roberto Valiente, Carmen Ramos, Reyes García, Joel Gittelsohn, Manuel Franco
OBJECTIVE: To gain a deeper understanding of the retail food environment by investigating similarities and differences between objective measures and residents' perspectives. DESIGN: The study incorporated Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measures, in-store surveys and the results from a larger photovoice project. We combined these data using a convergent parallel mixed-methods approach. SETTING: We conducted this study in a low-income neighbourhood in Madrid (Spain) in 2016...
September 4, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863871/neighborhood-built-environment-and-socio-economic-status-in-relation-to-multiple-health-outcomes-in-adolescents
#17
Javier Molina-García, Ana Queralt, Marc A Adams, Terry L Conway, James F Sallis
The study aim was to examine associations of neighborhood built environment and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES) with multiple physical activity (PA) behaviors, sedentary time, and obesity indicators among adolescents. Cross-sectional study of 325 adolescents aged 14-18years recruited from schools in Valencia, Spain. Participants' home neighborhoods were classified according to walkability and SES levels. Walkability was defined as an index of three built environment characteristics (i.e., residential density, land use mix, and street connectivity) based on geographic information system data...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845063/spread-of-water-borne-pollutants-at-traffic-accidents-on-roads
#18
Bo Olofsson, Hedi Rasul, Annika Lundmark
Traffic accidents sometimes lead to the spread of hazardous compounds to the environment. Accidental spills of hazardous compounds on roads in the vicinity of vulnerable objects such as water supplies pose a serious threat to water quality and have to be assessed. This study compared three different assessment methods, electrical resistivity measurements, analytical flow calculations, and 1D and 2D dynamic flow modeling, to describe rapid transport processes in the road shoulder and roadside verge after a major spill...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832552/does-physical-activity-mediate-the-associations-between-local-area-descriptive-norms-built-environment-walkability-and-glycosylated-hemoglobin
#19
Suzanne J Carroll, Theo Niyonsenga, Neil T Coffee, Anne W Taylor, Mark Daniel
Associations between local-area residential features and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) may be mediated by individual-level health behaviors. Such indirect effects have rarely been tested. This study assessed whether individual-level self-reported physical activity mediated the influence of local-area descriptive norms and objectively expressed walkability on 10-year change in HbA1c. HbA1c was assessed three times for adults in a 10-year population-based biomedical cohort (n = 4056). Local-area norms specific to each participant were calculated, aggregating responses from a separate statewide surveillance survey for 1600 m road-network buffers centered on participant addresses (local prevalence of overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m²) and physical inactivity (<150 min/week))...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725452/mapmysmoke-feasibility-of-a-new-quit-cigarette-smoking-mobile-phone-application-using-integrated-geo-positioning-technology-and-motivational-messaging-within-a-primary-care-setting
#20
Robert S Schick, Thomas W Kelsey, John Marston, Kay Samson, Gerald W Humphris
BACKGROUND: Approximately 11,000 people die in Scotland each year as a result of smoking-related causes. Quitting smoking is relatively easy; maintaining a quit attempt is a very difficult task with success rates for unaided quit attempts stubbornly remaining in the single digits. Pharmaceutical treatment can improve these rates by lowering the overall reward factor of nicotine. However, these and related nicotine replacement therapies do not operate on, or address, the spatial and contextual aspects of smoking behaviour...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
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