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objective assessment built environment

Yi Lu, Yang Xiao, Yu Ye
Many cities in China have undergone rapid urbanization and are experiencing a decline in residents' physical activity levels. Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings on the association between 3D's (density, diversity, design) and walking behavior, and few studies have been conducted in China. The aim of this study was to identify the association between objectively measured 3D's and different domains of walking (transport vs. leisure) in Hong Kong, China. A survey was conducted in 2014 to collect walking data and relevant individual data from 1078 participants aged 18-65...
August 26, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Dayna S Alexander, Moya L Alfonso, Chunhua Cao
Currently, public health practitioners are analyzing the role that caregivers play in childhood obesity efforts. Assessing African American caregiver's perceptions of childhood obesity in rural communities is an important prevention effort. This article's objective is to describe the development and psychometric testing of a survey tool to assess childhood obesity perceptions among African American caregivers in a rural setting, which can be used for obesity prevention program development or evaluation. The Childhood Obesity Perceptions (COP) survey was developed to reflect the multidimensional nature of childhood obesity including risk factors, health complications, weight status, built environment, and obesity prevention strategies...
December 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Lena Fleig, Maureen C Ashe, Christine Voss, Suzanne Therrien, Joanie Sims-Gould, Heather A McKay, Meghan Winters
Objective: Neighborhood environments can support or hinder physical activity especially as health declines with age. This study puts psychological theories of health behavior change in context with built environment research to better understand the interplay of environmental and psychosocial characteristics impacting older adults' sedentary behavior and physical activity. Method: The Active Streets, Active People study recruited 193 older adults living in a highly walkable neighborhood in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada...
August 8, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
L Engel, A M Chudyk, M C Ashe, H A McKay, D G T Whitehurst, S Bryan
The built environment and social cohesion are increasingly recognized as being associated with older adults' quality of life (QoL). However, limited research in this area still exists and the relationship has remained unexplored in the area of Metro Vancouver, Canada. This study examined the association between the built environment and social cohesion with QoL of 160 community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) on low income from Metro Vancouver. Cross-sectional data acquired from the Walk the Talk (WTT) study were used...
September 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Alejandra Jáuregui, Deborah Salvo, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Bernardo Hernández, Juan A Rivera-Dommarco, Michael Pratt
INTRODUCTION: Environmental supports for physical activity may help residents to be physically active. However, such supports might not help if residents' perceptions of the built environment do not correspond with objective measures. We assessed the associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and examined whether certain variables modified this relationship. METHODS: We conducted a population-based (n = 645) study in 2011 that used objective (based on geographic information systems) and perceived (by questionnaire) measures of the following features of the built environment: residential density, mixed-land use, intersection density, and proximity to parks and transit stops...
2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Andrey Chetverikov, Gianluca Campana, Árni Kristjánsson
Perception allows us to extract information about regularities in the environment. Observers can quickly determine summary statistics of a group of objects and detect outliers. The existing body of research has, however, not revealed how such ensemble representations develop over time. Moreover, the correspondence between the physical distribution of features in the external world and their potential internal representation as a probability density function (PDF) by the visual system is still unknown. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that such internal PDFs are built during visual search and show how they can be assessed with repetition and role-reversal effects...
August 2016: Cognition
Calvin P Tribby, Harvey J Miller, Barbara B Brown, Carol M Werner, Ken R Smith
There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups)...
2016: Journal of Transport and Land Use
Alejandra Jáuregui, Michael Pratt, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Bernardo Hernández, Juan A Rivera, Deborah Salvo
INTRODUCTION: There is compelling evidence linking physical activity with environmental characteristics in high-income countries, but evidence among low- and middle-income countries is scarce and results are inconsistent. This study assessed associations between perceived measures of the built environment and objectively measured physical activity among Mexican adults. METHODS: A population-based study of adults aged 20-65 years was conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico, in 2011 (N=629)...
August 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Fernando Pérez-Escamirosa, Alberto Chousleb-Kalach, Maria Del Carmen Hernández-Baro, Juan Alberto Sánchez-Margallo, Daniel Lorias-Espinoza, Arturo Minor-Martínez
PURPOSE: This study was aimed to establish the construct validity of a video-tracking system based on orthogonal cameras approach for assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills in training environments. METHODS: The camera-tracking system consists of two webcams placed in orthogonal configuration at a distance of 13.5 cm. The orthogonal cameras employ a color segmentation algorithm to register the 3D motions of the laparoscopic instruments using colored tapes placed on the distal end...
April 2, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Samuel D Towne, Jaewoong Won, Sungmin Lee, Marcia G Ory, Samuel N Forjuoh, Suojin Wang, Chanam Lee
We aimed to determine the relationship between neighborhood characteristics (walkability, cohesion/safety) and recommended activity levels among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Subjective and objective data on 394 individuals aged ≥50 years were used to assess the likelihood of walking ≥150 min/week. Environmental factors associated with a greater likelihood of any walking ≥150 min/week included living in a neighborhood with high perception of cohesion/safety versus low, living in walkable areas versus car-dependent, and living in an area with a low-moderate median income versus the lowest...
October 2016: Journal of Community Health
C Roda, H Charreire, T Feuillet, J D Mackenbach, S Compernolle, K Glonti, M Ben Rebah, H Bárdos, H Rutter, M McKee, I De Bourdeaudhuij, J Brug, J Lakerveld, J-M Oppert
Findings from research on the association between the built environment and obesity remain equivocal but may be partly explained by differences in approaches used to characterize the built environment. Findings obtained using subjective measures may differ substantially from those measured objectively. We investigated the agreement between perceived and objectively measured obesogenic environmental features to assess (1) the extent of agreement between individual perceptions and observable characteristics of the environment and (2) the agreement between aggregated perceptions and observable characteristics, and whether this varied by type of characteristic, region or neighbourhood...
January 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová, Helena Klimusová, Dalibor Hruška, Alice Prokopová, Aleš Burjanek, Krauff Rainer Schwanhaeuser Wulff
BACKGROUND: Research on physical activity in relation to obesity gradually becomes more focused on environmental determinants, which can potentially influence people's health choices. The present article addresses the topic of physical activity from a wider sociological perspective. Our pilot study was designed with the objective of testing the applicability of a method included in the EC 6th Framework Programme EURO-PREVOB, in the Czech context. The method examines specific determinants of the built environment that can have an impact on physical activity at the population level...
November 2015: Central European Journal of Public Health
Jordan A Carlson, Rosemay A Remigio-Baker, Cheryl A M Anderson, Marc A Adams, Gregory J Norman, Jacqueline Kerr, Michael H Criqui, Matthew Allison
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether walking mediates neighborhood built environment associations with weight status in middle- and older-aged women. METHODS: Participants (N=5085; mean age=64±7.7; 75.4% White non-Hispanic) were from the Women's Health Initiative San Diego cohort baseline visits. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured objectively. Walking was assessed via survey. The geographic information system (GIS)-based home neighborhood activity supportiveness index included residential density, street connectivity, land use mix, and number of parks...
March 2016: Health & Place
Christine A Mitchell, Andrew F Clark, Jason A Gilliland
Neighbourhoods can facilitate or constrain moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children by providing or restricting opportunities for MVPA. However, there is no consensus on how to define a child's neighbourhood. This study examines the influence of the neighbourhood built environment on objectively measured MVPA among 435 children (aged 9-14 years) in London (ON, Canada). As there is no consensus on how to delineate a child's neighbourhood, a geographic information system was used to generate measures of the neighbourhood built environment at two buffer sizes (500 m and 800 m) around each child's home...
January 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jana A Hirsch, Meghan Winters, Maureen C Ashe, Philippa Clarke, Heather McKay
Identifying the relevant geography is an ongoing obstacle to effectively evaluate the influence of neighborhood built environment on physical activity. We characterized density and diversity of destinations that 77 older adults experienced within individually representative GPS activity spaces and traditional residential buffers and assessed their associations with accelerometry-measured physical activity. Traditional residential buffers had lower destination density and diversity than activity spaces. Activity spaces based only on pedestrian and bicycling trips had higher destination densities than all-mode activity spaces...
January 1, 2016: Environment and Behavior
Gavin R McCormack, Cynthia Mardinger
OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence for an association between the built environment and physical activity, less evidence exists regarding relations between the built environment and sedentary behaviour. This study investigated the extent to which objectively assessed and self-reported neighbourhood walkability, in addition to individual-level characteristics, were associated with leisure-based screen time in adults. We hypothesised that leisure-based screen time would be lower among adults residing in objectively assessed and self-reported 'high walkable' versus 'low walkable' neighbourhoods...
November 25, 2015: BMJ Open
Balázs Zábori, Attila Hirn, Sándor Deme, István Apáthy, Antal Csőke, Tamás Pázmándi, Péter Szántó
Several measurements have been performed on the cosmic radiation field from the surface of the Earth up to the maximum altitudes of research aeroplanes. However, there is only limited information about that between 15 and 30 km altitudes. In order to study the radiation environment in the stratosphere, an experiment was built by students from Hungarian universities that flew on board the BEXUS (Balloon Experiments for University Students) stratospheric balloon in Northern Sweden, from the ESRANGE Space Center...
October 25, 2015: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Faysal Kabir Shuvo, Jia Yen Eng, Keng Bee Yap, Samuel Scherer, Li Min Hee, Siew Pang Chan, Tze Pin Ng
BACKGROUND: This study examined the associations of subjective and objective measures of the neighbourhood environment with the transportation physical activity of community-dwelling older persons in Singapore. METHOD: A modified version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) measures of the built environment characteristics were related to the frequency of walking for transportation purpose in a study sample of older persons living in high-density apartment blocks within a public housing estate in Singapore...
2015: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Tarun R Katapally, Nazeem Muhajarine
Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools...
September 7, 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
James F Sallis, Kelli L Cain, Terry L Conway, Kavita A Gavand, Rachel A Millstein, Carrie M Geremia, Lawrence D Frank, Brian E Saelens, Karen Glanz, Abby C King
INTRODUCTION: Macro level built environment factors (eg, street connectivity, walkability) are correlated with physical activity. Less studied but more modifiable microscale elements of the environment (eg, crosswalks) may also affect physical activity, but short audit measures of microscale elements are needed to promote wider use. This study evaluated the relation of a 15-item neighborhood environment audit tool with a full version of the tool to assess neighborhood design on physical activity in 4 age groups...
2015: Preventing Chronic Disease
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