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objective assessment built environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196848/gps-based-exposure-to-greenness-and-walkability-and-accelerometry-based-physical-activity
#1
Peter James, Jaime E Hart, J Aaron Hipp, Jonathan Mitchell, Jacqueline Kerr, Philip M Hurvitz, Karen Glanz, Francine Laden
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a risk factor for cancer that may be influenced by environmental factors. Indeed, dense and well-connected built environments and environments with natural vegetation may create opportunities for higher routine physical activity. However, studies have focused primarily on residential environments to define exposure and self-reported methods to estimate physical activity. The current study explores the momentary association between minute-level global positioning systems (GPS)-based greenness exposure and time-matched objectively measured physical activity...
February 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166790/the-neighbourhood-physical-environment-and-active-travel-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Ester Cerin, Andrea Nathan, Jelle van Cauwenberg, David W Barnett, Anthony Barnett
BACKGROUND: Perceived and objectively-assessed aspects of the neighbourhood physical environment have been postulated to be key contributors to regular engagement in active travel (AT) in older adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on neighbourhood physical environmental correlates of AT in older adults and applied a novel meta-analytic approach to statistically quantify the strength of evidence for environment-AT associations. METHODS: Forty two quantitative studies that estimated associations of aspects of the neighbourhood built environment with AT in older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) and met selection criteria were reviewed and meta-analysed...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129175/designing-a-vibrotactile-head-mounted-display
#3
Victor de Jesus Oliveira, Luca Brayda, Luciana Nedel, Anderson Maciel
Due to the perceptual characteristics of the head, vibrotactile Head-mounted Displays are built with low actuator density. Therefore, vibrotactile guidance is mostly assessed by pointing towards objects in the azimuthal plane. When it comes to multisensory interaction in 3D environments, it is also important to convey information about objects in the elevation plane. In this paper, we design and assess a haptic guidance technique for 3D environments. First, we explore the modulation of vibration frequency to indicate the position of objects in the elevation plane...
January 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116413/using-actigraphy-and-mhealth-systems-for-an-objective-analysis-of%C3%A2-sleep-quality-on-systemic-lupus-erythematous-patients
#4
Sara Balderas-Díaz, M Pilar Martínez, Gabriel Guerrero-Contreras, Elena Miró, Kawtar Benghazi, Ana I Sánchez, José Luis Garrido, Germán Prados
INTRODUCTION: Although sleep alterations can be an important factor contributing to the clinical state of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, there are no studies to adequately assess sleep quality in this type of disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to analyse the sleep quality of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) patients based on more objective information provided by actigraphy and mobile systems. The idea is to carry out a comprehensive study by analysing how environmental conditions and factors can affect sleep quality...
January 24, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114945/international-comparison-of-observation-specific-spatial-buffers-maximizing-the-ability-to-estimate-physical-activity
#5
Lawrence D Frank, Eric H Fox, Jared M Ulmer, James E Chapman, Suzanne E Kershaw, James F Sallis, Terry L Conway, Ester Cerin, Kelli L Cain, Marc A Adams, Graham R Smith, Erica Hinckson, Suzanne Mavoa, Lars B Christiansen, Adriano Akira F Hino, Adalberto A S Lopes, Jasper Schipperijn
BACKGROUND: Advancements in geographic information systems over the past two decades have increased the specificity by which an individual's neighborhood environment may be spatially defined for physical activity and health research. This study investigated how different types of street network buffering methods compared in measuring a set of commonly used built environment measures (BEMs) and tested their performance on associations with physical activity outcomes. METHODS: An internationally-developed set of objective BEMs using three different spatial buffering techniques were used to evaluate the relative differences in resulting explanatory power on self-reported physical activity outcomes...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111613/international-comparisons-of-the-associations-between-objective-measures-of-the-built-environment-and-transport-related-walking-and-cycling-ipen-adult-study
#6
Lars B Christiansen, Ester Cerin, Hannah Badland, Jacqueline Kerr, Rachel Davey, Jens Troelsen, Delfien van Dyck, Josef Mitáš, Grant Schofield, Takemi Sugiyama, Deborah Salvo, Olga L Sarmiento, Rodrigo Reis, Marc Adams, Larry Frank, James F Sallis
INTRODUCTION: Mounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling. METHODS: This cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status...
December 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024861/use-of-global-positioning-system-for-physical-activity-research-in-youth-espa%C3%A3-os-adolescentes-brazil
#7
Claudia Oliveira Alberico, Jasper Schipperijn, Rodrigo S Reis
The built environment is an important factor associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) during adolescence. This study presents the methods for objective assessment of context-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, as well as describes results from the first project using such methodology in adolescents from a developing country. An initial sample of 381 adolescents was recruited from 32 census tracts in Curitiba, Brazil (2013); 80 had their homes geocoded and wore accelerometer and GPS devices for seven days...
December 23, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932053/green-and-lean-is-neighborhood-park-and-playground-availability-associated-with-youth-obesity-variations-by-gender-socioeconomic-status-and-race-ethnicity
#8
S Morgan Hughey, Andrew T Kaczynski, Stephanie Child, Justin B Moore, Dwayne Porter, James Hibbert
Parks and park features are important for promoting physical activity and healthy weight, especially for low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth who have disproportionately high obesity rates. This study 1) examined associations between neighborhood park and playground availability and youth obesity, and 2) assessed whether these associations were moderated by youth race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In 2013, objectively measured height and weight were collected for all 3rd-5th grade youth (n=13...
December 6, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922592/distributed-solar-photovoltaic-array-location-and-extent-dataset-for-remote-sensing-object-identification
#9
Kyle Bradbury, Raghav Saboo, Timothy L Johnson, Jordan M Malof, Arjun Devarajan, Wuming Zhang, Leslie M Collins, Richard G Newell
Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858270/heavy-metals-in-composts-of-china-historical-changes-regional-variation-and-potential-impact-on-soil-quality
#10
Fenghua Ding, Zhenli He, Shuxin Liu, Sihai Zhang, Fengliang Zhao, Qinfen Li, Peter J Stoffella
Composts are considered one of major sources that contribute heavy metals to the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate historical changes and spatial variation of metal concentrations in Chinese composts by analysing representative compost samples and published data from 2002 to 2013. Mean concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu) in the composts were 2.42, 35.52, 32.38, 16.33, 0.32, 258.1, 9.71, and 72...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843759/exploring-associations-between-perceived-home-and-work-neighborhood-environments-diet-behaviors-and-obesity-results-from-a-survey-of-employed-adults-in-missouri
#11
Rachel Tabak, J Aaron Hipp, Elizabeth A Dodson, Lin Yang, Deepti Adlakha, Ross C Brownson
Dietary behaviors are associated with obesity, and may be influenced by the environment. The objective of the current work was to investigate whether perceptions of built environment factors related to eating in the residential neighborhood will have different, independent associations with BMI and dietary behaviors than perceived built environment factors in the worksite neighborhood. In 2012-2013, a cross-sectional telephone-survey of Missouri adults (n = 2015) assessed perceptions of home and workplace built environment factors related to eating, dietary behaviors, and height and weight...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818446/urban-latino-families-food-built-environment-and-young-children-s-produce-consumption
#12
Ne P Mathieu, Evan C Sommer, Stephanie J Mitchell, Shari L Barkin
This study explored the association between objective and subjective ratings of the food environment and child produce consumption for Latino preschoolers at-risk for obesity. Parental surveys (N = 115) assessed perceptions of food availability, affordability, and acceptability. Comparable factors were objectively rated by a trained observer, using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores (NEMS-S), in commonly frequented grocery stores cited by participants. There were no significant correlations between objective and subjective measures of food availability, affordability, and acceptability...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793838/cohort-profile-examining-neighbourhood-activities-in-built-living-environments-in-london-the-enable-london-olympic-park-cohort
#13
Bina Ram, Claire M Nightingale, Mohammed T Hudda, Venediktos V Kapetanakis, Anne Ellaway, Ashley R Cooper, Angie Page, Daniel Lewis, Steven Cummins, Billie Giles-Corti, Peter H Whincup, Derek G Cook, Alicja R Rudnicka, Christopher G Owen
PURPOSE: The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. PARTICIPANTS: Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes)...
October 28, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793098/-proactive-use-of-cue-context-congruence-for-building-reinforcement-learning-s-reward-function
#14
Judit Zsuga, Klara Biro, Gabor Tajti, Magdolna Emma Szilasi, Csaba Papp, Bela Juhasz, Rudolf Gesztelyi
BACKGROUND: Reinforcement learning is a fundamental form of learning that may be formalized using the Bellman equation. Accordingly an agent determines the state value as the sum of immediate reward and of the discounted value of future states. Thus the value of state is determined by agent related attributes (action set, policy, discount factor) and the agent's knowledge of the environment embodied by the reward function and hidden environmental factors given by the transition probability...
October 28, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575316/urban-density-diversity-and-design-is-more-always-better-for-walking-a-study-from-hong-kong
#15
Yi Lu, Yang Xiao, Yu Ye
Many cities in China have undergone rapid urbanization and are experiencing a decline in residents' physical activity levels. Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings on the association between 3D's (density, diversity, design) and walking behavior, and few studies have been conducted in China. The aim of this study was to identify the association between objectively measured 3D's and different domains of walking (transport vs. leisure) in Hong Kong, China. A survey was conducted in 2014 to collect walking data and relevant individual data from 1078 participants aged 18-65...
August 26, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521872/development-and-psychometric-testing-of-the-childhood-obesity-perceptions-cop-survey-among-african-american-caregivers-a-tool-for-obesity-prevention-program-planning
#16
Dayna S Alexander, Moya L Alfonso, Chunhua Cao
Currently, public health practitioners are analyzing the role that caregivers play in childhood obesity efforts. Assessing African American caregiver's perceptions of childhood obesity in rural communities is an important prevention effort. This article's objective is to describe the development and psychometric testing of a survey tool to assess childhood obesity perceptions among African American caregivers in a rural setting, which can be used for obesity prevention program development or evaluation. The Childhood Obesity Perceptions (COP) survey was developed to reflect the multidimensional nature of childhood obesity including risk factors, health complications, weight status, built environment, and obesity prevention strategies...
December 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505192/environmental-and-psychosocial-correlates-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-among-older-adults
#17
Lena Fleig, Maureen C Ashe, Christine Voss, Suzanne Therrien, Joanie Sims-Gould, Heather A McKay, Meghan Winters
OBJECTIVE: Neighborhood environments can support or hinder physical activity especially as health declines with age. This study puts psychological theories of health behavior change in context with built environment research to better understand the interplay of environmental and psychosocial characteristics impacting older adults' sedentary behavior and physical activity. METHOD: The Active Streets, Active People study recruited 193 older adults living in a highly walkable neighborhood in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada...
December 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439120/older-adults-quality-of-life-exploring-the-role-of-the-built-environment-and-social-cohesion-in-community-dwelling-seniors-on-low-income
#18
L Engel, A M Chudyk, M C Ashe, H A McKay, D G T Whitehurst, S Bryan
The built environment and social cohesion are increasingly recognized as being associated with older adults' quality of life (QoL). However, limited research in this area still exists and the relationship has remained unexplored in the area of Metro Vancouver, Canada. This study examined the association between the built environment and social cohesion with QoL of 160 community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) on low income from Metro Vancouver. Cross-sectional data acquired from the Walk the Talk (WTT) study were used...
September 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281391/perceived-and-objective-measures-of-neighborhood-environment-for-physical-activity-among-mexican-adults-2011
#19
Alejandra Jáuregui, Deborah Salvo, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Bernardo Hernández, Juan A Rivera-Dommarco, Michael Pratt
INTRODUCTION: Environmental supports for physical activity may help residents to be physically active. However, such supports might not help if residents' perceptions of the built environment do not correspond with objective measures. We assessed the associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and examined whether certain variables modified this relationship. METHODS: We conducted a population-based (n = 645) study in 2011 that used objective (based on geographic information systems) and perceived (by questionnaire) measures of the following features of the built environment: residential density, mixed-land use, intersection density, and proximity to parks and transit stops...
2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232163/building-ensemble-representations-how-the-shape-of-preceding-distractor-distributions-affects-visual-search
#20
Andrey Chetverikov, Gianluca Campana, Árni Kristjánsson
Perception allows us to extract information about regularities in the environment. Observers can quickly determine summary statistics of a group of objects and detect outliers. The existing body of research has, however, not revealed how such ensemble representations develop over time. Moreover, the correspondence between the physical distribution of features in the external world and their potential internal representation as a probability density function (PDF) by the visual system is still unknown. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that such internal PDFs are built during visual search and show how they can be assessed with repetition and role-reversal effects...
August 2016: Cognition
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