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Jillian Lye, Stephanie Parkinson, Nicola Diamond, Jenny Downs, Susan Morris
The strategy used to generate power for forward propulsion in walking and running has recently been highlighted as a marker of gait maturation and elastic energy recycling. This study investigated ankle and hip power generation as a propulsion strategy (PS) during the late stance/early swing phases of walking and running in typically developing (TD) children (15: six to nine years; 17: nine to 13years) using three-dimensional gait analysis. Peak ankle power generation at push-off (peakA2), peak hip power generation in early swing (peakH3) and propulsion strategy (PS) [peakA2/(peakA2+peakH3)] were calculated to provide the relative contribution of ankle power to total propulsion...
October 17, 2016: Human Movement Science
Yuma Hakoda, Masatoshi Aoyagi, Ken-Ichi Irisawa, Shin-Ichiro Kato, Yosuke Nakamura, Minoru Yamaji
Phenanthrenes substituted with trimethylsilylethynyl and phenylethynyl groups were photochemically prepared, and their photophysical properties were systematically investigated based on measurements of fluorescence quantum yields, lifetimes, and transient absorption. Introducing ethynyl groups into the phenanthrene skeleton caused an increase in the fluorescence quantum yields compared to that of phenanthrene. The quantum yields and rates of fluorescence were dependent on the substituting position(s) and the terminating group for the C-C triple bond...
October 20, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Xiang Li, Timothy R Dallmann, Andrew A May, Daniel S Tkacik, Andrew T Lambe, John T Jayne, Philip L Croteau, Albert A Presto
We measured the gas-particle partitioning of vehicle emitted primary organic aerosol (POA) in a traffic tunnel with three independent methods: artifact corrected bare-quartz filters, thermodenuder (TD) measurements, and thermal-desorption gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Results from all methods consistently show that vehicle emitted POA measured in the traffic tunnel is semivolatile under a wide range of fleet compositions and ambient conditions. We compared the gas-particle partitioning of POA measured in both tunnel and dynamometer studies and found that volatility distributions measured in the traffic tunnel are similar to volatility distributions measured in the dynamometer studies, and predict similar gas-particle partitioning in the TD...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
John Cairney, Scott Veldhuizen, Sara King-Dowling, Brent E Faught, John Hay
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has shown children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have lower cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) than typically developing (TD) children. This has been hypothesized to be due to an activity deficit, whereby poor motor functioning discourages children from participating in physical activities, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In this study, we use longitudinal data to measure the extent to which physical activity explains differences in CRF between children with and without motor coordination deficits...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Carolina Souza Neves da Costa, Sandra L Saavedra, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Marjorie H Woollacott
BACKGROUND: External support has been viewed as an important biomechanical constraint for children with deficits in postural control. Nonlinear analysis of head stability is necessary to confirm benefits of interaction between external trunk support and level of trunk control. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of biomechanical constraints (trunk support) on neural control of head stability during development of trunk control. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental repeated measure study...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Rajratna P Tayade, Nagaiyan Sekar
Three new Y-shaped styryl dyes were designed and synthesized from thiazole carbaldehyde with different active methylene compounds as acceptor moieties. All the dyes were characterized by IR, (1)HNMR, MS/LCMS/HRMS. Spectroscopic properties and non-linear optical properties styryl derivatives were analyzed and the effect of change in solvent polarity on their absorption and emissive properties has been investigated. The dye with (1-phenylethylidene) propanedinitrile unit shows red shift absorption/emission profile among all the dyes...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
Onder Ozturk, Burge Kabukcu Basay, Ahmet Buber, Omer Basay, Huseyin Alacam, Ali Bacanlı, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Hasan Herken, Eyup Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects different areas of life. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ADHD and to assess the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on the neurocognitive profile and clinical symptomatology in ADHD. METHODS: Two hundred one ADHD cases and 99 typically developing subjects (TD) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were involved in the study...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Zhen Wang, Jun-Qiang Chen, Jin-Lu Liu, Lei Tian
Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Exosome is an important part of TME. Exosomes are small vesicles formed in vesicular bodies with a diameter of 30-100 nm and a classic "cup" or "dish" morphology. They can contain microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments and proteins, which are shuttled from a donor cell to recipient cells. Exosomes secreted from tumor cells are called tumor-derived (TD) exosomes. There is emerging evidence that TD exosomes can construct a fertile environment to support tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and premetastatic niche preparation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Kusum Mehla, Jayashree Ramana
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is one of the most important global health issues among international travelers, especially those traveling to developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most frequently isolated pathogen causing TD. Although TD is self-limiting, it is also severely incapacitating. Ciprofloxacin is one of the standard quinolone antibiotics used in patients with TD. However, the alarming levels of antibiotic resistance have necessitated the urgent need to identify new drugs...
October 18, 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Anat Levin, Anat Scher
INTRODUCTION: Disrupted sleep is common among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). AIMS: Our goal was to (1) examine the contribution of sleep problems to parenting stress in children with ASD as compared to typically developing (TD) and (2) to address maternal sleep-related cognitions and behaviors in both groups. METHODS: Mothers of 34 ASD (mean age = 39.29 months, SD = 5.22) and 31 TD children (mean age = 36.23 months, SD = 5.75) completed questionnaires measuring maternal stress, sleep-related cognitions and settling to sleep interactions, and the child's sleep problems; mothers in the ASD group completed a symptom severity questionnaire...
October 17, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Rebecca Re, Edoardo Martinenghi, Alberto Dalla Mora, Davide Contini, Antonio Pifferi, Alessandro Torricelli
We report the development of a compact probe for time-domain (TD) functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based on a fast silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) that can be put directly in contact with the sample without the need of optical fibers for light collection. We directly integrated an avalanche signal amplification stage close to the SiPM, thus reducing the size of the detection channel and optimizing the signal immunity to electromagnetic interferences. The whole detection electronics was placed in a plastic screw holder compatible with the electroencephalography standard cap for measurement on brain or with custom probe holders...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
Aníbal M Reyes, Diego S Vazquez, Ari Zeida, Martín Hugo, M Dolores Piñeyro, María Inés De Armas, Darío Estrin, Rafael Radi, Javier Santos, Madia Trujillo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is the intracellular bacterium responsible for tuberculosis disease (TD). Inside the phagosomes of activated macrophages, M. tuberculosis is exposed to cytotoxic hydroperoxides such as hydrogen peroxide, fatty acid hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite. Thus, the characterization of the bacterial antioxidant systems could facilitate novel drug developments. In this work, we characterized the product of the gene Rv1608c from M. tuberculosis, which according to sequence homology had been annotated as a putative peroxiredoxin of the peroxiredoxin Q subfamily (PrxQ B from M...
October 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Julie Case, Maria I Grigos
Purpose: Articulatory control and speech production accuracy were examined in children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and typically developing (TD) controls within a novel word-learning task to better understand the influence of planning and programming deficits in the production of unfamiliar words. Method: Participants included 16 children between the ages of 5 and 6 years (8 CAS, 8 TD). Short- and long-term changes in lip and jaw movement, consonant and vowel accuracy, and token-to-token consistency were measured for 2 novel words that differed in articulatory complexity...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Steven J Fleck, Fábio L C Pina, Matheus A Nascimento, Edilson S Cyrino
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) performed in a pyramid (PR) versus a traditional (TD) system on muscular strength, muscle mass, and hormonal responses in older women. Twenty-five older women (67.6 ± 5.1 years, 65.9 ± 11.1 kg, 154.7 ± 5.8 cm, and 27.5 ± 4.5 kg m) performed both a TD and PR system RT program in a balanced crossover design. The TD program consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 RM with a constant load for the 3 sets, whereas the PR system consisted of 3 sets of 12/10/8 RM with incrementally higher loads for each set...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Simon Kahmann, Daniele Fazzi, Gebhard Josef Matt, Walter Thiel, Maria Antonietta Loi, Christoph J Brabec
We investigate the photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectra of the prototypical donor-acceptor polymers C/Si-PCPDTBT over a spectral range from 0.07 to 1.5 eV. Comparison between (TD)DFT simulations of the electronic and vibrational transitions of singlet- and triplet-excitons as well as polarons and bipolarons with the experimental results prove the observed features to be due to positive polarons delocalized on the polymer chains. We find the more crystalline Si-bridged variant to give rise to a red-shift in the transition energies, especially in the mid infrared (MIR) spectral range, and furthermore observe the pristine polymers' responses to depend on the excitation energy...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Pushpendra Kumar, Suman Kalyan Pal
The photophysical properties of a push-pull dye and the dynamics of electron transfer across a dye and ZnO quantum dot (QD) interface have been studied using a combination of steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies. Spectroscopic measurements, along with quantum chemical calculations, provide evidence for the photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in a donor-π-acceptor dye. Wavelength dependent fluorescence decay of the dye infers the solvent relaxation of the ICT state...
October 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Kate Wilmut, Wenchong Du, Anna L Barnett
Passing through a narrow gap/aperture involves a perceptual judgement regarding the size of the gap and an action to pass through. Children with DCD are known to have difficulties with perceptual judgements in near space but whether this extends to far space is unknown. Furthermore, in a recent study it was found that adults with DCD do not scale movements when walking through an aperture in the same way as their peers. The current study, therefore, considered perceptual judgements and motor behaviour of children with DCD while looking at or walking through apertures...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Leandro P Ravaro, Tiago R Almeida, Rodrigo Q Albuquerque, Andrea S S de Camargo
The polynuclear complex Cu4I4py4 has been largely studied in solution and in the powder form due to its interesting luminescent properties, which are largely dependent on temperature and pressure. In this work, we present the synthesis of the complex and its wet impregnation in a mesoporous silica host obtained by sol-gel methodology. For optimized loadings, the well-dispersed guest molecules exhibit strong interaction with molecular oxygen, resulting in a significant quenching of the luminescence. The process is highly reversible with a Stern-Volmer constant of Ksv = 33...
October 17, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Houmam Belaidi, Salah Belaidi, Claudine Katan, Camille Latouche, Abdou Boucekkine
The electronic and optical properties of six iridium imidazolylidene complexes (1a, 1b, 2, 2b, 3, 3b) that are strong candidates for use in OLED systems were investigated theoretically. Computations using DFT and TD-DFT methods were performed to explain the observed optical properties of these complexes. Observed absorption bands were assigned and the lowest triplet excited states were computed. Whereas complexes 1a and 1b are nonemissive in solution, the simulated phosphorescence spectra of complexes 2, 2b, 3, and 3b were in good agreement with the observed spectra when the vibrational contributions to the electronic transitions were taken into account...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
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