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Kristy Zera, Jason Zastre
Thiamine is an essential enzyme cofactor required for proper metabolic function and maintenance of metabolism and energy production in the brain. In developed countries, thiamine deficiency (TD) is most often manifested following chronic alcohol consumption leading to impaired mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, inflammation and excitotoxicity. These biochemical lesions result in apoptotic cell death in both neurons and astrocytes. Comparable histological injuries in patients with hypoxia/ischemia and TD have been described in the thalamus and mammillary bodies, suggesting a congruency between the cellular responses to these stresses...
2017: PloS One
Stefano Omboni, Kazuomi Kario, George Bakris, Gianfranco Parati
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of olmesartan alone or combined with one to three antihypertensive drugs on 24-h blood pressure variability (BPV) and on distribution of BP reduction in a pooled individual data analysis of 10 double-blind, randomized, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) studies. METHODS: ABPMs were performed before and after 6-12 weeks of treatment with placebo (n = 119), active control monotherapy [n = 1195, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DCCBs)], or DCCBs), olmesartan monotherapy (n = 1410), active control dual combination [n = 79, DCCB + thiazide diuretic (TD)], olmesartan dual combination (n = 637, DCCB or TD), and triple combination therapy (n = 102, DCCB+TD)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Mingsheng Xie, Hui Zhao, Qisong Liu, Yujia Zhu, Feng Yin, Yu-Jie Liang, Yanhong Jiang, Dong-Yuan Wang, Kuan Hu, Xuan Qin, Zi-Chen Wang, Yujie Wu, Naihan Xu, Xi-Yang Ye, Tao Wang, Zigang Li
Direct inhibition of the protein-protein interaction of ERα and its endogenous coactivators with a cell permeable stabilized peptide may offer a novel, promising strategy for combating ERα positive breast cancers. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of a helical peptide stabilized by a N-terminal unnatural cross-linked aspartic acid (TD) in complex with the ERα ligand binding domain(LBD). We designed a series of peptides and peptide 6 that showed direct and high-affinity binding to ERα with selective anti-proliferative activity in ERα positive breast cancer cells...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Chih-Hung Chou, Basker Rajagopal, Chien-Fu Liang, Kuan-Lin Chen, Dun-Yuan Jin, Hsing-Yin Chen, Hsiu-Chung Tu, Yo-Ying Shen, Po-Chiao Lin
In this study, a series of variously substituted 2,3-dihydroquinolin-4-imines (DQIs) were synthesized from N-substituted propargylanilines by copper(I)-catalyzed annulation. The approach adopted in this study under mild, effective conditions exhibited broad substrate tolerance, particularly for functional groups substituted on anilines. Most of the DQI derivatives synthesized under optimal conditions were obtained in good isolated yields of 63-88%. 2,3-Dihydroquinolinimine thus obtained was easily converted to important structures like 2,3-dihydroquinolone and tetrahydrobenzodiazepin-5-one, confirming the importance of this strategy in constructing various heterocycles...
October 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Apoorva Rajiv Madipakkam, Marcus Rothkirch, Isabel Dziobek, Philipp Sterzer
Atypical responses to direct gaze are one of the most characteristic hallmarks of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The cause and mechanism underlying this phenomenon, however, have remained unknown. Here we investigated whether the atypical responses to eye gaze in autism spectrum disorder is dependent on the conscious perception of others' faces. Face stimuli with direct and averted gaze were rendered invisible by interocular suppression and eye movements were recorded from participants with ASD and an age and sex matched control group...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wataru Sato, Reiko Sawada, Shota Uono, Sayaka Yoshimura, Takanori Kochiyama, Yasutaka Kubota, Morimitsu Sakihama, Motomi Toichi
The detection of emotional facial expressions plays an indispensable role in social interaction. Psychological studies have shown that typically developing (TD) individuals more rapidly detect emotional expressions than neutral expressions. However, it remains unclear whether individuals with autistic phenotypes, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and high levels of autistic traits (ATs), are impaired in this ability. We examined this by comparing TD and ASD individuals in Experiment 1 and individuals with low and high ATs in Experiment 2 using the visual search paradigm...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jinke Zhang, Bryan M Williams, Samuel Lawman, David Atkinson, Zijian Zhang, Yaochun Shen, Yalin Zheng
Automotive coating systems are designed to protect vehicle bodies from corrosion and enhance their aesthetic value. The number, size and orientation of small metallic flakes in the base coat of the paint has a significant effect on the appearance of automotive bodies. It is important for quality assurance (QA) to be able to measure the properties of these small flakes, which are approximately 10μm in radius, yet current QA techniques are limited to measuring layer thickness. We design and develop a time-domain (TD) full-field (FF) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system to scan automotive panels volumetrically, non-destructively and without contact...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
Bhawani Datt Joshi, Anubha Srivastava, Poonam Tandon, Sudha Jain, A P Ayala
Plant based natural products cover a major sector of the medicinal field, as such focus on plant research has been increased all over the world. As an attempt to aid that research, we have performed structural and spectroscopic analysis of a natural product, an alkaloid: canadine. Both ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set were used for the calculations. The calculated vibrational frequencies were scaled and compared with the experimental infrared and Raman spectra...
October 4, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
A Kessentini, A Ben Ahmed, T Dammak, M Belhouchet
The current work undertakes the growth and the physicochemical properties of a novel green-yellow luminescence semi-organic material, the 3-picolylammonium bromide abbreviated (Pico-Br). In this paper, we report the X-ray diffraction measurements which show that the crystal lattice consists of distinct 3-picolylammonium cations and free bromide anions connected via NH⋯Br and NH⋯N hydrogen bonds leading to form a two dimensional frameworks. Molecular geometry compared with its optimized counterpart shows that the quantum chemical calculations carried out with density functional method (DFT) well produce the perceived structure by X-ray resolution of the studied material...
October 13, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Laura J Hahn, Nancy C Brady, Lindsay McCary, Lisa Rague, Jane E Roberts
BACKGROUND: Little research in fragile X syndrome (FXS) has prospectively examined early social communication. AIMS: To compare early social communication in infants with FXS, infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASIBs), and typically developing (TD) infants. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participants were 18 infants with FXS, 21 ASIBs, and 22 TD infants between 7.5-14.5 months. Social communication was coded using the Communication Complexity Scale during the administration of Autism Observation Scale for Infants...
October 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Ludovic Martin, Nabil Kaci, Valentin Estibals, Nicolas Goudin, Meriem Garfa-Traore, Catherine Benoist-Lasselin, Emilie Dambroise, Laurence Legeai-Mallet
FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) gain-of-function mutations cause dwarfisms, including achondroplasia (ACH) and thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). The constitutive activation of FGFR3 disrupts the normal process of skeletal growth. Bone-growth anomalies have been identified in skeletal ciliopathies, in which primary cilia (PC) function is disrupted. In human ACH and TD, the impact of FGFR3 mutations on PC in growth plate cartilage remains unknown. Here we showed that in chondrocytes from human (ACH, TD) and mouse Fgfr3Y367C/+ cartilage, the constitutively-active FGFR3 perturbed PC length and the sorting and trafficking of IFT20 to the PC...
October 4, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Mariangela Di Donato, Michael M Lerch, Andrea Lapini, Adèle D Laurent, Alessandro Iagatti, Laura Bussotti, Svante P Ihrig, Miroslav Medved, Denis Jacquemin, Wiktor Szymanski, Wybren Jan Buma, Paolo Foggi, Ben L Feringa
Donor-acceptor Stenhouse adducts (DASAs) are negative photochromes that hold great promise for a variety of applications. Key to optimizing their switching properties is a detailed understanding of the photoswitching mechanism, which, as yet, is absent. Here we characterize the actinic step of DASA-photoswitching and its key intermediate, which was studied using a combination of ultrafast visible and IR pump-probe spectroscopies and TD-DFT calculations. Comparison of the time-resolved IR spectra with DFT computations allowed to unambiguously identify the structure of the intermediate, confirming that light absorption induces a sequential reaction path in which a Z-E photoisomerization of C2-C3 is followed by a rotation around C3-C4 and subsequent thermal cyclization step...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
E E Hardy, K M Wyss, J D Gorden, I R Ariyarathna, E Miliordos, A E V Gorden
The synthesis, characterization, and electronic spectroscopy of two ML2 sandwich complexes, where M = Ce(iv) or Th(iv) and L = napthylsalophen(2-) are described. The ThL2 complex, unlike the isovalent CeL2, complex possesses unusual fluorescence properties in both solution and solid-state. These observations are explained with TD-DFT.
October 17, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Green Kim, Jae-Eun Kim, Min-Jung Kang, Ah-Ra Jang, Young Ran Kim, Sunoh Kim, Kyu-Tae Chang, Jung Joo Hong, Jong-Hwan Park
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection activates pro‑inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)‑8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in gastric epithelial cells. 1‑Tetradecanol (1‑TD) has been purified from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille; its physiological activities are poorly understood. The present study assessed whether 1‑TD has an effect on H. pylori‑mediated inflammation in AGS gastric epithelial cells. 1‑TD reduced IL‑8 production by AGS cells in response to H...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Erin M Adkins, J Houston Miller
Trends linking the topological characteristics of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to their electronic properties are reported. TD-DFT electronic spectra computations, using the 6-31G* basis set and B3LYP exchange correlation functional, were calculated for a series of PAH, allowing for the HOMO-LUMO gaps to be reported. Clar structures provide an avenue to link the physical structure and the aromaticity of the molecule; which, when extended by bond length and harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity analysis, provide powerful tools to understand the link between electronic and physical structure...
October 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kosuke Asada, Yoshikuni Tojo, Koichiro Hakarino, Atsuko Saito, Toshikazu Hasegawa, Shinichiro Kumagaya
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with social interaction and communication. First-hand accounts written by individuals with ASD have shown the existence of other atypical characteristics such as difficulties with body awareness. However, few studies have examined whether such atypicalities are found more generally among individuals with ASD. We examined body image (i.e., self-body awareness) by asking individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals to estimate their own body size (shoulder width)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Lili Zhang, Chunhui Zhao
Recently, some methods exploiting both the spatial and spectral features have drawn increasing attention in hyperspectral anomaly detection (AD) and they perform well. In addition, a tensor decomposition-based (TenB) algorithm treating the hyperspectral dataset as a three-order tensor (two modes for space and one mode for spectra) has been proposed to further improve the performance for AD. In this paper, a method using the sparsity divergence index (SDI) based on tensor decomposition (SDI-TD) is proposed. First, three modes of the hyperspectral dataset are obtained by tensor decomposition...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Sandip Mondal, Sachinath Bera, Suvendu Maity, Prasanta Ghosh
The study discloses that the redox activity of N-(1,4-naphthoquinone)-o-aminophenol derivatives (L(R)H2) containing a (phenol)-NH-(1,4-naphthoquinone) fragment is notably different from that of a (phenol)-NH-(phenol) precursor. The former is a platform for a redox cascade. L(R)H2 is redox noninnocent and exists in Cat-N-(1,4-naphthoquinone)(2-) (L(R 2-)) and SQ-N-(1,4-naphthoquinone) (L(R •-)) states in the complexes. Reactions of L(R)H2 with cobalt(II) salts in MeOH in air promote a cascade affording spiro oxazine-oxazepine derivatives ((OX)L(R)) in good yields, when R = H, Me, (t)Bu...
October 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Laura Zampini, Tiziana Burla, Gaia Silibello, Francesca Dall'Ara, Claudia Rigamonti, Faustina Lalatta, Paola Vizziello
Many studies reported the presence of language impairments in children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). However, the first stage of their language development has been scarcely studied. The present study aimed to describe the spontaneous communicative production of 18-month-old children with KS, in comparison with that of typically developing (TD) male peers, aiming to verify the existence of different early communicative skills in both vocal and gestural modality and to identify the presence of possible associations with their later vocabulary size...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Huan-Hsin Tseng, Yi Luo, Sunan Cui, Jen-Tzung Chien, Randall K Ten Haken, Issam El Naqa
PURPOSE: To investigate deep reinforcement learning (DRL) based on historical treatment plans for developing automated radiation adaptation protocols for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that aim to maximize tumor local control at reduced rates of radiation pneumonitis grade 2 (RP2). METHODS: In a retrospective population of 114 NSCLC patients who received radiotherapy, a 3-component neural networks framework was developed for deep reinforcement learning (DRL) of dose fractionation adaptation...
October 16, 2017: Medical Physics
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