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Salima El Chehadeh, Renaud Touraine, Fabienne Prieur, Willie Reardon, Thierry Bienvenu, Sandrine Chantot-Bastaraud, Martine Doco-Fenzy, Emilie Landais, Christophe Philippe, Nathalie Marle, Patrick Callier, Anne-Laure Mosca-Boidron, Francine Mugneret, Nathalie Le Meur, Alice Goldenberg, Anne-Marie Guerrot, Pascal Chambon, Véronique Satre, Charles Coutton, Pierre-Simon Jouk, Françoise Devillard, Klaus Dieterich, Alexandra Afenjar, Lydie Burglen, Marie-Laure Moutard, Marie-Claude Addor, Sébastien Lebon, Danielle Martinet, Jean-Luc Alessandri, Bérénice Doray, Marguerite Miguet, Didier Devys, Pascale Saugier-Veber, Séverine Drunat, Bernard Aral, Valérie Kremer, Stéphane Rondeau, Anne-Claude Tabet, Julien Thevenon, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Nathalie Perreton, Vincent Des Portes, Laurence Faivre
Duplication of the Xq28 region, involving MECP2 (dupMECP2), has been primarily described in males with severe developmental delay, spasticity, epilepsy, stereotyped movements and recurrent infections. Carrier mothers are usually asymptomatic with an extremely skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern. We report a series of six novel symptomatic females carrying a de novo interstitial dupMECP2, and review the 14 symptomatic females reported to date, with the aim to further delineate their phenotype and give clues for genetic counselling...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Genetics
J David Sweatt, Carol A Tamminga
This review concerns epigenetic mechanisms and their roles in conferring interindividual differences, especially as related to experientially acquired and genetically driven changes in central nervous system (CNS) function. In addition, the review contains commentary regarding the possible ways in which epigenomic changes may contribute to neuropsychiatric conditions and disorders and ways in which epigenotyping might be cross-correlated with clinical phenotyping in the context of precision medicine. The review begins with a basic description of epigenetic marking in the CNS and how these changes are powerful regulators of gene readout...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Chih-Ping Chen, Chen-Yu Chen, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Chen-Chi Lee, Dai-Dyi Town, Meng-Shan Lee, Chien-Wen Yang, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of an Xp22.32→pter deletion and an Xq26.3→qter duplication in a male fetus with congenital malformations and maternal X chromosome pericentric inversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 22-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal maternal serum screening result. Prenatal ultrasound revealed a hypoplastic left heart and short limbs. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,Y,der(X) t(X;?)(p22...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Sarenur Gokben, Huseyin Onay, Sanem Yilmaz, Tahir Atik, Gul Serdaroglu, Hande Tekin, Ferda Ozkinay
We investigated the genetic background of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EE) using targeted next generation sequencing analysis. Thirty sporadic or familial cases associated with early-onset EE were included. An early-onset EE gene panel including sixteen genes (ARX, CDKL5, CNTNAP2, FOLR1, FOXG1, LAMC3, MBD5, MECP2, NTNG1, PCDH19, PNKP, SCN1A, SCN1B, SCN2A, STXBP1, KCNQ2) was constituted. Nine definite and three potential causal mutations in 30 cases (40 %) were identified. All mutations presented heterozygously except one...
October 12, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Deivid C Rodrigues, Dae-Sung Kim, Guang Yang, Kirill Zaslavsky, Kevin C H Ha, Rebecca S F Mok, P Joel Ross, Melody Zhao, Alina Piekna, Wei Wei, Benjamin J Blencowe, Quaid Morris, James Ellis
A progressive increase in MECP2 protein levels is a crucial and precisely regulated event during neurodevelopment, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We report that MECP2 is regulated post-transcriptionally during in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into cortical neurons. Using reporters to identify functional RNA sequences in the MECP2 3' UTR and genetic manipulations to explore the role of interacting factors on endogenous MECP2, we discover combinatorial mechanisms that regulate RNA stability and translation...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Eric Segal, Helio Pedro, Karen Valdez-Gonzalez, Sarah Parisotto, Felicia Gliksman, Stephen Thompson, Jomard Sabri, Evan Fertig
BACKGROUND: When no chromosomal variations are identified, patients with suspected genetic etiologies can be tested using next-generation sequencing utilizing epilepsy panels. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the diagnostic yield of next-generation sequencing epilepsy panels in medication-resistant epilepsy subjects with non-clinically significant comparative genomic hybridization microarray results. METHODS: We completed a single-center retrospective review of the diagnostic yield of next-generation sequencing epilepsy panels in medication-resistant epilepsy subjects aged 18 years or less who had non-clinically significant comparative genomic hybridization microarray results from January 2011 to December 2014...
July 1, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Kyungsoo Ha, Yiping Shen, Tyler Graves, Cheol-Hee Kim, Hyung-Goo Kim
BACKGROUND: 1q21 microdeletion syndrome is a rare contiguous gene deletion disorder with de novo or autosomal dominant inheritance patterns and its phenotypic features include intellectual disability, distinctive facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, cardiac abnormalities, and cataracts. MECP2 duplication syndrome is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, global developmental delay, and other neurological complications including late-onset seizures...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Swen Hülsmann, Guillaume Mesuret, Julia Dannenberg, Mauricio Arnoldt, Marcus Niebert
Mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene have been shown to manifest in a neurodevelopmental disorder that is called Rett syndrome. A typical problem that occurs during development is a disturbance of breathing. To address the role of inhibitory neurons, we generated a mouse line that restores MECP2 in inhibitory neurons in the brainstem by crossbreeding a mouse line that expresses the Cre-recombinase (Cre) in inhibitory neurons under the control of the glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2, slc6a5) promotor (GlyT2-Cre) with a mouse line that has a floxed-stop mutation of the Mecp2 gene (Mecp2 (stop/y))...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Max F Oginsky, Ningren Cui, Weiwei Zhong, Christopher M Johnson, Chun Jiang
People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have defects in motor function also seen in Mecp2-null mice. Motor function depends on not only central motor commands but also sensory feedback that is vulnerable to changes in excitability of propriosensory neurons. Here we report evidence for hyperexcitability of mesencephalic trigeminal (Me5) neurons in Mecp2-null mice and a novel cellular mechanism for lowering its impact. In in-vitro brain slices, the Me5 neurons in both Mecp2(-/Y) male and symptomatic Mecp2(+/-) female mice were overly excitable showing increased firing activity in comparison to their wild-type (WT) male and asymptomatic counterparts...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Melissa Mahgoub, Megumi Adachi, Kanzo Suzuki, Xihui Liu, Ege T Kavalali, Maria H Chahrour, Lisa M Monteggia
Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) Hdac1 and Hdac2 can associate together in protein complexes with transcriptional factors such as methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Given their high degree of sequence identity, we examined whether Hdac1 and Hdac2 were functionally redundant in mature mouse brain. We demonstrate that postnatal forebrain-specific deletion of both Hdac1 and Hdac2 in mice impacts neuronal survival and results in an excessive grooming phenotype caused by dysregulation of Sap90/Psd95-associated protein 3 (Sapap3; also known as Dlgap3) in striatum...
September 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Atsumi Tsuji-Hosokawa, Nozomi Matsuda, Kenji Kurosawa, Kenichi Kashimada, Tomohiro Morio
BACKGROUND: MECP2 duplication syndrome, which is caused by duplication of part of the Xq28 region containing the MECP2 gene, causes intellectual disability and mild dysmorphic features in males. To date, precocious puberty has not been reported as a clinical feature of MECP2 duplication syndrome. METHODS: A 6-year-old male with severe intellectual disability was referred because of growth acceleration and precocious puberty. We checked his hormonal profile and conducted imaging studies and an array comparative genomic hybridization analysis...
September 21, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Mandy Ma, Heather R Adams, Laurie E Seltzer, William B Dobyns, Alex R Paciorkowski
OBJECTIVE: To differentiate developmental encephalopathies by creating a novel quantitative phenotyping tool. STUDY DESIGN: We created the Developmental Encephalopathy Inventory (DEI) to differentiate disorders with complex multisystem neurodevelopmental symptoms. We then used the DEI to study the phenotype features of 20 subjects with FOXG1 disorder and 11 subjects with MECP2 disorder. RESULTS: The DEI identified core domains of fine motor and expressive language that were severely impaired in both disorders...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Megan E Bosch, Amy Aldrich, Rachel Fallet, Jessica Odvody, Maria Burkovetskaya, Kaitlyn Schuberth, Julie A Fitzgerald, Kevin D Foust, Tammy Kielian
UNLABELLED: Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a fatal lysosomal storage disease caused by autosomal-recessive mutations in CLN3 for which no treatment exists. Symptoms appear between 5 and 10 years of age, beginning with blindness and seizures, followed by progressive cognitive and motor decline and premature death (late teens to 20s). We explored a gene delivery approach for JNCL by generating two self-complementary adeno-associated virus 9 (scAAV9) constructs to address CLN3 dosage effects using the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and β-actin promoters to drive low versus high transgene expression, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Caitlyn Riedmann, Yvonne N Fondufe-Mittendorf
Chromatin architectural proteins (CAPs) bind the entry/exit DNA of nucleosomes and linker DNA to form higher order chromatin structures with distinct transcriptional outcomes. How CAPs mediate nucleosome dynamics is not well understood. We hypothesize that CAPs regulate DNA target site accessibility through alteration of the rate of spontaneous dissociation of DNA from nucleosomes. We investigated the effects of histone H1, high mobility group D1 (HMGD1), and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), on the biophysical properties of nucleosomes and chromatin...
2016: Scientific Reports
Caroline M Forrest, Peter G E Kennedy, Jean Rodgers, R Neil Dalton, Charles Turner, L Gail Darlington, Stuart R Cobb, Trevor W Stone
To quantify the full range of tryptophan metabolites along the kynurenine pathway, a liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and used to analyse brain extracts of rodents treated with the kynurenine-3-mono-oxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro61-8048 during pregnancy. There were significant increases in the levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxy-kynurenine (3-HK) in the maternal brain after 5 h but not 24 h, while the embryos exhibited high levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid after 5 h which were maintained at 24 h post-treatment...
September 10, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Xiaohua Li, Xiaohui Liu, Haoyi Guo, Zhaoxia Zhao, Yun Sui Li, Guoming Chen
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of expression of phosphorylated methyl-CpG binding protein 2-Ser421 (MeCP2-S421) and VEGF in the membranes of patients with PDR. We examined the expression of phospho-MeCP2-S80, S421, VEGF and PEDF in surgically excised PDR membranes from 33 patients with diabetes, and idiopathic epiretinal membranes from 11 patients without diabetes, using immunohistochemistry and western blot. The colocalization of MeCP2-S421 with VEGF, PEDF, CD31, GFAP and αSMA was revealed by fluorescent double labeling...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jason Arsenault, Shervin Gholizadeh, Yosuke Niibori, Laura K Pacey, Sebok K Halder, Enea Koxhioni, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai, David R Hampson
Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is absent or highly reduced in Fragile X Syndrome, a genetic disorder causing cognitive impairment and autistic behaviors. Previous proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated that restoring FMRP in the brain using viral vectors can improve pathological abnormalities in mouse models of fragile X. However, unlike small molecule drugs where the dose can readily be adjusted during treatment, viral vector-based biological therapeutic drugs present challenges in terms of achieving optimal dosing and expression levels...
September 7, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Qingping Zhang, Xinhua Bao
The English Title for the above article, as appeared in our June 2015 issue, should be corrected as "Advance in research on MECP2 duplication syndrome".
October 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Jing-Li Cao, Lu Zhang, Jian Li, Shi Tian, Xiao-Dan Lv, Xue-Qin Wang, Xing Su, Ying Li, Yi Hu, Xu Ma, Hong-Fei Xia
MiR-98 expression was up-regulated in kidney in response to early diabetic nephropathy in mouse and down-regulated in muscle in type 2 diabetes in human. However, the expression prolife and functional role of miR-98 in human gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remained unclear. Here, we investigated its expression and function in placental tissues from GDM patients and the possible molecular mechanisms. The results showed that miR-98 was up-regulated in placentas from GDM patients compared with normal placentas...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alessandro Pedretti, Cinzia Granito, Angelica Mazzolari, Giulio Vistoli
DNA methylation plays key roles in mammalian cells and is modulated by a set of proteins which recognize symmetrically methylated nucleotides. Among them, the protein MECP2 shows multifunctional roles repressing and/or activating genes by binding to both methylated and unmethylated regions of the genome. The interest for this protein markedly increased from the observation that its mutations are the primary cause of Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder which causes mental retardation in young females...
September 2016: Molecular Informatics
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