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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816564/cytotoxicity-screening-and-cytokine-profiling-of-nineteen-nanomaterials-enables-hazard-ranking-and-grouping-based-on-inflammogenic-potential
#1
Kunal Bhattacharya, Gözde Kiliç, Pedro M Costa, Bengt Fadeel
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being produced for an increasing number of applications. Therefore, it is important to assess and categorize ENMs on the basis of their hazard potential. The immune system is the foremost defence against foreign bodies. Here we performed cytokine profiling of a panel of nineteen representative ENMs procured from the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and commercial sources. Physicochemical characterization was performed using dynamic light scattering. The ENMs were all shown to be endotoxin content free...
August 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814818/multigenerational-effects-of-copper-nanomaterials-cuonms-are-different-of-those-of-cucl2-exposure-in-the-soil-invertebrate-enchytraeus-crypticus
#2
Rita C Bicho, Fátima C F Santos, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
Nanomaterials (NMs) are recommended to be tested in longer term exposures. Multigenerational (MG) studies are scarce and particularly important because effects can be transferred to the next generation. The current risk assessment framework does not include MG effects and this is a caveat for persistent materials. Here, the effects of copper NMs (CuONMs) and copper salt (CuCl2) were assessed in a MG exposure (4 generations in spiked soil + 2 generations in clean soil, F1 to F7 generations in total), with the standard soil model Enchytraeus crypticus, using relevant reproduction test effect concentrations (EC10, EC50), monitoring survival and reproduction...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811916/drug-information-update-atypical-antipsychotics-and-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-nuances-and-pragmatics-of-the-association
#3
Siddharth Sarkar, Nitin Gupta
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially fatal adverse event associated with the use of antipsychotics. Although atypical antipsychotics were initially considered to carry no risk of NMS, reports have accumulated over time implicating them in NMS causation. Almost all atypical antipsychotics have been reported to be associated with NMS. The clinical profile of NMS caused by certain atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine has been reported to be considerably different from the NMS produced by typical antipsychotics, with diaphoresis encountered more commonly, and rigidity and tremor encountered less frequently...
August 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805592/nonmotor-effects-of-conventional-and-transdermal-dopaminergic-therapies-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Ryul Kim, Beomseok Jeon
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are an integral component of Parkinson's disease (PD). Because the burden and range of NMS are key determinants of quality of life for patients and caregivers, their management is a crucial issue in clinical practice. Although a range of NMS have a dopaminergic pathophysiological basis, this fact is underrecognized, and thus, they are often regarded as dopamine unresponsive symptoms. However, substantial evidence indicates that many NMS respond to oral and transdermal dopaminergic therapies...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805583/the-gut-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Lisa Klingelhoefer, Heinz Reichmann
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are one of the most common nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the whole GI tract (GIT) and being evident throughout the whole course of the disease. Furthermore, constipation serves as a risk factor for PD as well as an early prodromal NMS of PD. The gut as gateway to the environment with its enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial role in the neurodegenerative process that leads to PD. Alpha-synucleinopathy as the pathological hallmark of PD could be found within the whole GIT in a rostrocaudal gradient interacting with the ENS, the gut microbiome, and enteric glial cells...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805581/nonmotor-parkinson-s-and-future-directions
#6
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are integral to the condition largely regarded as a motor syndrome. A range of NMS underpin the prodromal stage of Parkinson's and are present with variable frequency, range, and nature across the whole journey of a patient with Parkinson's from the onset of the motor disease to palliative stage. These symptoms also are key determinants of quality of life of the patient as well as the carer. Despite this, recognition management and focused treatment of NMS of PD remain poor...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805579/nonmotor-manifestations-of-wilson-s-disease
#7
Samar Biswas, Neelanjana Paul, Shyamal K Das
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disorder characterized by excessive copper deposition initially in liver (hepatic variant) followed by brain (neuropsychiatric variant) and other organs such as cornea and kidney due to defect in biliary copper excretion. Predominant presentations of neuropsychiatric variant are extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions such as dystonias, Parkinsonism, choreoathetosis, tremor, and ataxias. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) can appear before clinical disease expression and during ongoing disease process...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805575/nonmotor-symptoms-in-dystonia
#8
Julie Ann Kristy L Torres, Raymond L Rosales
With the emergence of quality of life measures as an indicator for the impact of medical and surgical interventions in dystonia, focus has shifted toward unraveling the pathophysiology and neuroanatomical basis of the "nonmotor symptoms" (NMS). To date, the NMS are now recognized as the greater determinant of quality of life in dystonia, going above and beyond the motor symptomatology. This chapter highlights what is currently known in available literature on the NMS among patients with early-onset dystonia, adult-onset focal dystonia, and dystonia-plus syndromes with particular focus on the NMS involving cognition, mood, behavior (even suicide), sleep, and pain...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805568/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-and-exercise-in-nonmotor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Indu Subramanian
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy in nonmotor symptoms (NMS) for Parkinson disease (PD) is growing worldwide. Well-performed, systematic evidence-based research is largely lacking in this area and many studies include various forms of CAM with small patient numbers and a lack of standardization of the approaches studied. Taichi, Qigong, dance, yoga, mindfulness, acupuncture, and other CAM therapies are reviewed and there is some evidence for the following: Taichi in sleep and PDQ39; dance in cognition, apathy, and a mild trend to improved fatigue; yoga in PDQ39; and acupuncture in depression, PDQ39, and sleep...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805564/deep-brain-stimulation-and-nonmotor-symptoms
#10
Elliot Hogg, Jeffrey Wertheimer, Sarah Graner, Michele Tagliati
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently the treatment of choice for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Several brain targets, including the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus internus, have been successfully employed, with excellent motor outcomes. Despite less established knowledge, DBS may be a powerful tool for managing a wide variety of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in PD patients, either directly or indirectly due to motor benefit or reduction of dopaminergic drug load. After an assessment of global nonmotor outcomes of DBS, as measured by currently available clinical scales and questionnaires, this chapter will address DBS effects on four main NMS categories: neurobehavioral, including cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, including orthostatic hypotension, constipation, and urinary dysfunction, sleep disturbances, including insomnia, REM sleep behavior disorder, and restless leg syndrome, to conclude with sensory symptoms, mainly focusing on pain...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805101/effect-of-size-and-shape-on-toxicity-of-zinc-oxide-zno-nanomaterials-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#11
Shalini D, Senthilkumar S, Rajaguru P
The multi-industrial applications of zinc oxide nanomaterials (ZnO NMs) lead to increasing exposure to humans. Though the ZnO nanoparticles toxicity had been evaluated previously, toxicity of other forms of ZnO nanomaterials has not been evaluated. In this study, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four different types of ZnO NMs were evaluated using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL). In addition, the effect of anti-oxidants on ZnO NMs induced toxicity was also evaluated. Our results suggest that, size and shape of the nanomaterials have profound effects on their toxicity...
August 13, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803544/overcoming-qrt-pcr-interference-by-select-carbon-nanotubes-in-assessments-of-gene-expression
#12
Sara T Humes, Shannon Hentschel, Candice M Lavelle, L Cody Smith, John A Lednicky, Navid B Saleh, Tara Sabo-Attwood
Nanomaterials (NMs) of various types, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), can interfere with standard quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, resulting in inaccurate gene expression measurements; however, the precise step in the qRT-PCR pipeline where this interference occurs has not been well described. Here, we investigated where in the process surface-oxidized multi-walled CNTs (oxMWNTs) inhibited qRT-PCR measurement of the expression of the housekeeping gene GAPDH and explored several strategies to minimize such inhibition...
August 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803229/non-motor-symptoms-assessed-by-non-motor-symptoms-questionnaire-and-non-motor-symptoms-scale-in-parkinson-s-disease-in-selected-asian-populations
#13
Anna Sauerbier, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Nataliya Titova, Lisa Klingelhoefer, Yoshio Tsuboi, Harry Carr, Hrishikesh Kumar, Rebecca Banerjee, Roberto Erro, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Anette Schrag, Panagiotis Zis, Shen-Yang Lim, J Y Al-Hashel, Walaa A Kamel, Pablo Martinez-Martin, K Ray Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Ethnic variations have been described in medical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Whether ethnicity plays a role in Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly with regard to non-motor symptoms (NMS), remains unclear. Existing literature is diverse, controversial, and inadequately documented. This review aims to analyse and report the currently available literature on NMS, specifically in Asian PD patients. SUMMARY: We conducted a literature review using PubMed, searching for articles and currently available publications that reference and assess NMS in PD patients living in Asia using the validated NMS Questionnaire (NMS Quest) and NMS Scale (NMSS)...
August 12, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802941/the-epidemiology-of-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-cohort-and-other-studies
#14
Elena Katunina, Nataliya Titova
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) were recognized by James Parkinson himself and are now considered to be an integral part of PD. While clinical assessment had focused on prevalence and severity of individual NMS such as dementia and depression, work in the last decade has concentrated on global or holistic assessment of NMS using validated tools such as the NMS questionnaire and NMS scale. These studies from cohorts of varying sizes have allowed comparison of NMS across different disease stages, duration, age, and ethnicity in PD...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802930/quality-of-life-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Paolo Barone, Roberto Erro, Marina Picillo
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is defined as "the perception and evaluation by patients themselves of the impact caused on their lives by the disease and its consequences." HRQoL is conceptualized as a combination of physical, psychological, and social well-being in the context of a particular disease. Following earlier studies revolving on the impact of the classic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease on HRQoL, mounting evidence have been produced that nonmotor symptoms (NMS) significantly and independently contribute to worse HRQoL...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802927/nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-gender-and-ethnic-differences
#16
Anna Sauerbier, Abhishek Lenka, Azman Aris, Pramod Kumar Pal
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are recognized to profoundly affect the quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and of their caregivers. In order to further understand the underlying pathophysiology, clinical presentation, response to medication, and prognosis, it is important to identify and analyze possible factors, which have an impact on PD. Gender and ethnicity have been reported to possibly influence incidence, prevalence, and motor presentation in PD, as well as other neurological conditions...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802926/nonmotor-symptoms-and-natural-history-of-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-cognitive-dysfunction-and-role-of-noninvasive-interventions
#17
Roberta Biundo, Eleonora Fiorenzato, Angelo Antonini
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS). Several subsequent studies substantiate the great functional burden related to NMS, their progression, and negative effect on quality of life in PD. Additional evidence indicates interesting relationships between striatal dopaminergic function and NMS. The basal ganglia are implicated in the modulation and integration of sensory information and pain, bladder function is under control of both inhibitory (D1) and facilitatory (D2) dopaminergic inputs, finally reduced dopaminergic activity in the mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways is involved in the development of several NMS including mood, motivational, and cognitive alterations...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802925/objective-measurement-and-monitoring-of-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Lisa Klingelhoefer, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Roongroj Bhidayasiri
The comprehensive evaluation of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) starts with the awareness of physicians, patients, and caregivers on their nature, clinical presentation, and effect on patient's daily activities and quality of life. This awareness can be better achieved if the symptoms can be visualized, measured, and monitored. As NMS are largely subjective in nature, a majority of them cannot be visualized (unlike tremor, which is easily seen), making their identification and quantification difficult...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802922/biomarkers-of-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Takuya Konno, Rana Hanna Al-Shaikh, Angela B Deutschländer, Ryan J Uitti
Biomarkers are helpful for early diagnosis, assessment of disorder severity, prognosis, and prediction of response to therapy. Given that early therapeutic intervention may be useful in forestalling or slowing neurodegenerative conditions, employing reliable biomarkers to identify asymptomatic individuals who are destined to develop clinical Parkinson's disease (PD) is critical. Two important observations have been repeatedly found in persons who eventually develop clinical PD: (1) significant neuronal loss occurs in the substantia nigra and (2) the presence of nonmotor symptoms (NMS)...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802921/imaging-the-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Tayyabah Yousaf, Heather Wilson, Marios Politis
Parkinson's disease is acknowledged to be a multisystem syndrome, manifesting as a result of multineuropeptide dysfunction, including dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic deficits. This multisystem disorder ultimately leads to the presentation of a range of nonmotor symptoms, now appreciated to be an integral part of the disease-specific spectrum of symptoms, often preceding the diagnosis of motor Parkinson's disease. In this chapter, we review the dopaminergic and nondopaminergic basis of these symptoms by exploring the neuroimaging evidence based on several techniques including positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography molecular imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
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