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Po-Hao Chen, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is one of the most severe iatrogenic emergencies in clinical service. The symptoms including sudden consciousness change, critical temperature elevation and electrolytes imbalance followed by mutli-organ system failure were common in NMS. In addition to aggressive interventions with intravenous fluid resuscitation and antipyretics, several antidotes have been suggested to prevent further progression of the muscle damage. Dantrolene has been reported to be one of the most effective treatments for NMS...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ying Tang, Aiqin Chen, Yu Chen, Lixia Guo, Hengfen Dai, Yang Huang, Qianqian Chen, Chun Lin
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of multiple chronic visceral pain syndromes, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is not well known, and as a result current therapies are ineffective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of spinal protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) on visceral pain sensitivity in rats with IBS to better understand the pathogenesis and investigate the effect of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) as a therapy for chronic visceral pain. METHODS: Visceral hypersensitivity rats were produced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS)...
2016: PloS One
Kamelia Afshinnia, Mithun Sikder, Bo Cai, Mohammed Baalousha
Nanomaterial (NM) aggregation is a key process determining their environmental, fate behavior and effects. Nanomaterials are typically engineered to remain kinetically stable; however, in environmental and toxicological media, NMs are prone to aggregation. The aggregation kinetics of NM is typically quantified by measuring their attachment efficiency (α) and critical coagulation concentration (CCC). Several studies measured α and CCC for Ag NMs with a major focus on investigating the effects of ionic strength, ion valency and natural organic matter, with few studies investigating other environmental factors such as light and dissolved oxygen and none investigating the effect of particle size, buffer type and concentration, or surface coverage by capping agent...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Guanchao Yin, Min Song, Shengkai Duan, Phillip Manley, Dieter Greiner, Christian A Kaufmann, Martina Schmid
Ultrathin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells pose challenges of incomplete absorption and back contact recombination. In this work, we applied the simple collodial nanosphere lithography and fabricated 2D SiO2 nanomeshes (NMs), which simultaneously benefit ultrathin CIGSe solar cells electrically and optically. Electrically, the NMs are capable of passivating the back contact recombination, and increasing the minimum bandgap of absorbers. Optically, the parasitic absorption in Mo as a main optical loss is reduced...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Domenico Intiso, Andrea Santamato, Filomena Di Rienzo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether electrical stimulation (ES) as an adjunct to BTX-A boosts botulinum activity and whether the combined therapeutic procedure is more effective than BTX-A alone in reducing spasticity in adult subjects. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and CINAHL from January 1966 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Only randomized controlled studies (RCT) involving the combination of BTX-A and ES were considered...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
R Lin, Q Wang, B Qi, Y Huang, G Yang
Neuromedin S (NMS), a 36-amino acid neuropeptide, has been found to be involved in the regulation of the endocrine activity. It has been also detected in immune tissues in mammals, what suggests that NMS may play an important role in the regulation of immune response. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of NMS receptor 1 (NMU1R) and effect of NMS in pig splenic lymphocytes (SPLs) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The presence of NMU1R in pig SPLs and PAMs was respectively confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunocytochemical methods...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Mouna Necibi, Laurent Lanceleur, Nadia Mzoughi, Mathilde Monperrus
A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of eight synthetic musks compounds (SMs) including five polycyclic musks (PCMs) and three nitro musks (NMs) was validated for sediment samples based on a simple QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) sample preparation procedure followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Good analytical performances were obtained for all the target compounds. For the validation of the method, internal calibration (IC) and internal calibration with QuEChERS (ICQ) were compared...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Hamde Nazar, Steven Brice, Nasima Akhter, Adetayo Kasim, Ann Gunning, Sarah P Slight, Neil W Watson
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate an electronic patient referral system from one UK hospital Trust to community pharmacies across the North East of England. SETTING: Two hospital sites in Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 207 community pharmacies. PARTICIPANTS: Inpatients who were considered to benefit from on-going support and continuity of care after leaving hospital. INTERVENTION: Electronic transmission of an information related to patient's medicines to their nominated community pharmacy...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Satyavrata Samavedi, Patricia Diaz-Rodriguez, Joshua Dean Erndt-Marino, Mariah Hahn
The goal of the present study was to develop a fully 3D co-culture system that would allow for systematic investigation of the interplay between activated macrophages and chondrocytes in osteoarthritic disease progression. Toward this end, our 3D co-culture system was first validated against existing in vitro osteoarthritis models, which have generally cultured healthy normal chondrocytes (NCs) ─ in 2D or 3D ─ with 2D classically activated macrophages (AMs). In the current work, NCs and AMs were both encapsulated within poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels to better mimic the native 3D environments of both cell types within the osteoarthritic joint...
October 13, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
L Wu, N Mu, F Yang, J Zang, J-P Zheng
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine characteristics of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in early Parkinson's disease (PD) with olfactory deficits and to analyze the feasibility of diagnosing PD based on olfactory deficits. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 62 patients without olfactory deficits in early PD (PD group), 58 patients with olfactory deficits in early PD (olfactory deficits group) and 60 healthy examined people (control group) were selected successively. RESULTS: It was found that there was no statistical significance in the difference in ages and courses of disease among the three groups (p > 0...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jorge Soliz, Rose Tam, Richard Kinkead
Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
K Rosqvist, P Hagell, P Odin, H Ekström, S Iwarsson, M H Nilsson
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with life satisfaction (LS) in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), including a specific focus on those with late-stage PD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 251 persons with PD (median age 70 years; PD duration 8 years). Analyses involved the total sample and a subsample with late-stage PD, that is Hoehn and Yahr stages IV and V (n=62). LS was assessed with item 1 of the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11)...
October 10, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Takayuki Komatsu, Tomohisa Nomura, Hiroki Takami, So Sakamoto, Keiko Mizuno, Hajime Sekii, Kotaro Hatta, Manabu Sugita
A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas...
2016: Internal Medicine
Jaspinder Kaur, Dileep Kumar, Mostafa Alfishawy, Ricardo Lopez, Issac Sachmechi
Paliperidone, an active metabolite of risperidone, is a new atypical antipsychotic agent. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), and rhabdomyolysis are the uncommon side effects of psychotropic drugs. We report a case of 35-year-old male with schizoaffective disorder who was admitted for acute-on-chronic exacerbation of his psychotic disorder for which intramuscular paliperidone 234 mg injection was given. Two days later, the patient developed hyponatremic seizures secondary to SIADH which was treated with hypertonic saline...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
Xingxing Peng, Tsz Wai Ng, Guocheng Huang, Wanjun Wang, Taicheng An, Po Keung Wong
A 5-L reactor was designed and used to enhance the sunlight/visible-light-driven (VLD) photocatalytic disinfection efficiency towards Gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli). Natural magnetic sphalerite (NMS) was used as the photocatalyst, which could be easily recycled by applying a magnetic field. Results showed that NMS with irradiation by the blue light emitting diode (LED) lamp could completely inactivate 1.5 × 10(5) cfu/mL of E. coli within 120 min in the first three runs. However, the inactivation efficiency of E...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Monica Mattarozzi, Michele Suman, Claudia Cascio, Davide Calestani, Stefan Weigel, Anna Undas, Ruud Peters
Estimating consumer exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) in food products and predicting their toxicological properties are necessary steps in the assessment of the risks of this technology. To this end, analytical methods have to be available to detect, characterize and quantify NMs in food and materials related to food, e.g. food packaging and biological samples following metabolization of food. The challenge for the analytical sciences is that the characterization of NMs requires chemical as well as physical information...
October 3, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ruth M Rodgers, Shivaun M Gammie, Ruey Leng Loo, Sarah A Corlett, Janet Krska
BACKGROUND: Services provided by community pharmacists designed to support people using medicines are increasing. In England, two national services exist: Medicine Use Reviews (MUR) and New Medicines Service (NMS). Very few studies have been conducted seeking views of the public, rather than service users, on willingness to use these services or expectations of these services, or determined whether views align with pharmacist perceptions. OBJECTIVE: To compare the perceptions of pharmacists and the general public on medicines-related services, particularly MUR and NMS services...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Sara Totaro, Giulio Cotogno, Kirsten Rasmussen, Francesca Pianella, Marco Roncaglia, Heidi Olsson, Juan M Riego Sintes, Hugues P Crutzen
The European Commission has established a Nanomaterials Repository that hosts industrially manufactured nanomaterials that are distributed world-wide for safety testing of nanomaterials. In a first instance these materials were tested in the OECD Testing Programme. They have then also been tested in several EU funded research projects. The JRC Repository of Nanomaterials has thus developed into serving the global scientific community active in the nanoEHS (regulatory) research. The unique Repository facility is a state-of-the-art installation that allows customised sub-sampling under the safest possible conditions, with traceable final sample vials distributed world-wide for research purposes...
September 23, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Saurabh Kumar Jha, Niraj Kumar Jha, Dhiraj Kumar, Renu Sharma, Abhishek Shrivastava, Rashmi K Ambasta, Pravir Kumar
The communication between neurons at synaptic junctions is an intriguing process that monitors the transmission of various electro-chemical signals in the central nervous system. Albeit any aberration in the mechanisms associated with transmission of these signals leads to loss of synaptic contacts in both the neocortex and hippocampus thereby causing insidious cognitive decline and memory dysfunction. Compelling evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau serve as toxins in the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity and aberrant neurotransmitter (NT) release at synapses consequently causing a cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nazanin Rahmanian, Morteza Eskandani, Jaleh Barar, Yadollah Omidi
Rapid progresses in nanotechnology fields have led us to use a number of advanced nanomaterials (NMs) for engineering smart multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs)/nanosystems (NSs) for targeted diagnosis and therapy of various diseases including different types of malignancies. For the effective therapy of any type of solid tumor, the treatment modality should ideally solely target the aberrant cancerous cells/tissue with no/trivial impacts on the healthy cells. One approach to achieve such unprecedented impacts can be fulfilled through the use of seamless multimodal NPs/NSs with photoacoustic properties that can be achieved using advanced NMs such as graphene oxide (GO)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
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