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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920821/the-influence-of-sex-and-neonatal-stress-on-medullary-microglia-in-rat-pups
#1
Cécile Baldy, Stéphanie Fournier, Samuel Boisjoly-Villeneuve, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Richard Kinkead
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? Does neonatal stress, in the form of neonatal maternal separation, influence the maturation of microglial density, morphology, and neuronal signalling in medullary regions regulating cardio-respiratory function in rat pups? What is the main finding and its importance? Using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry, we show that neonatal maternal separation augments microglial density and the proportion of cells with an amoeboid morphology in the medulla...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908287/characterization-of-nanomedicines-surface-coverage-using-molecular-probes-and-capillary-electrophoresis
#2
J-B Coty, F Varenne, A Benmalek, O Garsaa, I Le Potier, M Taverna, C Smadja, C Vauthier
A faithful characterization of nanomedicine (NM) is needed for a better understanding of their in vivo outcomes. Size and surface charge are studied with well-established methods. However, other relevant parameters for the understanding of NM behavior in vivo remain largely inaccessible. For instance, the reactive surface of nanomedicines, which are often grafted with macromolecules to decrease their recognition by the immune system, is excluded from a systematic characterization. Yet, it is known that a subtle modification of NM's surface characteristics (grafting density, molecular architecture and conformation of macromolecules) is at the root of major changes in the presence of biological components...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908221/maternal-separation-stress-reduced-prenatal-ethanol-induced-increase-in-exploratory-behaviour-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-activity
#3
Patricia C Swart, Vivienne A Russell, Jacqueline J Dimatelis
In an attempt to better represent the aetiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and the associated psychological deficits, prenatal-ethanol exposure was followed by maternal separation in a rat model in order to account for the effects of early-life adversities in addition to in utero alcohol exposure. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) are converging points for many signalling cascades and have been implicated in models of FASD and models of early-life stress...
June 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903041/saturated-long-chain-fatty-acid-producing-bacteria-contribute-to-enhanced-colonic-motility-in-rats
#4
Ling Zhao, Yufen Huang, Lin Lu, Wei Yang, Tao Huang, Zesi Lin, Chengyuan Lin, Hiuyee Kwan, Hoi Leong Xavier Wong, Yang Chen, Silong Sun, Xuefeng Xie, Xiaodong Fang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Lixin Zhu, Zhaoxiang Bian
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is closely associated with gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorder, but the mechanism(s) by which bacteria interact with and affect host GI motility remains unclear. In this study, through using metabolomic and metagenomic analyses, an animal model of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) characterized by accelerated colonic motility and gut dysbiosis was used to investigate the mechanism underlying microbiota-driven motility dysfunction. RESULTS: An excess of intracolonic saturated long-chain fatty acids (SLCFAs) was associated with enhanced bowel motility in NMS rats...
June 14, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890203/essential-function-of-vcp-p97-in-infection-cycle-of-the-nucleopolyhedrovirus-acmnpv-in-spodoptera-frugiperda-sf9-cells
#5
Yulia V Lyupina, Pavel A Erokhov, Oksana I Kravchuk, Alexander D Finoshin, Svetlana B Abaturova, Olga V Orlova, Svetlana N Beljelarskaya, Margarita V Kostyuchenko, Victor S Mikhailov
The protein VCP/p97 (also named CDC48 and TER94) belongs to a type II subfamily of the AAA + ATPases and controls cellular proteostasis by acting upstream of proteasomes in the ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation pathway. The function of VCP/p97 in the baculovirus infection cycle in insect cells remains unknown. Here, we identified VCP/p97 in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and analyzed the replication of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, AcMNPV, in Sf9 cells in which the VCP/p97 function was inhibited...
June 8, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887129/the-impact-of-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-on-polysomnographic-sleep-pattern-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-preliminary-report
#6
Jarosław Dulski, Michał Schinwelski, Agnieszka Konkel, Karol Grabowski, Witold Libionka, Piotr Wąż, Sitek E J, Jarosław Sławek
AIM OF THE STUDY: We present the preliminary results of the study focused on the impact of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS-STN) on sleep and other non-motor symptoms (NMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with advanced PD, underwent two-night polysomnography (PSG) mean 1.1 week before surgery and 6.2 months post DBS programming. NMS were assessed with a set of scales before surgery and 6 months and 12 months following DBS programming. RESULTS: Contrary to previous studies, we noted deterioration of sleep pattern in the follow-up PSG...
June 1, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876975/novel-bismuth-based-nanomaterials-used-for-cancer-diagnosis-and-therapy
#7
Yan Cheng, Haiyuan Zhang
Theranostic nanomaterials (NMs) have gained increasing attention for their simultaneous performance of diagnosis and therapy. Bismuth (Bi)-based NMs hold great potentials as theranostic platforms based on their X-ray sensitive capability, near infrared driven semiconductor properties, and distinctive structures, which facilitate the computed tomography (CT) imaging, photoacoustic (PA) imaging, radiation therapy, and phototherapy. The sophisticated design in composition, structure, and surface fabrication of Bi-based NMs can endow these NMs with more modalities in cancer diagnosis and therapy...
June 6, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857407/using-real-time-data-to-warn-nurses-of-medication-administration-errors-using-a-nurse-situational-awareness-dashboard
#8
Amy A Campbell, Todd Harlan, Matt Campbell
Electronic Health Records (EHR) are constantly gathering an exponential amount healthcare data. Historical data is often studied to identify trends and determine the effectiveness of interventions, but rarely is Real-time data utilized to positively influence the nurse at the Point of Care. A dashboard allowing nurses to visualize their individual Near-Miss (MN) medication error risk as the needs and subsequent workload of the patients they served changed was created and piloted for 30- days. Implementation of the dashboard resulted in a 15...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804147/correlation-among-olfactory-function-motors-symptoms-cognitive-impairment-apathy-and-fatigue-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Carla Masala, Paolo Solla, A Liscia, G Defazio, L Saba, A Cannas, A Cavazzana, T Hummel, A Haehner
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually considered as a movement disorder, it is strongly associated with non-motor symptoms (NMS), including smell and taste dysfunctions, cognitive impairment, apathy, fatigue, and autonomic dysregulation. Olfactory deficit is considered the most common NMS in PD preceding the motor symptoms for years. The aim of this study was to investigate olfactory function, cognitive impairment, apathy, and fatigue in patients with PD in comparison with healthy controls, and subsequently to analyse the correlations between these NMS and motor symptoms severity in subjects with PD...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784775/recombinant-escherichia-coli-as-a-biofactory-for-various-single-and-multi-element-nanomaterials
#10
Yoojin Choi, Tae Jung Park, Doh C Lee, Sang Yup Lee
Nanomaterials (NMs) are mostly synthesized by chemical and physical methods, but biological synthesis is also receiving great attention. However, the mechanisms for biological producibility of NMs, crystalline versus amorphous, are not yet understood. Here we report biosynthesis of 60 different NMs by employing a recombinant Escherichia coli strain coexpressing metallothionein, a metal-binding protein, and phytochelatin synthase that synthesizes a metal-binding peptide phytochelatin. Both an in vivo method employing live cells and an in vitro method employing the cell extract are used to synthesize NMs...
June 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778981/walking-the-line-the-fate-of-nanomaterials-at-biological-barriers
#11
REVIEW
Huan Meng, Wei Leong, Kam W Leong, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
Biological systems have developed an efficient multi-tiered defense system to block foreign substances such as engineered nanomaterials (NMs) from causing damage. In a pathological scenario, the disease itself may also pose additional barriers due to the imbalance between abnormal cells and their surrounding microenvironment, and NMs could behave similarly or differently to classic foreign substances, depending on their unique characteristics. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that govern the fate of NMs against these biological barriers, including the strategies that can be used to shift their fate between access and blockage, become key information for NMs design...
May 5, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769252/frequency-of-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-presenting-to-tertiary-care-centre-in-pakistan-an-observational-cross-sectional-study
#12
Shahid Mukhtar, Rashid Imran, Mohsin Zaheer, Huma Tariq
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD) presenting to a movement disorder clinic at a tertiary care centre in Pakistan, and how frequency of NMS is different in male and female patients. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary care centre. PARTICIPANTS: Out of 102 patients, 85 were included. Inclusion criteria were patients with PD diagnosed according to the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, age ≥18 years, able to give consent and have no difficulty in answering questions...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766753/toxicity-of-pristine-and-paint-embedded-tio-2-nanomaterials
#13
A T Saber, A Mortensen, J Szarek, N R Jacobsen, M Levin, I K Koponen, K A Jensen, U Vogel, H Wallin
Little is known on the toxicity of nanomaterials in the user phase. Inclusion of nanomaterials in paints is a common nanotechnology application. This study focuses on the toxicity of dusts from sanding of paints containing nanomaterials. We compared the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanomaterials (TiO2 NMs) and dusts generated by sanding boards coated with paints with different amounts of two different types of uncoated TiO2 NMs (diameters:10.5 nm and 38 nm). Mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose of 18, 54 and 162 µg of TiO2 NMs or 54, 162 and 486 µg of sanding dusts...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764353/non-motor-parkinson-disease-new-concepts-and-personalised-management
#14
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Most patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have non-motor symptoms (NMS), and on average these can range from four to 19 different symptoms. NMS dominate the prodromal phase of PD and some may serve as clinical biomarkers of PD. NMS can be dopaminergic, non-dopaminergic, of genetic origin or drug induced. Clinical assessment of NMS should include the NMS Questionnaire (completed by patients) for screening, as recommended by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society and other international societies...
May 21, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748849/correlations-between-abnormal-iron-metabolism-and-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Wu Xu, Yan Zhi, Yongsheng Yuan, Bingfeng Zhang, Yuting Shen, Hui Zhang, Kezhong Zhang, Yun Xu
Despite a growing body of evidence suggests that abnormal iron metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), few studies explored its role in non-motor symptoms (NMS) of PD. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between abnormal iron metabolism and NMS of PD. Seventy PD patients and 64 healthy controls were consecutively recruited to compare serum iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, and transferrin levels. We evaluated five classic NMS, including depression, anxiety, pain, sleep disorder, and autonomic dysfunction in PD patients using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms, respectively...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738461/characterization-of-nanoparticle-batch-to-batch-variability
#16
Sonja Mülhopt, Silvia Diabaté, Marco Dilger, Christel Adelhelm, Christopher Anderlohr, Thomas Bergfeldt, Johan Gómez de la Torre, Yunhong Jiang, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Dominique Langevin, Iseult Lynch, Eugene Mahon, Inge Nelissen, Jordi Piella, Victor Puntes, Sikha Ray, Reinhard Schneider, Terry Wilkins, Carsten Weiss, Hanns-Rudolf Paur
A central challenge for the safe design of nanomaterials (NMs) is the inherent variability of NM properties, both as produced and as they interact with and evolve in, their surroundings. This has led to uncertainty in the literature regarding whether the biological and toxicological effects reported for NMs are related to specific NM properties themselves, or rather to the presence of impurities or physical effects such as agglomeration of particles. Thus, there is a strong need for systematic evaluation of the synthesis and processing parameters that lead to potential variability of different NM batches and the reproducible production of commonly utilized NMs...
May 8, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732939/development-of-a-systematic-method-to-assess-similarity-between-nanomaterials-for-human-hazard-evaluation-purposes-lessons-learnt
#17
Margriet Vdz Park, Julia Catalán, Natalia Ferraz, Joan Cabellos, Ralph Vanhauten, Socorro Vázquez-Campos, Gemma Janer
Within the EU FP-7 GUIDEnano project, a methodology was developed to systematically quantify the similarity between a nanomaterial (NM) that has been tested in toxicity studies and the NM for which risk needs to be evaluated, for the purpose of extrapolating toxicity data between the two materials. The methodology is a first attempt to use current knowledge on NM property-hazard relationships to develop a series of pragmatic and systematic rules for assessing NM similarity. Moreover, the methodology takes into account the practical feasibility, in that it is based on generally available NM characterization information...
May 6, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729616/earthworm-avoidance-of-silver-nanomaterials-over-time
#18
Jennifer Mariyadas, Mónica J B Amorim, John Jensen, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand
Avoidance behaviour offers a highly relevant information as it reveals the ability to avoid (or not) possible toxic compounds in the field, hence it provides information on reasons for the presence/absence in the field. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was used to study avoidance behaviour to four silver forms (three nanomaterials (NMs) and one salt) over four time points (24, 48, 72 and 96 h), using OECD standard soil. Avoidance behaviour depended on both exposure material and concentration, but in general changed little with exposure duration...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727968/an-overview-of-graphene-materials-properties-applications-and-toxicity-on-aquatic-environments
#19
REVIEW
Lucia De Marchi, Carlo Pretti, Bárbara Gabriel, Paula A A P Marques, Rosa Freitas, Victor Neto
Due to unique chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials from the Graphene family are being increasingly introduced in all fields of science. The specific roles they can occupy within different applications are attracting increased attention by several industrial sectors. These carbon nanoparticles are released into the environment especially accumulating in aquatic systems. Since the discovery of graphene, a number of research actives are being conducted to find out the toxic potential of the Graphene family materials to different organism's models...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724789/ligand-specific-signaling-profiles-and-resensitization-mechanisms-of-the-neuromedin-u2-receptor
#20
Khaled Alhosaini, Omar Bahattab, Heider Qassam, John Challiss, Gary B Willars
The structurally related, but distinct neuropeptides, neuromedin U (NmU) and neuromedin S (NmS) are ligands of two G protein-coupled NmU receptors (NMU1, NMU2). Hypothalamic NMU2 regulates feeding behavior and energy expenditure and has therapeutic potential as an anti-obesity target, making an understanding of its signaling and regulation of particular interest. NMU2 binds both NmU and NmS with high affinity, resulting in receptor-ligand co-internalization. We have investigated whether receptor trafficking events post-internalization are 'biased' by the ligand bound and can therefore influence signaling function...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
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