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Angela N Pierce, Olivia C Eller-Smith, Julie A Christianson
AIMS: Patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) commonly suffer from widespread pain and mood disorder, which has been attributed to improper functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Voluntary exercise has been shown to improve HPA axis function, therefore we are determining whether voluntary wheel running can attenuate urological pain and dysfunction following neonatal maternal separation (NMS) in female mice. METHODS: Mice underwent NMS for 3 h/day from postnatal Day 1-21, were caged with free access to running wheels at 4 weeks of age, and assessed 4 weeks later for bladder sensitivity, micturition, reward behavior, mast cell degranulation, and HPA axis-related in vitro analysis...
February 21, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Ismail Ocsoy, Didar Tasdemir, Sumeyye Mazicioglu, Weihong Tan
The integration of nanotechnology in medicine has had a tremendous impact in the past few decades. The discovery of synthesis of nanomaterials (NMs) and their functions as versatile tools promoted various applications in nano-biotechnology and nanomedicine. Although the physical and chemical methods are still considered as commonly used methods, they introduce several drawbacks such as the use of toxic chemicals (solvent, reducing, and capping agents) and poor control of size, size distribution, and morphology, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Aynur Sahin, Mustafa Cicek, Ozgen Gonenc Cekic, Mucahit Gunaydin, Demet Saglam Aykut, Ozgur Tatli, Yunus Karaca, Mualla Aylin Arici
Objective: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a neurological emergency rarely encountered in clinical practice but with a high mortality rate. Cases associated with atypical antipsychotic use or termination of dopamine agonists have been seen in recent years. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of risk factors for mortality by investigating all clinical and laboratory characteristics of cases with NMS. Material and methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study retrospectively investigated all clinical and laboratory characteristics by scanning the ICD-10 codes of patients presenting to the XXXX Faculty of Medicine Emergency Department and diagnosed with NMS between 2006 and 2016...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Lori R Kogan, Mark Rishniw, Peter W Hellyer, Regina M Schoenfeld-Tacher
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of medical errors (specifically, near misses [NMs] and adverse events [AEs]) and their personal and professional impact on veterinarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Members of the Veterinary Information Network (n = 46,481). PROCEDURES An electronic survey regarding veterinarians' experiences with NMs and AEs was distributed via email to an online veterinary community between September 24 and October 21, 2015. Responses were summarized and compared between genders by means of the χ2 test...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Utkarsh A Reddy, P V Prabhakar, M Mahboob
CONTEXT: Magnetic nanomaterials (Fe3 O4 NMs) have become novel tools with multiple biological and medical applications because of their biocompatibility. However, adverse health effects of these NMs are of great interest to learn. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the size and dose dependant effects of Fe3 O4 NMs and its bulk on oxidative stress biomarkers after post-subacute treatment in female wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were daily administered with 30, 300, and 1000 mg/kg b...
February 19, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Jean-Baptiste Coty, Christine Vauthier
The nanotechnology revolution offers many expectations for the improvement of medicine treatments. At present, nanomedicine (NM) development is hampered by methodological barriers for a better characterization and a wider understanding of their in vivo behavior. While regulatory agencies setup guidelines to support NM translation from bench to bedside, the gap is still hardly overcome by main nanomedicines. One lever for filling this gap is a better characterization, thus increasing the global knowledge about the NM itself but also validate the confidence in terms of batch to batch reproducibility of such complex nano-objects...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Henriqueta Louro
The manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) have specific physicochemical properties that confer unique mechanical, optical, electrical and magnetic characteristics that are beneficial for biomedical and industrial applications. However, recent studies have suggested that such specific physicochemical properties of the NMs may define nano-bio interactions thereby determining their toxic potential.One of the major concerns about NMs is the potential to induce cancer, suggested by some experimental studies, as seen for titanium dioxide nanomaterials or carbon nanotubes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Magdalena Korczynska, Mary J Clark, Celine Valant, Jun Xu, Ee Von Moo, Sabine Albold, Dahlia R Weiss, Hayarpi Torosyan, Weijiao Huang, Andrew C Kruse, Brent R Lyda, Lauren T May, Jo-Anne Baltos, Patrick M Sexton, Brian K Kobilka, Arthur Christopoulos, Brian K Shoichet, Roger K Sunahara
Subtype-selective antagonists for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have long been elusive, owing to the highly conserved orthosteric binding site. However, allosteric sites of these receptors are less conserved, motivating the search for allosteric ligands that modulate agonists or antagonists to confer subtype selectivity. Accordingly, a 4.6 million-molecule library was docked against the structure of the prototypical M 2 mAChR, seeking molecules that specifically stabilized antagonist binding. This led us to identify a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that potentiated the antagonist N -methyl scopolamine (NMS)...
February 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J J Scott-Fordsmand, M J B Amorim, P B Sørensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Quintí Foguet-Boreu, Montse Coll-Negre, Montse Serra-Millàs, Miquel Cavalleria-Verdaguer
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a severe motor syndrome occurring as a consequence of neuroleptic treatment. We present a case of a 67-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of a major depressive disorder with psychotic features. During her third hospital admission, symptoms of autonomic instability, hyperpyrexia, severe extrapyramidal side effects, and delirium appeared, suggesting NMS due to concomitant treatment with risperidone and quetiapine, among other drugs. Despite several consecutive pharmacological treatments (lorazepam, bromocriptine and amantadine) and prompt initiation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), clinical improvement was observed only after combining bupropion with ECT...
January 8, 2018: Clinics and Practice
Andrew J Chetwynd, Emily J Guggenheim, Sophie M Briffa, James A Thorn, Iseult Lynch, Eugenia Valsami-Jones
Due to the increasing use and production of nanomaterials (NMs), the ability to characterise their physical/chemical properties quickly and reliably has never been so important. Proper characterisation allows a thorough understanding of the material and its stability, and is critical to establishing dose-response curves to ascertain risks to human and environmental health. Traditionally, methods such as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Flow Fractionation (FFF) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) have been favoured for size characterisation, due to their wide-availability and well-established protocols...
February 10, 2018: Nanomaterials
Xiaolong Yu, Fumitake Nishimura, Taira Hidaka
With the phase-out of persistent, bioaccumalative, and toxic perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), it is needed to explore the potential release of PFCAs from precursors being emitted into the environment. Biotransformation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) via biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) leads to discharge of PFCAs into receiving waters. However, the commonly existed microbial activity that can impact on FTOHs biodegradation in WWTPs remains unclear. The objective of present research was to explore the relationship between ammonia-oxidation process and the enhanced PFCAs generation from FTOHs biodegradation under aerobic activated sludge...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
V Leso, L Fontana, A Marinaccio, K Leopold, C Fanali, D Lucchetti, A Sgambato, I Iavicoli
The widespread industrial application of nanomaterials (NMs) has dramatically increased the likelihood of environmental and occupational exposure of humans to such xenobiotics. This issue, together with the increasing public health interest in understanding the effects of chemicals on endocrine system, encouraged to investigate the disruptive potential of NMs on the endocrine function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) on the female reproductive system of Wistar rats, intravenously exposed to different doses (0...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Flavio Della Pelle, Dario Compagnone
Polyphenolic compounds (PCs) have received exceptional attention at the end of the past millennium and as much at the beginning of the new one. Undoubtedly, these compounds in foodstuffs provide added value for their well-known health benefits, for their technological role and also marketing. Many efforts have been made to provide simple, effective and user friendly analytical methods for the determination and antioxidant capacity (AOC) evaluation of food polyphenols. In a parallel track, over the last twenty years, nanomaterials (NMs) have made their entry in the analytical chemistry domain; NMs have, in fact, opened new paths for the development of analytical methods with the common aim to improve analytical performance and sustainability, becoming new tools in quality assurance of food and beverages...
February 4, 2018: Sensors
Carsten Eggers, R Dano, J Schill, G R Fink, M Hellmich, L Timmermann
INTRODUCTION: Improving quality of life (QoL) is a key issue when dealing with Parkinson's disease (PD). Integrative care shows potential to achieve improvements in QoL. Here, we analyzed whether a community-based, open-label, integrated approach improves QoL in PD patients. METHODS: PD patients were screened for eligibility and evaluated by a university-based PD specialist, a PD nurse, and a general neurologist at a local practice. Patients were randomly assigned to a control group (CG), receiving standard German neurological treatment including a baseline assessment and follow-up visit at 6 months, or an interventional group (IG) who received an individually tailored therapy plan and additional home visits...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Jing Shi, Jinzhou Tian, Ting Li, Bin Qin, Dongsheng Fan, Jingnian Ni, Mingqing Wei, Xuekai Zhang, Na Liu, Jianping Liu, Yumeng Li, Weiwei Liu, Yongyan Wang
BACKGROUND: As a multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder, Parkinson disease (PD) has a broad spectrum of symptoms including motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS). As shown in studies, NMS can also impact patient's quality of life, and many of them often go untreated. Chinese herbal medicines with multiconstituent may alleviate NMS in PD patients. This research is carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of a Chinese herbal formula for NMS, with its Chinese name acronym of SQJZ. METHODS/DESIGN: It will be a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ying Wang, Monika Mortimer, Chong Hyun Chang, Patricia A Holden
Robust evaluation of potential environmental and health risks of carbonaceous and boron nitride nanomaterials (NMs) is imperative. However, significant agglomeration of pristine carbonaceous and boron nitride NMs due to strong van der Waals forces renders them not suitable for direct toxicity testing in aqueous media. Here, the natural polysaccharide alginic acid (AA) was used as a nontoxic, environmentally relevant dispersant with defined composition to disperse seven types of carbonaceous and boron nitride NMs, including multiwall carbon nanotubes, graphene, boron nitride nanotubes, and hexagonal boron nitride flakes, with various physicochemical characteristics...
January 30, 2018: Nanomaterials
Amélie Châtel, Clémence Lièvre, Andrew Barrick, Mélanie Bruneau, Catherine Mouneyrac
The extensive development of nanotechnologies will inevitably lead to the release of nanomaterials (NMs) in the environment. As the aquatic environments represent the ultimate sink for various contaminants, it is highly probable that they also constitute a reservoir for NMs and hence aquatic animals represent potential targets. In a regulatory perspective, it is necessary to develop tools to rapidly screen the impact of NMs on model organisms, given that the number of NMs on the market will be increasing. In this context High Throughput Screening approaches represent relevant tools for the investigation of NM-mediated toxicity...
January 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Da Eun Jang, Ji Hyun Bae, Yoo Jin Chang, Yoon Hoo Lee, Ki Taek Nam, Il Yong Kim, Je Kyung Seong, Yong Chan Lee, Su Cheong Yeom
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder involving changes in normal bowel movements. The pathophysiology of IBS is not clearly understood owing to the lack of identifiable pathological abnormalities and reliable biomarkers. AIM: The aim of this study was to discover the novel and reliable biomarker for IBS. METHOD: In this study, neonatal maternal separation (NMS) stress model was used for the IBS mouse model...
January 25, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Tsuyoshi Yoshizawa, Yukio Hayashi, Akira Yoshida, Shohei Yoshida, Yoshihiko Ito, Kenya Yamaguchi, Shizuo Yamada, Satoru Takahashi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate time course of bladder dysfunction and concurrent changes in number and affinity of the muscarinic and P2X receptor in the early stage of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetic rats were prepared by the intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of STZ to 7-week-old female Wistar rats. We performed recording of 24-h voiding behavior and cystometry at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the induction of diabetes...
January 24, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
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