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Childhood stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781505/cerebral-vasculopathy-in-childhood-neurofibromatosis-type-2-cause-for-concern
#1
Karine Lascelles, Shazia Afridi, Ata Siddiqui, Cheryl Hemingway, Rosalie Ferner, Vijeya Ganesan
Unlike adult neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), which presents with symptoms related to bilateral vestibular schwannomas, children with NF2 most frequently present with ocular, dermatological, and neurological symptoms. Arteriopathy, a well-established feature in neurofibromatosis type 1, is not a widely recognized feature of NF2. Here we report three children with NF2 with cerebral arteriopathy and/or arterial ischaemic stroke. Bevacizumab, a vascular endothethial growth factor inhibitor, is an established treatment for rapidly growing vestibular schwannomas; however, it carries a risk of both ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756230/the-relationship-between-pulmonary-artery-wedge-pressure-and-pulmonary-blood-volume-derived-from-contrast-echocardiography-a-proof-of-concept-study
#2
Ken Monahan, Daniel Lenihan, Evan L Brittain, Linda Saliba, Robert N Piana, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Gregory T Armstrong
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary transit time (PTT) obtained from contrast echocardiography is a marker of global cardiopulmonary function. Pulmonary blood volume (PBV), derived from PTT, may be a noninvasive surrogate for left-sided filling pressures, such as pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP). We sought to assess the relationship between PBV obtained from contrast echocardiography and PAWP. METHODS: Participants were adult survivors of childhood cancer that had contrast echocardiography performed nearly simultaneously with right-heart catheterization...
May 14, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730064/risk-of-radiation-vasculopathy-and-stroke-in-pediatric-patients-treated-with-proton-therapy-for-brain-and-skull-base-tumors
#3
Matthew D Hall, Julie A Bradley, Ronny L Rotondo, Ricardo Hanel, Chetan Shah, Christopher G Morris, Philipp R Aldana, Daniel J Indelicato
PURPOSE: To estimate the rate of and identify risk factors for vasculopathy after proton therapy in pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2006 and 2015, 644 pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors were treated with proton therapy at a single institution. The 3 most common histologies were craniopharyngioma (n = 135), ependymoma (n = 135), and low-grade glioma (n = 131)...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709427/abcc6-mutations-and-early-onset-stroke-two-cases-of-a-typical-pseudoxanthoma-elasticum
#4
Marta Bertamino, Mariasavina Severino, Alice Grossi, Marta Rusmini, Domenico Tortora, Carlo Gandolfo, Silvia Pederzoli, Clara Malattia, Paolo Picco, Pasquale Striano, Isabella Ceccherini, Maja Di Rocco
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by fragmented and mineralized elastic fibers in the mid-dermis of the skin, eye, digestive tract and cardiovascular system. Clinical presentation includes typical skin lesions, ocular angioid streaks, and multisystem vasculopathy. The age of onset varies considerably from infancy to old age, but the diagnosis is usually made in young adults due to frequent absence of pathognomonic skin and ocular manifestations in early childhood. We report two children with PXE presenting with isolated multisystem vasculopathy and early-onset stroke...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679441/feasibility-safety-and-outcome-of-recanalisation-treatment-in-childhood-stroke
#5
Sandra Bigi, Andrea Dulcey, Jan Gralla, Corrado Bernasconi, Amber Melliger, Alexandre N Datta, Marcel Arnold, Johannes Kaesmacher, Joel Fluss, Annette Hackenberg, Oliver Maier, Johannes Weber, Claudia Poloni, Urs Fischer, Maja Steinlin
Objective Intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy (IVT/EVT) are evidence-based treatments for adults with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). However, randomized controlled trials in pediatric patients are lacking. This study aimed to describe feasibility, safety, and outcome of IVT/EVT in children with AIS. Methods Retrospective study (01/2000-12/2015) of a multicenter, population-based consecutive cohort of patients aged 1 month - 16 years diagnosed with AIS presenting with a pedNIHSS ≥4. Clinical and radiological data of patients receiving IVT/EVT were compared to those receiving standard care (SC) using linear regression to adjust for potential confounders...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655630/is-varicella-vaccination-associated-with-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Shannon E MacDonald, Douglas C Dover, Michael D Hill, Adam Kirton, Kimberley A Simmonds, Lawrence W Svenson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Varicella disease is a risk factor for pediatric Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS). Isolated case reports have emerged suggesting that varicella vaccination may also pose a risk for AIS. METHODS: This retrospective population-based cohort study assessed the risk of AIS in children who received a varicella-containing vaccine, as compared to those who did not. The study cohort consisted of children born between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2013, in the Canadian province of Alberta, where all routine childhood vaccinations are publicly-funded, and recorded in a central immunization repository...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652731/obesity-and-cardiovascular-risk-a-call-for-action-from-the-european-society-of-hypertension-working-group-of-obesity-diabetes-and-the-high-risk-patient-and-european-association-for-the-study-of-obesity-part-b-obesity-induced-cardiovascular-disease-early-prevention
#7
Vasilios Kotsis, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Christina Antza, Gino Seravalle, Antonio Coca, Cristina Sierra, Empar Lurbe, Stella Stabouli, Bojan Jelakovic, Josep Redon, Pau Redon, Peter M Nilsson, Jens Jordan, Dragan Micic, Nicholas Finer, Deborah R Leitner, Hermann Toplak, Lale Tokgozoglu, Vasilios Athyros, Moses Elisaf, Theodosios D Filippatos, Guido Grassi
: Obesity predisposes for atrial fibrillation, heart failure, sudden cardiac death, renal disease and ischemic stroke, which are the main causes of cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. As obesity and the cardiovascular effects on the vessels and the heart start early in life, even from childhood, it is important for health policies to prevent obesity very early before the disease manifestation emerge. Key roles in the prevention are strategies to increase physical exercise, reduce body weight and to prevent or treat hypertension, lipids disorders and diabetes earlier and efficiently to prevent cardiovascular complications...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645069/-childhood-ischemic-cerebrovascular-disease-in-a-paediatric-emergency-service-a-descriptive-study
#8
P Garcia-Sanchez, R Lopez-Lopez, L Rubio-Gordon, B Rosich-Del Cacho, L Tesouro-Rodriguez, M A Rivas-Paterna, M A Perez-Moneo Agapito, S Garcia-Garcia
AIM: To describe the clinical presentation, risk factors and complementary tests in patients of our paediatric emergency service with a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective, analytical and observational study, performed in a Paediatric Emergency Service of a tertiary-level hospital. We included patients aged 1 month to 14 years during a 12-years period with a final diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We analyzed personal history, symptomatology and initial complementary tests...
April 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614629/genetic-modifiers-of-severity-in-sickle-cell-disease
#9
Alicia K Chang, Carly C Ginter Summarell, Parendi T Birdie, Vivien A Sheehan
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common single disease disorders world-wide. It is remarkable for its clinical heterogeneity, even among individuals with identical genotypes. Some individuals experience morbidity and mortality in early childhood, while others have a relatively mild course, and normal or near normal life expectancy. Many clinical complications are associated with SCD; most notably frequent pain episodes, stroke, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, nephropathy, retinopathy and pulmonary hypertension...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594504/management-of-high-blood-pressure-in-children-similarities-and-differences-between-us-and-european-guidelines
#10
Tammy M Brady, Amalia Stefani-Glücksberg, Giacomo D Simonetti
Over the last several decades, many seminal longitudinal cohort studies have clearly shown that the antecedents to adult disease have their origins in childhood. Hypertension (HTN), which has become increasingly prevalent in childhood, represents one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as heart disease and stroke. With the risk of adult HTN much greater when HTN is manifest in childhood, the future burden of CVD worldwide is therefore concerning. In an effort to slow the current trajectory, professional societies have called for more rigorous, evidence-based guideline development to aid primary care providers and subspecialists in improving recognition, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of pediatric HTN...
March 28, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581340/arterial-wall-imaging-in-pediatric-stroke
#11
Nomazulu Dlamini, Ivanna Yau, Prakash Muthusami, David J Mikulis, Jorina Elbers, Mahmoud Slim, Rand Askalan, Daune MacGregor, Gabrielle deVeber, Manohar Shroff, Mahendranath Moharir
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Arteriopathy is common in childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and predicts stroke recurrence. Currently available vascular imaging techniques mainly image the arterial lumen rather than the vessel wall and have a limited ability to differentiate among common arteriopathies. We aimed to investigate the value of a magnetic resonance imaging-based technique, namely noninvasive arterial wall imaging (AWI), for distinguishing among arteriopathy subtypes in a consecutive cohort of children presenting with AIS...
April 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575995/large-vessel-arteriopathy-after-cranial-radiation-therapy-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-survivors
#12
Matthew Nordstrom, Erin Felton, Katherine Sear, Benita Tamrazi, Joseph Torkildson, Karen Gauvain, Daphne A Haas-Kogan, Josephine Chen, Benedict Del Buono, Anuradha Banerjee, David Samuel, David Saloner, Bing Tian, Erika Roddy, Christopher Hess, Heather Fullerton, Sabine Mueller
Among childhood cancer survivors, increased stroke risk after cranial radiation therapy may be caused by radiation-induced arteriopathy, but limited data exist to support this hypothesis. Herein, we assess the timing and presence of cerebral arteriopathy identified by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) after cranial radiation therapy in childhood brain tumor survivors. In a cohort of 115 pediatric brain tumor survivors, we performed chart abstraction and prospective annual follow-up to assess the presence of large vessel cerebral arteriopathy by MRA...
April 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540607/rates-and-risk-factors-for-arterial-ischemic-stroke-recurrence-in-children
#13
Arthur Stacey, Claire Toolis, Vijeya Ganesan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recurrent ischemic events are common in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and put patients at risk for further neurological impairment. This study sought to identify rates and risk factors for recurrent AIS or transient ischemic attack in a cohort of children seen after index AIS and uniformly investigated and managed using contemporary clinical guidelines. METHODS: Case note and radiology review of children >28 days and <18 years of age who presented to Great Ormond Street Hospital from 2005 to 2015 with index AIS...
April 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526346/childhood-stroke-and-vision-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Lauren B Crawford, Meredith R Golomb
OBJECTIVE: Here we review the current literature regarding visual outcome after perinatal and childhood stroke. BACKGROUND: Visual deficits following stroke in adults are common and have been previously reviewed. Less is known about visual deficits following stroke in neonates and older children. Most of the literature regarding this subject has focused on preterm infants, or on other types of brain injury. This review summarizes the types of visual deficits seen in term infants following perinatal stroke and children following childhood stroke and predictors of outcome...
April 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518012/individual-and-neighborhood-stressors-air-pollution-and-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Paula S Nurius, Anjum Hajat
Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495141/revascularization-of-concurrent-renal-and-cerebral-artery-stenosis-in-a-14-year-old-girl-with-takayasu-arteritis-and-moyamoya-syndrome
#16
Meng Luen Lee, Ming Yuh Chang, Tung Ming Chang, Rei Cheng Yang, Ming Che Chang, Albert D Yang
Concurrent involvement of bilateral renal and cerebral arteries, usually incurred as stenosis, is rare in childhood-onset Takayasu arteritis (c-TA). We report the case of a 14-year-old girl, with c-TA, presenting with transient ischemic attack after endovascular revascularization for renal artery stenosis and cerebrovascular stroke after surgical revascularization for cerebral artery stenosis associated with childhood-onset moyamoya syndrome. We deem that decrease of blood pressure by endovascular revascularization and improvement of cerebral perfusion by surgical revascularization may have jeopardized the cerebral deep watershed zone to cerebral ischemia followed by cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome and caused transient ischemic attack and cerebrovascular stroke in our patient...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482684/dental-management-of-a-pediatric-patient-with-moyamoya-syndrome-a-rare-clinical-entity
#17
Brittany L Ko, John H Unkel
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder involving progressive constriction of the internal carotid artery and its branches. The disease has a particularly aggressive course in very young patients, and early surgical intervention is often necessary to prevent permanent neurological damage. MMD patients have an increased risk of stroke development, which may be provoked by pain or anxiety. Currently, no reports of pediatric patients with MMD exist in the dental literature. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the dental management of a two-year-old with moyamoya disease who presented with early childhood caries and dental fear, offering recommendations for dental providers with emphasis on stroke prevention, collaboration with the medical team, anesthesia considerations for patients with increased stroke risk, and the challenges to maintain the oral health of a patient undergoing complex medical treatment...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482371/social-functioning-following-pediatric-stroke-contribution-of-neurobehavioral-impairment
#18
Mardee Greenham, Anne L Gordon, Anna Cooper, Michael Ditchfield, Lee Coleman, Rod W Hunt, Mark T Mackay, Paul Monagle, Vicki Anderson
Pediatric stroke can result in long-term neurobehavioral impairments including cognitive, language, and motor deficits, all of which may disrupt the normal development of social skills. This study aimed to examine specific components of social function at 5-year poststroke at a group and individual level and explore the contribution of neurobehavioral impairment. Thirty-one children with arterial ischemic stroke participated in the study. Assessment included parent-rated questionnaires measuring social adjustment and social participation as well as behavior and fatigue...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449420/childhood-stature-and-growth-in-relation-to-first-ischemic-stroke-or-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#19
Line Klingen Gjærde, Thomas Clement Truelsen, Jennifer Lyn Baker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Attained height, an indicator of genetic potential and childhood growth environment, is inversely associated with stroke, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated whether childhood height and growth are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: In a cohort of Danish schoolchildren born 1930 to 1989, with measured height from 7 to 13 years, we investigated associations of childhood stature and growth with risks of adult IS and ICH...
March 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432241/evaluation-and-acute-management-of-ischemic-stroke-in-infants-and-children
#20
Catherine Amlie-Lefond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of stroke in neonates, infants, and children. RECENT FINDINGS: Arterial ischemic stroke and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis are increasingly recognized in childhood as important causes of lifelong morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of arterial ischemic stroke is frequently delayed, as acute neurologic deficits can be challenging to detect in the young child, and stroke is often not considered in the differential diagnosis...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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