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Causal attribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107041/sleep-and-optimism-a-longitudinal-study-of-bidirectional-causal-relationship-and-its-mediating-and-moderating-variables-in-a-chinese-student-sample
#1
Esther Yuet Ying Lau, C Harry Hui, Jasmine Lam, Shu-Fai Cheung
While both sleep and optimism have been found to be predictive of well-being, few studies have examined their relationship with each other. Neither do we know much about the mediators and moderators of the relationship. This study investigated (1) the causal relationship between sleep quality and optimism in a college student sample, (2) the role of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as mediators, and (3) how circadian preference might moderate the relationship. Internet survey data were collected from 1,684 full-time university students (67...
January 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104365/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-the-cancer-connection
#2
REVIEW
Satish Srinivasan, Manti Guha, Anna Kashina, Narayan G Avadhani
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of many diseases. The retrograde signaling initiated by dysfunctional mitochondria can bring about global changes in gene expression that alters cell morphology and function. Typically, this is attributed to disruption of important mitochondrial functions, such as ATP production, integration of metabolism, calcium homeostasis and regulation of apoptosis. Recent studies showed that in addition to these factors, mitochondrial dynamics might play an important role in stress signaling...
January 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103456/health-inequalities-in-diabetes-mellitus-and-hypertension-a-parish-level-study-in-the-northern-region-of-portugal
#3
Teresa Leao, Julian Perelman, Manuela Felício, Vasco Machado, Graça Lima
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes and hypertension are highly prevalent conditions in Portugal. Little is known about the geographical and social patterning of these diseases, which precludes the design of targeted health policies. This study aimed to measure the geographical and socioeconomic distribution of type 2 diabetes and hypertension prevalence in the population resident in the Northern region of Portugal, for the year 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An ecological correlation study analyzed the 2,028 parishes of the region...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103371/condom-use-and-hiv-status-a-study-of-sex-workers-engaged-with-the-jamaican-aids-support-for-life-jasl
#4
H Budhwani, S Newton, K R Hearld, K Levermore
Objective: HIV prevention programs such as Jamaica AIDS Support for Life (JASL) work to lower the rate of HIV among marginalized groups. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate condom use and HIV status in JASL's Sex Worker (SW) population with the intent to identify behavioral differences between this self-selected group and the general SW population in Jamaica. We hypothesized that JASL's SW population would demonstrate higher condom use and a lower prevalence of HIV, potentially attributable to their prevention and education endeavours...
April 4, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098115/a-novel-fibrillin-1-mutation-in-an-egyptian-marfan-family-a-proband-showing-nephrotic-syndrome-due-to-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#5
Mohammad Al-Haggar, Ashraf Bakr, Yahya Wahba, Paul J Coucke, Fatma El-Hussini, Mona Hafez, Riham Eid, Abdel-Rahman Eid, Amr Sarhan, Ali Shaltout, Ayman Hammad, Sohier Yahia, Ahmad El-Rifaie, Dina Abdel-Hadi
Marfan syndrome (MFS), the founding member of connective tissue disorder, is an autosomal dominant disease; it is caused by a deficiency of the microfibrillar protein fibrillin-1 (FBN1) and characterized by involvement of three main systems; skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular. More than one thousand mutations in FBN1 gene on chromosome 15 were found to cause MFS. Nephrotic syndrome (NS) had been described in very few patients with MFS being attributed to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to infective endocarditis...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093299/freeze-concentration-induced-plga-and-polystyrene-nanoparticle-aggregation-imaging-and-rational-design-of-lyoprotection
#6
Lin Niu, Jayanth Panyam
Long-term storage of stable nanoparticulate systems is critical to the utilization of nanotechnology in biomedical applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is the most commonly used approach to preparing stable injectable nano formulations. A detailed understanding of the freezing stress on nanoparticles is essential to the successful preservation of original particle attributes and to the development of reliable lyophilization processes. However, visualization of the freezing process and the underlying mechanisms that result in particle aggregation remains challenging...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087736/imputation-of-orofacial-clefting-data-identifies-novel-risk-loci-and-sheds-light-on-the-genetic-background-of-cleft-lip-%C3%A2-cleft-palate-and-cleft-palate-only
#7
Kerstin U Ludwig, Anne C Böhmer, John Bowes, Miloš Nikolić, Nina Ishorst, Niki Wyatt, Nigel L Hammond, Lina Gölz, Frederic Thieme, Sandra Barth, Hannah Schuenke, Johanna Klamt, Malte Spielmann, Khalid Aldhorae, Augusto Rojas-Martinez, Markus M Nöthen, Alvaro Rada-Iglesias, Michael J Dixon, Michael Knapp, Elisabeth Mangold
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) is among the most common human birth defects with multifactorial etiology. Here, we present results from a genome-wide imputation study of nsCL/P in which, after adding replication cohort data, four novel risk loci for nsCL/P are identified (at chromosomal regions 2p21, 14q22, 15q24 and 19p13). On a systematic level, we show that the association signals within this high-density dataset are enriched in functionally-relevant genomic regions that are active in both human neural crest cells (hNCC) and mouse embryonic craniofacial tissue...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086971/characteristics-and-use-of-urban-health-indicator-tools-by-municipal-built-environment-policy-and-decision-makers-a-systematic-review-protocol
#8
Helen Pineo, Ketevan Glonti, Harry Rutter, Nicole Zimmermann, Paul Wilkinson, Michael Davies
BACKGROUND: There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health outcomes. Data from urban health indicator (UHI) tools are potentially a valuable form of evidence for local government policy and decision-makers...
January 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078366/genetic-screening-of-wnt4-and-wnt5b-in-two-populations-with-deviating-bone-mineral-densities
#9
Gretl Hendrickx, Eveline Boudin, Ellen Steenackers, Torben Leo Nielsen, Marianne Andersen, Kim Brixen, Wim Van Hul
A role for WNT4 and WNT5B in bone metabolism was indicated by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a Wnt4 knockout mouse model. The aim of this study was therefore to replicate and further investigate the causality between genetic variation in WNT4 and WNT5B and deviating bone mineral density (BMD) values. A WNT4 and WNT5B mutation screening was performed in patients with craniotubular hyperostosis using Sanger sequencing. Here, no putative causal mutations were detected. Moreover, a high and low BMD cohort was selected from the Odense Androgen Study population for re-sequencing...
January 12, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070853/is-the-association-between-education-and-fertility-postponement-causal-the-role-of-family-background-factors
#10
Felix C Tropf, Jornt J Mandemakers
A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within-identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models...
January 9, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054818/it-s-not-me-it-s-not-you-it-s-us-an-empirical-examination-of-relational-attributions
#11
Marion B Eberly, Erica C Holley, Michael D Johnson, Terence R Mitchell
It has recently been suggested that attribution theory expand its locus of causality dimension beyond internal and external attributions to include relational (i.e., interpersonal) attributions (Eberly, Holley, Johnson, & Mitchell, 2011). The current investigation was designed to empirically focus on relationship dynamics, specifically where 1 member of the relationship receives negative performance-related feedback. We use quantitative and qualitative data from 7 samples (5 samples for scale validation in Study 1 and 2 for hypothesis testing in Studies 2 and 3) that provide empirical support for the existence and impact of relational attributions...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042352/potentially-inappropriate-prescribing-andthe-risk-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-critically-ill-older-adults
#12
Thamires B Galli, Wálleri C Reis, Vânia M Andrzejevski
BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use in the elderly is associated with increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), but there is limited information regarding PIM use in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to describe the prevalence and factors associated with the use of PIM and the occurrence of PIM-related adverse reactions in the critically ill elderly. METHODS: This study enrolled all critically ill older adults (60 years or more) admitted to medical or cardiovascular ICUs between January and December 2013, in a large tertiary teaching hospital...
October 2016: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028192/evidence-for-reverse-causality-in-the-association-between-blood-pressure-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
William Herrington, Natalie Staplin, Parminder K Judge, Marion Mafham, Jonathan Emberson, Richard Haynes, David C Wheeler, Robert Walker, Charlie Tomson, Larry Agodoa, Andrzej Wiecek, Sarah Lewington, Christina A Reith, Martin J Landray, Colin Baigent
: Among those with moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease, the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease seems U shaped but is loglinear in apparently healthy adults. The SHARP (Study of Heart and Renal Protection) randomized 9270 patients with chronic kidney disease to ezetimibe/simvastatin versus matching placebo and measured BP at each follow-up visit. Cox regression was used to assess the association between BP and risk of cardiovascular disease among (1) those with a self-reported history of cardiovascular disease and (2) those with no such history and, based on plasma troponin-I concentration, a low probability of subclinical cardiac disease...
February 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012084/trophic-state-assessment-of-bhindawas-lake-haryana-india
#14
Ridhi Saluja, J K Garg
Trophic state allows for identification of problems and pressures that an ecosystem faces as well as demarcation of remedial measures. This study focuses on spatial and temporal variations in the trophic state and detection of possible causes of its divergence in Bhindawas Lake, India. The trophic state of the lake undulated between eutrophic and hyper-eutrophic state throughout the study period. Higher phosphorus concentration within the lake ecosystem is the dominant causal factor for its eutrophic state...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001225/adverse-drug-reactions-among-patients-admitted-with-infectious-diseases-at-a-brazilian-hospital
#15
Pamela Alejandra Saavedra, Micheline Marie Milward de Azevedo Meiners, Luciane Cruz Lopes, Emília Vitória da Silva, Dayde Lane Mendonça da Silva, Elza Ferreira Noronha, Maria Inês de Toledo
INTRODUCTION: Despite the therapeutic benefits of drugs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occur. Method: We assessed a series of suspected ADRs identified from notifications and intensive monitoring of inpatients from March 2013 to March 2014. RESULTS: Skin reactions predominated (31%). Systemic anti-infective agents were implicated in 16 (72%) reactions. Fifteen (68%) ADRs were classified as possible. The implicated drug was not correctly identified by the healthcare team in 12 cases...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992761/sleep-related-vehicle-crashes-on-low-speed-roads
#16
A J Filtness, K A Armstrong, A Watson, S S Smith
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occurring on roads with low (≤60km/h) and high (≥100km/h) speed limits, and (2) SR crashes and not-SR crashes occurring on roads with low speed limits...
December 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986496/medical-diagnostics-for-indoor-mold-exposure
#17
REVIEW
Julia Hurraß, Birger Heinzow, Ute Aurbach, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Albrecht Bufe, Walter Buzina, Oliver A Cornely, Steffen Engelhart, Guido Fischer, Thomas Gabrio, Werner Heinz, Caroline E W Herr, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Martin Köberle, Herbert Lichtnecker, Thomas Lob-Corzilius, Rolf Merget, Norbert Mülleneisen, Dennis Nowak, Uta Rabe, Monika Raulf, Hans Peter Seidl, Jens-Oliver Steiß, Regine Szewszyk, Peter Thomas, Kerttu Valtanen, Gerhard A Wiesmüller
In April 2016, the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin (GHUP)) together with other scientific medical societies, German and Austrian medical societies, physician unions and experts has provided an AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies) guideline 'Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure'. This guideline shall help physicians to advise and treat patients exposed indoors to mold. Indoor mold growth is a potential health risk, even without a quantitative and/or causal association between the occurrence of individual mold species and health effects...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984423/evaluation-of-medication-mediated-effects-in-pharmacoepidemiology
#18
Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Kelesitse Phiri
Medical conditions such as epilepsy or infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are known to be associated with a spectrum of adverse health outcomes if not appropriately managed by efficacious treatment and care. Medications for such conditions can be potent, and their use might sometimes have unintended health consequences. Prominent examples have emerged in HIV perinatal research in which use of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy to treat maternal HIV infection and prevent transmission of the virus to the fetus have been shown to be associated with adverse birth outcomes...
December 12, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984056/reciprocal-effects-between-dominance-and-anger-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
João Carlos Centurion Cabral, Patrice de Souza Tavares, Rosa Maria Martins de Almeida
Dominance and high status are directly associated with perception of angry expressions. However, studies that have sought to empirically assess the causal mechanisms between these construct are still relatively scarce. Moreover, several variables can influence and be influenced by both anger and dominance, increasing the complexity of synthesizing the findings related to the association between these agonistic behaviors. We conducted a systematic review in five electronic databases. A total of 207 potentially relevant publications were identified and screened...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939136/electromagnetic-hypersensitivity-ehs-in-occupational-and-primary-health-care-a-nation-wide-survey-among-general-practitioners-occupational-physicians-and-hygienists-in-the-netherlands
#20
Pauline Slottje, Imke van Moorselaar, Rob van Strien, Roel Vermeulen, Hans Kromhout, Anke Huss
Subjects who attribute health complaints to every day levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been referred to as electrohypersensitive (EHS). Previous surveys in Europe showed that 68-75% of general practitioners had ever been consulted on EHS. Given the lack of data on EHS in the Netherlands in the general population and on EHS in occupational settings, we performed a national survey among three professional groups that are likely in the first line of being consulted by EHS individuals. Results show that about one third of occupational hygienists, occupational physicians and general practitioners had ever been consulted by one or more EHS subjects...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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