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Causal attribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437439/landscape-and-environmental-influences-on-mycobacterium-ulcerans-distribution-among-aquatic-sites-in-ghana
#1
Shannon M Pileggi, Heather Jordan, Julie A Clennon, Ellen Whitney, M Eric Benbow, Richard Merritt, Mollie McIntosh, Ryan Kimbirauskas, Pamela Small, Daniel Boakye, Charles Quaye, Jiaguo Qi, Lindsay Campbell, Jenni Gronseth, Edwin Ampadu, William Opare, Lance A Waller
Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is highly endemic in West Africa. While the mode of transmission is unknown, many studies associate Buruli ulcer with different types of water exposure. We present results from the largest study to date to test for M. ulcerans in aquatic sites and identify environmental attributes associated with its presence. Environmental samples from 98 aquatic sites in the Greater Accra, Ashanti, and Volta regions of Ghana were tested for the presence of M. ulcerans DNA by polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433517/causal-attribution-and-psychobiological-response-to-competition-in-young-men
#2
A Salvador, R Costa, V Hidalgo, E González-Bono
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Psychoneuroendocrine effects of competition have been widely accepted as a clear example of the relationship between androgens and aggressive/dominant behavior in humans. However, results about the effects of competitive outcomes are quite heterogeneous, suggesting that personal and contextual factors play a moderating role in this relationship. To further explore these dimensions, we aimed to examine (i) the effect of competition and its outcome on the psychobiological response to a laboratory competition in young men, and (ii) the moderating role of some cognitive dimensions such as causal attributions...
April 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430867/emerging-evidence-for-the-role-of-differential-tumor-microenvironment-in-breast-cancer-racial-disparity-a-closer-look-at-the-surroundings
#3
Sachin Kumar Deshmukh, Sanjeev K Srivastava, Nikhil Tyagi, Aamir Ahmad, Ajay P Singh, Ahmed Al Ghadhban, Donna L Dyess, James E Carter, Kari Dugger, Seema Singh
Although increased awareness leading to early detection and prevention, as well as advancements in treatment strategies, have resulted in superior clinical outcomes, African American women with breast cancer continue to have greater mortality rates, compared to Caucasian American counterparts. Moreover, African American women are more likely to have breast cancer at a younger age and be diagnosed with aggressive tumor sub-types. Such racial disparities can be attributed to socioeconomic differences, but it is increasingly being recognized that these disparities may indeed be due to certain genetic and other non-genetic biological differences...
April 18, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422297/piecing-together-the-aggression-puzzle-testing-the-mediating-variables-linking-early-to-later-aggression
#4
Christopher P Barlett, Kaitlyn M Helmstetter, Douglas A Kowalewski, Logan Pezzillo
Results from several studies show that early aggression predicts later aggression; however, few studies have examined the mediating mechanisms in these relations. The paucity of research that has tested mediation found that aggressive motives and hostile attributions are important causal processes. This past work is limited by not measuring aggression multiple times throughout the study to test aggression change over time and the variables that mediate such change. The current study had participants (N = 90) interact with a same-sex confederate on a modified version of the Tangram Task-our measure of aggressive behavior-for three trials...
April 19, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421867/symptom-related-attributional-biases-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#5
Nicole Sanford, Todd S Woodward
INTRODUCTION: Biases in causal attributions and evidence integration have been implicated in delusions, but have not been investigated simultaneously to examine additive or multiplicative effects. It was hypothesised that paranoid delusions would correlate with self-serving and personalising biases ("defence" model of paranoia), particularly when these biases were disconfirmed. METHODS: Constrained principal component analysis was used to investigate differences between schizophrenia patients (paranoid vs...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419108/changes-in-prices-sales-consumer-spending-and-beverage-consumption-one-year-after-a-tax-on-sugar-sweetened-beverages-in-berkeley-california-us-a-before-and-after-study
#6
Lynn D Silver, Shu Wen Ng, Suzanne Ryan-Ibarra, Lindsey Smith Taillie, Marta Induni, Donna R Miles, Jennifer M Poti, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND: Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016) measures of (1) beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2) point-of-sale scanner data on 15...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409224/occupational-exposure-to-respirable-crystalline-silica-and-chronic-non-malignant-renal-disease-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Matthias Möhner, Anne Pohrt, Johannes Gellissen
BACKGROUND: While occupational exposure to respirable silica is known to lead to lung disease, most notably silicosis, its association with chronic kidney disease is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This review explores the association between occupational exposure to respirable silica and chronic non-malignant renal disease such as glomerulonephritis. The evidence has been collected and compiled. Possible sources of bias are thoroughly discussed. METHODS: Cohort studies with silica exposure and case-control studies of renal disease were searched in PubMed until January 2015...
April 13, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400952/alcohol-attributed-disease-burden-and-alcohol-policies-in-the-brics-countries-during-the-years-1990-2013
#8
Rynaz Rabiee, Emilie Agardh, Matthew M Coates, Peter Allebeck, Anna-Karin Danielsson
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributed disease burden by DALYs (disability adjusted life years) in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) between 1990 and 2013, and explore to what extent these countries have implemented evidence-based alcohol policies during the same time period. METHODS: A comparative risk assessment approach and literature review, within a setting of the BRICS countries. Participants were the total populations (males and females combined) of each country...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398194/causal-attributions-of-mental-health-problems-and-depressive-symptoms-among-older-somali-refugees-in-finland
#9
Saija Kuittinen, Mulki Mölsä, Raija-Leena Punamäki, Marja Tiilikainen, Marja-Liisa Honkasalo
Causal attributions of mental health problems play a crucial role in shaping and differentiating illness experience in different sociocultural and ethnic groups. The aims of this study were (a) to analyze older Somali refugees' causal attributions of mental health problems; (b) to examine the associations between demographic and diagnostic characteristics, proxy indicators of acculturation, and causal attributions; and (c) to analyze the connections between causal attributions and the manifestation of somatic-affective and cognitive depressive symptoms...
April 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397796/geographic-barriers-and-pleistocene-climate-change-shaped-patterns-of-genetic-variation-in-the-eastern-afromontane-biodiversity-hotspot
#10
Mario Mairal, Isabel Sanmartín, Alberto Herrero, Lisa Pokorny, Pablo Vargas, Juan J Aldasoro, Marisa Alarcón
The Eastern African Afromontane forest is getting increased attention in conservation studies because of its high endemicity levels and shrinking geographic distribution. Phylogeographic studies have found evidence of high levels of genetic variation structured across the Great Rift System. Here, we use the epiphytic plant species Canarina eminii to explore causal explanations for this pattern. Phylogeographic analyses were undertaken using plastid regions and AFLP fragments. Population genetic analyses, Statistical Parsimony, and Bayesian methods were used to infer genetic diversity, genealogical relationships, structure, gene flow barriers, and the spatiotemporal evolution of populations...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397280/self-blame-attributions-in-relatives-of-people-with-recent-onset-psychosis-associations-with-relatives-distress-and-behavioural-control
#11
Debora Vasconcelos E Sa, Christine Barrowclough, Samantha Hartley, Alison Wearden
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that self-blame is an important predictor of distress and depression in relatives of people with long-term psychosis, but there is limited research investigating the nature and correlates of self-blame in relatives of people with recent-onset psychosis. Self-blame motivates a tendency to engage with others and to repair wrongdoings; it might be that such cognitions also impact on relatives' behaviours towards the patient. This study examined the association between self-blame and psychological distress, and tested the prediction that greater self-blame would be associated with more behavioural control attempts to patients in a sample of relatives of people with recent-onset psychosis...
April 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396264/causal-pathways-from-enteropathogens-to-environmental-enteropathy-findings-from-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort-study
#12
Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy (EE), the adverse impact of frequent and numerous enteric infections on the gut resulting in a state of persistent immune activation and altered permeability, has been proposed as a key determinant of growth failure in children in low- and middle-income populations. A theory-driven systems model to critically evaluate pathways through which enteropathogens, gut permeability, and intestinal and systemic inflammation affect child growth was conducted within the framework of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) birth cohort study that included children from eight countries...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394170/dynamic-models-of-individual-change-in-psychotherapy-process-research
#13
Fredrik Falkenström, Steven Finkel, Rolf Sandell, Julian A Rubel, Rolf Holmqvist
OBJECTIVE: There is a need for rigorous methods to study the mechanisms that lead to individual-level change (i.e., process-outcome research). We argue that panel data (i.e., longitudinal study of a number of individuals) methods have 3 major advantages for psychotherapy researchers: (1) enabling microanalytic study of psychotherapeutic processes in a clinically intuitive way, (2) modeling lagged associations over time to ensure direction of causality, and (3) isolating within-patient changes over time from between-patient differences, thereby protecting against confounding influences because of the effects of unobserved stable attributes of individuals...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394153/attributions-about-homelessness-in-homeless-and-domiciled-people-in-madrid-spain-why-are-they-homeless-people
#14
José Juan Vázquez, Sonia Panadero, Claudia Zúñiga
Causal attributions of homelessness may affect both the design and acceptance of public policies aimed at improving the situation of homeless people and the strategies that homeless people themselves decide to adopt in order to cope with their situation. This article analyzes the differences in causal attributions of homelessness based on gender, age, nationality, educational background, perceived social class, evolution of personal economic situation, and future expectations between the members of 2 groups: (a) "homeless group", consisting of a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid, Spain (n = 188); and (b) "domiciled group", consisting of a sample of people in Madrid at no risk of homelessness (n = 180), matched for sex, age and nationality...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389339/modulating-the-activity-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-by-tdcs-alters-distributive-decisions-behind-the-veil-of-ignorance-via-risk-preference
#15
Jun Luo, Hang Ye, Haoli Zheng, Shu Chen, Daqiang Huang
Distributive justice concerns how individuals and societies distribute income in a just or equal manner. Previous studies from behavioural experiments have revealed that participants' distributive decisions vary according to the contexts of income distribution. Despite the long history of work on distributive behaviour, however, its psychological and neural underpinnings remain poorly understood. There many debates on whether and how the "weights" that are assigned to the individual payoffs (self-interest or risk aversion) and the payoff distribution of the others (social preference or fairness) in participants' objective functions, especially behind the veil of ignorance...
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386847/inhibition-of-intracellular-type-10-adenylyl-cyclase-protects-cortical-neurons-against-reperfusion-induced-mitochondrial-injury-and-apoptosis
#16
Megha Chagtoo, Nelson George, Neelam Pathak, Swasti Tiwari, Madan M Godbole, Yury Ladilov
Mitochondrial injury significantly contributes to the neuronal death under cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Within several signaling pathways, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling plays a substantial role in mitochondrial injury and cell death. Traditionally, the source of cellular cAMP has been attributed to the membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase, whereas the role of the intracellular localized type 10 soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in neuronal pathology has not been considered. Since neurons express an active form of sAC, we aimed to investigate the role of sAC in reperfusion-induced neuronal apoptosis...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385956/deconstructing-behavioral-neuropharmacology-with-cellular-specificity
#17
Brenda C Shields, Elizabeth Kahuno, Charles Kim, Pierre F Apostolides, Jennifer Brown, Sarah Lindo, Brett D Mensh, Joshua T Dudman, Luke D Lavis, Michael R Tadross
Behavior has molecular, cellular, and circuit determinants. However, because many proteins are broadly expressed, their acute manipulation within defined cells has been difficult. Here, we combined the speed and molecular specificity of pharmacology with the cell type specificity of genetic tools. DART (drugs acutely restricted by tethering) is a technique that rapidly localizes drugs to the surface of defined cells, without prior modification of the native target. We first developed an AMPAR antagonist DART, with validation in cultured neuronal assays, in slices of mouse dorsal striatum, and in behaving mice...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385043/the-dose-response-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-musculoskeletal-injury-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomized-trial
#18
Justin C Brown, Kathryn H Schmitz
In a post hoc analysis, we quantified the risk of musculoskeletal injury (MSI) associated with different volumes of aerobic exercise in a randomized trial. Premenopausal women (n = 119) were randomized to one of three groups: low-dose aerobic exercise (150 min·per week), high-dose aerobic exercise (300 min·per week) or control (usual activity) for 5 months. Compared to the control group, the risk of reporting an acute MSI increased with higher volumes of aerobic exercise, with a similar pattern observed for recurrent MSI...
April 6, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379889/caring-for-military-families-understanding-their-unique-stressors
#19
Regina Owen, Teresa Combs
Military families are often faced with unique stressors that civilian families do not have to deal with, such as deployment, geographic separation, and frequent relocation. When an NP is providing care for a military family, it is important that these unique stressors are discussed and understood. NPs can employ the Causal Uncertainty Model to encourage effortful cognition and support family attributes to ameliorate the negative effects of the stressors these families may face.
May 12, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378037/medical-disease-or-moral-defect-stigma-attribution-and-cultural-models-of-addiction-causality-in-a-university-population
#20
Nicole L Henderson, William W Dressler
This study examines the knowledge individuals use to make judgments about persons with substance use disorder. First, we show that there is a cultural model of addiction causality that is both shared and contested. Second, we examine how individuals' understanding of that model is associated with stigma attribution. Research was conducted among undergraduate students at the University of Alabama. College students in the 18-25 age range are especially at risk for developing substance use disorder, and they are, perhaps more than any other population group, intensely targeted by drug education...
April 4, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
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