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Causal attribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339854/prediction-versus-aetiology-common-pitfalls-and-how-to-avoid-them
#1
Merel van Diepen, Chava L Ramspek, Kitty J Jager, Carmine Zoccali, Friedo W Dekker
Prediction research is a distinct field of epidemiologic research, which should be clearly separated from aetiological research. Both prediction and aetiology make use of multivariable modelling, but the underlying research aim and interpretation of results are very different. Aetiology aims at uncovering the causal effect of a specific risk factor on an outcome, adjusting for confounding factors that are selected based on pre-existing knowledge of causal relations. In contrast, prediction aims at accurately predicting the risk of an outcome using multiple predictors collectively, where the final prediction model is usually based on statistically significant, but not necessarily causal, associations in the data at hand...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338764/fruit-and-vegetable-intake-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-total-cancer-and-all-cause-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#2
Dagfinn Aune, Edward Giovannucci, Paolo Boffetta, Lars T Fadnes, NaNa Keum, Teresa Norat, Darren C Greenwood, Elio Riboli, Lars J Vatten, Serena Tonstad
Background: Questions remain about the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality, and the effects of specific types of fruit and vegetables. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify these associations. Methods: PubMed and Embase were searched up to 29 September 2016. Prospective studies of fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality were included...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328700/lumbar-tactile-acuity-in-patients-with-low-back-pain-and-healthy-controls-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Wacław Adamczyk, Kerstin Luedtke, Edward Saulicz
OBJECTIVE: Diminished tactile acuity in chronic non-neuropathic pain syndromes has been attributed to central pain processing and cortical reorganization. The latter was recently targeted in clinical trials that demonstrated no clear advantages over traditional approaches for the reduction of nonspecific low back pain (LBP). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the current evidence on tactile acuity in LBP and pain-free controls. METHODS: Six databases were independently searched by 2 researchers...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327886/impact-on-the-psychotic-vulnerability-of-the-therapeutic-approachin-the-prison-psychiatric-hospital-in-seville-spain
#4
P Massé-García, F J Lamas-Bosque, A Massé-Palomo
OBJECTIVES: to analyze changes in psychotic vulnerability following the implementation of a program of prison psychiatric treatment, recidivism after the release and various descriptive variables of criminological interest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: review of a sample consisting of 50 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia admitted to the Prison Psychiatric Hospital of Seville. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant reduction of psychotic vulnerability according to an assessment using the Frankfurt psychopathological inventory (FBF-3), after conducting a complete psychiatric, psychological, social and rehabilitation approach in the prison environment...
June 2017: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298300/differential-processing-of-the-direction-and-focus-of-expansion-of-optic-flow-stimuli-in-areas-mst-and-v3a-of-the-human-visual-cortex
#5
Samantha L Strong, Edward H Silson, Andre D Gouws, Antony B Morland, Declan J McKeefry
Human neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have raised the possibility that different attributes of optic flow stimuli, namely radial direction and the position of the focus of expansion (FOE), are processed within separate cortical areas. In the human brain, visual areas V5/MT+ and V3A have been proposed as integral to the analysis of these different attributes of optic flow stimuli. In order to establish direct causal relationships between neural activity in V5/MT+ and V3A and the perception of radial motion direction and FOE position, we used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to disrupt cortical activity in these areas whilst participants performed behavioural tasks dependent on these different aspects of optic flow stimuli...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287949/community-theater-participation-and-nutrition-related-practices-evidence-from-nepal
#6
Carol R Underwood, Elena T Broaddus, Shreejana Kc, Ravindra K Thapa
Suaahara, a nutrition-enhancement program in Nepal, conducted participatory community theater (CT) dramas with the goal of improving nutrition-related practices. To evaluate CT, a pre/posttest with randomized intervention and matched control sites was used. Dramas were conducted in Nawalparasi, Bajhang, and Sindhupalchowk Districts to represent the mountain, hill, and terai/plains regions. Within each study district, two intervention sites were randomly selected and two matched comparison sites were identified for inclusion in the study...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281835/the-role-of-direct-single-monetary-grants-in-residents-choice-of-field-of-residency
#7
Yishay Wasserstrum, Racheli Magnezi, Ofer Tamir, Stav Koren, Dor Lotan, Arnon Afek
BACKGROUND: In an attempt to address severe medical manpower shortages in several medical disciplines, the Israeli Ministry of Health offered grants to residents who chose one of these fields. METHODS: A total of 220 residents from various disciplines were surveyed on demographic, academic, and professional data, and asked to rank considerations in the choice of their field of residency. RESULTS: Residents in targeted fields attributed significantly more importance to the grant in their decision-making process (U = 3704...
March 10, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281783/who-is-to-blame-framing-hpv-to-influence-vaccination-intentions-among-college-students
#8
McKenzie M Vorpahl, Janet Z Yang
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) among college students. Although previous research has studied HPV-related health communication strategies using various framing techniques, the goal of this study is to test how two unique message frames-whether mentioning HPV as an STI and whether to attribute the cause of infection as external or internal-would influence young adults' intentions to receive the recommended HPV vaccine. Results indicate that gender and causal attribution framing influenced participants' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine...
March 10, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278414/surveillance-of-adverse-events-following-immunisation-in-australia-annual-report-2014
#9
Aditi Dey, Han Wang, Helen E Quinn, Richard Hill, Kristine K Macartney
This report summarises Australian passive surveillance data for adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) for 2014 reported to the Therapeutic Goods Administration for 2014 and describes reporting trends over the 15-year period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2014. There were 3,087 AEFI records for vaccines administered in 2014; an annual AEFI reporting rate of 13.2 per 100,000 population. There was a decline of 5% in the overall AEFI reporting rate in 2014 compared with 2013. This decline in reported adverse events in 2014 compared with the previous year was mainly attributable to fewer reports following the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine as it was the 2nd year of the extension of the National HPV Vaccination Program to males...
September 30, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276738/-why-me-women-s-use-of-spiritual-causal-attributions-in-making-sense-of-breast-cancer
#10
Terry Lynn Gall, Cynthia Bilodeau
OBJECTIVE: This study addressed the role of positive (event is due to God's Love or to God's Will) and negative (event is due to God's Anger) spiritual causal attributions in women's adjustment to breast cancer. DESIGN: Ninety-three women diagnosed with breast cancer were assessed at six times from pre-diagnosis through two years post-surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women completed positive and negative measures of spiritual causal attributions (e...
March 1, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274168/resting-state-effective-connectivity-allows-auditory-hallucination%C3%A2-discrimination
#11
Manuel Graña, Leire Ozaeta, Darya Chyzhyk
Hallucinations are elusive phenomena that have been associated with psychotic behavior, but that have a high prevalence in healthy population. Some generative mechanisms of Auditory Hallucinations (AH) have been proposed in the literature, but so far empirical evidence is scarce. The most widely accepted generative mechanism hypothesis nowadays consists in the faulty workings of a network of brain areas including the emotional control, the audio and language processing, and the inhibition and self-attribution of the signals in the auditive cortex...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270785/whether-modulating-the-activity-of-the-temporalparietal-junction-alters-distribution-decisions-within-different-contexts-evidence-from-a-tdcs-study
#12
Jun Luo, Shu Chen, Daqiang Huang, Hang Ye, Haoli Zheng
Distributive justice concerns how individuals and societies distribute income in a just or equal manner. We aimed to test the roles of social preference in behavioral distributive justice. We thus provide evidence of a causal link between the neural and behavioral results through the application of bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of our participants. The participants were found to make fairer distributions within the known position after receiving right anodal/left cathodal tDCS and receiving right cathodal/left anodal tDCS over the TPJ than the participants who received the sham stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266114/interaction-of-lifestyle-behaviour-or-systemic-diseases-with-dental-caries-and-periodontal-diseases-consensus-report-of-group-2-of-the-joint-efp-orca-workshop-on-the-boundaries-between-caries-and-periodontal-diseases
#13
Iain L C Chapple, Philippe Bouchard, Maria Grazia Cagetti, Guglielmo Campus, Maria-Clotilde Carra, Fabio Cocco, Luigi Nibali, Philippe Hujoel, Marja L Laine, Peter Lingstrom, David J Manton, Eduardo Montero, Nigel Pitts, Hélène Rangé, Nadine Schlueter, Wim Teughels, Svante Twetman, Cor Van Loveren, Fridus Van der Weijden, Alexandre R Vieira, Andreas G Schulte
Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors, such as a requirement for a pathogenic plaque biofilm, yet they exhibit distinct pathophysiologies. Multiple exposures contribute to their causal pathways, and susceptibility involves risk factors that are inherited (e.g. genetic variants), and those that are acquired (e...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263191/coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-and-dementia-risk-in-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#14
Elżbieta Kuźma, Jac Airdrie, Thomas J Littlejohns, Ilianna Lourida, Jo Thompson-Coon, Iain A Lang, Monica Scrobotovici, Evan L Thacker, Annette Fitzpatrick, Lewis H Kuller, Oscar L Lopez, William T Longstreth, Obioha C Ukoumunne, David J Llewellyn
INTRODUCTION: The association between history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and dementia risk remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis using data on 3155 elderly adults free from prevalent dementia from the US population-based Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) with adjudicated incident all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and mixed dementia. RESULTS: In the CHS, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause dementia was 1...
March 3, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260901/validation-of-the-revised-illness-perception-questionnaire-in-turkish-epilepsy-patients-and-the-effects-of-earthquake-experience-on-perception-of-disease
#15
Selda Keskin Güler, Sertac Güler, Burcu Gökçe Çokal, Nalan Gunes, Mehmet İlker Yon, Tahir Kurtulus Yoldas
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the reliability of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in Turkish patients with epilepsy (PWE) and to determine the effects of earthquake experience on the perception of disease in patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample was composed of 48 PWE, who were affected by the 2011 earthquake (n=21) or who had never had any earthquake experience (n=27). The interview form, IPQ-R, and Beck Depression Scale (BDS) were applied...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259828/how-did-the-economic-recession-2008-2010-influence-traffic-fatalities-in-oecd-countries
#16
Fred Wegman, Richard Allsop, Constantinos Antoniou, Ruth Bergel-Hayat, Rune Elvik, Sylvain Lassarre, Daryl Lloyd, Wim Wijnen
This paper presents analyses of how the economic recession that started in 2008 has influenced the number of traffic fatalities in OECD countries. Previous studies of the relationship between economic recessions and changes in the number of traffic fatalities are reviewed. Based on these studies, a causal diagram of the relationship between changes of the business cycle and changes in the number of traffic fatalities is proposed. This causal model is tested empirically by means of multivariate analyses and analyses of accident statistics for Great Britain and Sweden...
March 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258469/compounding-effects-of-agricultural-land-use-and-water-use-in-free-flowing-rivers-confounding-issues-for-environmental-flows
#17
Scott A Hardie, Chris J Bobbi
Defining the ecological impacts of water extraction from free-flowing river systems in altered landscapes is challenging as multiple stressors (e.g., flow regime alteration, increased sedimentation) may have simultaneous effects and attributing causality is problematic. This multiple-stressor context has been acknowledged in environmental flows science, but is often neglected when it comes to examining flow-ecology relationships, and setting and implementing environmental flows. We examined the impacts of land and water use on rivers in the upper Ringarooma River catchment in Tasmania (south-east Australia), which contains intensively irrigated agriculture, to support implementation of a water management plan...
March 3, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253921/aldh2-polymorphism-and-alcohol-related-cancers-in-asians-a-public-health-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey S Chang, Jenn-Ren Hsiao, Che-Hong Chen
The occurrence of more than 200 diseases, including cancer, can be attributed to alcohol drinking. The global cancer deaths attributed to alcohol-consumption rose from 243,000 in 1990 to 337,400 in 2010. In 2010, cancer deaths due to alcohol consumption accounted for 4.2% of all cancer deaths. Strong epidemiological evidence has established the causal role of alcohol in the development of various cancers, including esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. The evidence for the association between alcohol and other cancers is inconclusive...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253445/preparatory-attention-in-visual-cortex
#19
REVIEW
Elisa Battistoni, Timo Stein, Marius V Peelen
Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories...
March 2, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245280/serotonin-transporter-gene-slc6a4-polymorphism-and-susceptibility-to-a-home-visiting-maternal-infant-attachment-intervention-delivered-by-community-health-workers-in-south-africa-reanalysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Barak Morgan, Robert Kumsta, Pasco Fearon, Dirk Moser, Sarah Skeen, Peter Cooper, Lynne Murray, Greg Moran, Mark Tomlinson
BACKGROUND: Clear recognition of the damaging effects of poverty on early childhood development has fueled an interest in interventions aimed at mitigating these harmful consequences. Psychosocial interventions aimed at alleviating the negative impacts of poverty on children are frequently shown to be of benefit, but effect sizes are typically small to moderate. However, averaging outcomes over an entire sample, as is typically done, could underestimate efficacy because weaker effects on less susceptible individuals would dilute estimation of effects on those more disposed to respond...
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
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