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Causal attribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679239/comparative-analysis-of-the-root-transcriptomes-of-cultivated-and-wild-rice-varieties-in-response-to-magnaporthe-oryzae-infection-revealed-both-common-and-species-specific-pathogen-responses
#1
Lei Tian, Shaohua Shi, Fahad Nasir, Chunling Chang, Weiqiang Li, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Chunjie Tian
BACKGROUND: Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal fungus of rice blast disease, negatively impacts global rice production. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), a relative of cultivated rice (O. sativa), possesses unique attributes that enable it to resist pathogen invasion. Although wild rice represents a major resource for disease resistance, relative to current cultivated rice varieties, no prior studies have compared the immune and transcriptional responses in the roots of wild and cultivated rice to M...
April 20, 2018: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678556/heterogeneity-among-hospitals-statewide-in-percentage-shares-of-the-annual-growth-of-surgical-caseloads-of-inpatient-and-outpatient-major-therapeutic-procedures
#2
Franklin Dexter, Craig Jarvie, Richard H Epstein
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suppose that it were a generalizable finding, in both densely populated and rural states, that there is marked heterogeneity among hospitals in the percentage change in surgical caseload and/or in the total change in caseload. Then, individual hospitals should not simply rely on federal and state forecasts to infer their expected growth. Likewise, individual hospitals and their anesthesiology groups would best not rely on national or US regional surgical trends as causal reasons for local trends in caseload...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677593/lucky-or-clever-from-expectations-to-responsibility-judgments
#3
Tobias Gerstenberg, Tomer D Ullman, Jonas Nagel, Max Kleiman-Weiner, David A Lagnado, Joshua B Tenenbaum
How do people hold others responsible for the consequences of their actions? We propose a computational model that attributes responsibility as a function of what the observed action reveals about the person, and the causal role that the person's action played in bringing about the outcome. The model first infers what type of person someone is from having observed their action. It then compares a prior expectation of how a person would behave with a posterior expectation after having observed the person's action...
April 17, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656062/the-impact-of-antibiotic-prescription-rates-on-the-incidence-of-mrsa-bloodstream-infections-a-county-level-u-s-wide-analysis
#4
Nikolaos Andreatos, Fadi Shehadeh, Elina Eleftheria Pliakos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection with socioeconomic factors and antibiotic prescriptions at the county level. METHODS: MRSA bloodstream infection rates were extracted from the Medicare Hospital Compare database. Data on socioeconomic factors and antibiotic prescriptions were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Medicare Part D database, respectively. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, antibiotic prescriptions demonstrated a powerful positive association with MRSA bloodstream infection rates [Coefficient (Coeff): 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656031/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-risk-of-incident-stroke-dementia-and-depression-and-all-cause-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
S P Rensma, T T van Sloten, L J Launer, C D A Stehouwer
MRI features of cerebral small vessel disease, i.e. white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, perivascular spaces, and cerebral atrophy, may be associated with clinical events, but the strength of these associations remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between these features and incident ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, all-cause dementia and depression, and all-cause mortality. For the association with stroke, 36 studies were identified (number of individuals/events [n] = 37,987/4,087), for dementia 28 (n = 16,458/1,709), for depression nine (n = 9,538/1,746), and for mortality 28 (n = 23,031/2,558)...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650698/credit-assignment-in-a-motor-decision-making-task-is-influenced-by-agency-and-not-sensorimotor-prediction-errors
#6
Darius E Parvin, Samuel D McDougle, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
Failures to obtain reward can occur from errors in action selection or action execution. Recently, we observed marked differences in choice behavior when the failure to obtain a reward was attributed to errors in action execution compared to errors in action selection (McDougle et al. , 2016). Specifically, participants appeared to solve this credit assignment problem by discounting outcomes in which the absence of reward was attributed to errors in action execution. Building on recent evidence indicating relatively direct communication between the cerebellum and basal ganglia, we hypothesized that cerebellar-dependent sensory-prediction errors (SPEs), a signal indicating execution failure, could attenuate value updating within a basal-ganglia dependent reinforcement learning system...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618553/stroke-among-young-west-africans-evidence-from-the-siren-stroke-investigative-research-and-educational-network-large-multisite-case-control-study
#7
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Bruce Ovbiagele, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Kolawole Wahab, Rufus Akinyemi, Albert Akpalu, Onoja Akpa, Reginald Obiako, Lukman Owolabi, Carolyn Jenkins, Mayowa Owolabi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke in lower and middle-income countries affects a young and productive age group. Data on factors associated with stroke in the young are sorely lacking from lower and middle-income countries. Our objective is to characterize the nature of stroke and its risk factors among young West Africans aged <50 years old. METHODS: The SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a multicenter, case-control study involving 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana...
April 4, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614391/grey-matter-or-social-matters-causal-attributions-in-the-era-of-biological-psychiatry
#8
EDITORIAL
Peter Brugger, Ira Kurthen, Neda Rashidi-Ranjbar, Bigna Lenggenhager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604366/differential-recruitment-of-theory-of-mind-brain-network-across-three-tasks-an-independent-component-analysis
#9
Melissa D Thye, Carla J Ammons, Donna L Murdaugh, Rajesh K Kana
Social neuroscience research has focused on an identified network of brain regions primarily associated with processing Theory of Mind (ToM). However, ToM is a broad cognitive process, which encompasses several sub-processes, such as mental state detection and intentional attribution, and the connectivity of brain regions underlying the broader ToM network in response to paradigms assessing these sub-processes requires further characterization. Standard fMRI analyses which focus only on brain activity cannot capture information about ToM processing at a network level...
March 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602087/development-of-a-protocol-for-environmental-impact-studies-using-causal-modelling
#10
Rezvan Hatami
1- A major challenge when assessing the impacts of human activities on the globe's natural resources is to account for the impacts of land use versus natural spatiotemporal variation in system dynamics. Current freshwater assessments are unable to resolve spatiotemporal confounding through study designs or statistical analyses. Observational studies typically fail to consider the period-by-location interaction in the absence of an impact. 2- Here, I address the problem of spatiotemporal confounding using causal modelling based on spatiotemporal data to infer causal effects of wastewater on biotic ecosystems...
March 16, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588117/decomposition-of-the-population-attributable-fraction-for-two-exposures
#11
Masataka Taguri, Aya Kuchiba
PURPOSE: The population attributable fraction (AF) is frequently used to quantify disease burden attributable to exposures. AF is interpreted as the fractional reduction of disease events that would occur if exposures were eliminated. This article aims to provide a decomposition of the overall AF for two exposures into AFs for each of two exposures and AF for their interaction, using potential outcomes framework. METHODS: We provide the decomposition formula with and without confounders...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584493/numerical-investigation-of-driver-lower-extremity-injuries-in-finite-element-frontal-crash-reconstruction
#12
Xin Ye, James P Gaewsky, Logan E Miller, Derek A Jones, Mireille E Kelley, Jeffrey D Suhey, Bharath Koya, Ashley A Weaver, Joel D Stitzel
OBJECTIVE: Lower extremity injuries are the most frequent Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2 injury for drivers in frontal crashes. The objective was to reconstruct 11 real-world motor vehicle crashes (2 with AIS 2+ distal lower extremity injury and 9 without lower extremity injury) and to analyze the vehicle parameters and driver attributes that affect injury risk. METHODS: Eleven frontal crashes were reconstructed with a finite element simplified vehicle model (SVM) using a semi-automated optimization method...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580704/on-cognitive-debiasing-and-the-judgment-of-suicide-attackers
#13
R Bou Khalil, S Richa
Suicide-attacks are possibly increasing in frequency all over the world. To date, these attacks are not considered as a manifestation of a particular mental illness. However, the process of radicalization of suicide-attackers has to interest the field of mental health. One plausible explanation for the radicalization of individuals is the use of biased cognitive schemes by the indoctrinator. Among these cognitive schemes could figure the causal attribution bias in which the subject cannot distinguish in front of two factors that operate simultaneously, the share of each factor in achieving a certain goal...
March 23, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579727/protected-area-effectiveness-against-land-development-in-spain
#14
David Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier Martínez-Vega
Land use-land cover (LULC) changes towards artificial covers are one of the main global threats to biodiversity conservation. In this comprehensive study, we tested a number of methodological and research hypotheses, and a new covariate control technique in order to address common protected area (PA) assessment issues and accurately assess whether different PA networks have had an effect at preventing development of artificial LULCs in Spain, a highly biodiverse country that has experienced massive socioeconomic transformations in the past two decades...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579135/observed-differences-between-males-and-females-in-surgically-treated-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-among-non-manual-workers-a-sensitivity-analysis-of-findings-from-a-large-population-study
#15
Andrea Farioli, Stefania Curti, Roberta Bonfiglioli, Alberto Baldasseroni, Giovanna Spatari, Stefano Mattioli, Francesco Saverio Violante
Objectives: We aimed at assessing whether differences among males and females in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) epidemiology might be attributable to segregation with respect to occupational biomechanical exposures or differential access to care by sex. Methods: We analysed surgically treated cases of CTS occurring among non-manual workers in Tuscany between 1997 and 2000. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the difference in occupational biomechanical exposures between males and females necessary to explain the observed incidence rate ratios...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567982/the-fraction-of-cancer-attributable-to-modifiable-risk-factors-in-england-wales-scotland-northern-ireland-and-the-united-kingdom-in-2015
#16
Katrina F Brown, Harriet Rumgay, Casey Dunlop, Margaret Ryan, Frances Quartly, Alison Cox, Andrew Deas, Lucy Elliss-Brookes, Anna Gavin, Luke Hounsome, Dyfed Huws, Nick Ormiston-Smith, Jon Shelton, Ceri White, D Max Parkin
BACKGROUND: Changing population-level exposure to modifiable risk factors is a key driver of changing cancer incidence. Understanding these changes is therefore vital when prioritising risk-reduction policies, in order to have the biggest impact on reducing cancer incidence. UK figures on the number of risk factor-attributable cancers are updated here to reflect changing behaviour as assessed in representative national surveys, and new epidemiological evidence. Figures are also presented by UK constituent country because prevalence of risk factor exposure varies between them...
March 23, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563910/molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-implicated-in-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-at-an-academic-hospital-in-pretoria-south-africa
#17
Marthie M Ehlers, Wilhelmina Strasheim, Michelle Lowe, Veronica Ueckermann, Marleen M Kock
Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most prevalent pathogens implicated in catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) at an academic hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. Little is known about the clonality and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in S. epidermidis (e.g., ica AB, IS 256, mec A, and qac A/B). A total of 508 intravascular catheters (IVCs) from 331 patients were submitted for culture from May to October 2013. Only 50% ( n = 253/508) of the IVCs were accompanied by blood cultures (BCs) taken within 48 h...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557928/altered-connectivity-of-the-right-anterior-insula-drives-the-pain-connectome-changes-in-chronic-knee-osteoarthritis
#18
William J Cottam, Sarina J Iwabuchi, Marianne M Drabek, Diane Reckziegel, Dorothee P Auer
Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has proven a powerful approach to understand the neural underpinnings of chronic pain, reporting altered connectivity in three main networks: the default mode (DMN), central executive (CEN), and the salience network (SN). The interrelation and possible mechanisms of these changes are less well understood in chronic pain. Based on emerging evidence of its role to drive switches between network states, the right anterior insula (rAI, an SN hub) may play a dominant role in network connectivity changes underpinning chronic pain...
March 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557569/does-forest-loss-increase-human-disease-evidence-from-nigeria
#19
Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554882/pre-industrial-plague-transmission-is-mediated-by-the-synergistic-effect-of-temperature-and-aridity-index
#20
Ricci P H Yue, Harry F Lee
BACKGROUND: Although the linkage between climate change and plague transmission has been proposed in previous studies, the dominant approach has been to address the linkage with traditional statistical methods, while the possible non-linearity, non-stationarity and low frequency domain of the linkage has not been fully considered. We seek to address the above issue by investigating plague transmission in pre-industrial Europe (AD1347-1760) at both continental and country levels. METHODS: We apply Granger Causality Analysis to identify the casual relationship between climatic variables and plague outbreaks...
March 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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