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Causal attribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923160/do-working-memory-deficits-underlie-reading-problems-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#1
Michael J Kofler, Jamie A Spiegel, Elia F Soto, Lauren N Irwin, Erica L Wells, Kristin E Austin
Reading problems are common in children with ADHD and show strong covariation with these children's underdeveloped working memory abilities. In contrast, working memory training does not appear to improve reading performance for children with ADHD or neurotypical children. The current study bridges the gap between these conflicting findings, and combines dual-task methodology with Bayesian modeling to examine the role of working memory for explaining ADHD-related reading problems. Children ages 8-13 (M = 10...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915024/effector-cd4-t-cells-with-progenitor-potential-mediate-chronic-intestinal-inflammation
#2
Boyoung Shin, Robert L Kress, Philip A Kramer, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Susan L Bellis, Laurie E Harrington
Dysregulated CD4 T cell responses are causally linked to autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, yet the cellular attributes responsible for maintaining the disease remain poorly understood. Herein, we identify a discrete population of effector CD4 T cells that is able to both sustain and confer intestinal inflammation. This subset of pathogenic CD4 T cells possesses a unique gene signature consistent with self-renewing T cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells, exhibits enhanced survival, and continually seeds the terminally differentiated IFNγ-producing cells in the inflamed intestine...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911466/violence-next-door-the-influence-of-friendship-with-perpetrators-on-responses-to-intimate-partner-violence
#3
Camilla Gleeson Mead, Sally F Kelty
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent problem worldwide. Friends of perpetrators may be in a unique position to support or affect change. However, little is known about the influence of friendship with a perpetrator on responses to IPV. Social identity theory describes an ingroup bias whereby ingroup perpetrators of violence are viewed as less personally responsible than outgroup perpetrators. This bias has been consistently found for impersonal ingroup relationships, but there is limited research in relation to friends of perpetrators...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910537/disentangling-the-pathways-of-land-use-impacts-on-the-functional-structure-of-fish-assemblages-in-amazon-streams
#4
Rafael P Leitão, Jansen Zuanon, David Mouillot, Cecília G Leal, Robert M Hughes, Philip R Kaufmann, Sébastien Villéger, Paulo S Pompeu, Daniele Kasper, Felipe R de Paula, Silvio F B Ferraz, Toby A Gardner
Agricultural land use is a primary driver of environmental impacts on streams. However, the causal processes that shape these impacts operate through multiple pathways and at several spatial scales. This complexity undermines the development of more effective management approaches, and illustrates the need for more in-depth studies to assess the mechanisms that determine changes in stream biodiversity. Here we present results of the most comprehensive multi-scale assessment of the biological condition of streams in the Amazon to date, examining functional responses of fish assemblages to land use...
January 1, 2018: Ecography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898957/does-right-to-work-imperil-the-right-to-health-the-effect-of-labour-unions-on-workplace-fatalities
#5
Michael Zoorob
OBJECTIVE: Economic policies can have unintended consequences on population health. In recent years, many states in the USA have passed 'right to work' (RTW) laws which weaken labour unions. The effect of these laws on occupational health remains unexplored. This study fills this gap by analysing the effect of RTW on occupational fatalities through its effect on unionisation. METHODS: Two-way fixed effects regression models are used to estimate the effect of unionisation on occupational mortality per 100 000 workers, controlling for state policy liberalism and workforce composition over the period 1992-2016...
June 13, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885784/making-psychiatric-semiology-great-again-a-semiologic-not-nosologic-challenge
#6
J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Quiles, J-M Batail, C Lancon, M Masson, G Dumas, M Cermolacce
This article analyzes whether psychiatric disorders can be considered different from non-psychiatric disorders on a nosologic or semiologic point of view. The supposed difference between psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders relates to the fact that the individuation of psychiatric disorders seems more complex than for non-psychiatric disorders. This individuation process can be related to nosologic and semiologic considerations. The first part of the article analyzes whether the ways of constructing classifications of psychiatric disorders are different than for non-psychiatric disorders...
June 6, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884133/obesity-increases-the-risk-of-erosive-esophagitis-but-metabolic-unhealthiness-alone-does-not-a-large-scale-cross-sectional-study
#7
Myong Ki Baeg, Sun-Hye Ko, Seung Yeon Ko, Hee Sun Jung, Myung-Gyu Choi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a known risk factor for erosive esophagitis (EE) and metabolic unhealthiness has been implicated in EE pathogenesis. However, obesity and metabolic unhealthiness are not synonymous and the associations between obesity, metabolic health, and EE are unclear. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the relationship between EE, obesity, and metabolic health. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of subjects undergoing health screening at a university hospital...
June 8, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883246/glyphosate-and-ampa-of-agricultural-soil-surface-water-groundwater-and-sediments-in-areas-prevalent-with-chronic-kidney-disease-of-unknown-etiology-sri-lanka
#8
Shankani Gunarathna, Buddhika Gunawardana, Mahesh Jayaweera, Jagath Manatunge, Kasun Zoysa
Glyphosate, which is commercially available as Roundup®, was the widely used herbicide in Sri Lanka until 2015 and is suspected to be one of the causal factors for Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). This research, therefore, aims at studying the presence of glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in different environmental matrices in CKDu prevalent areas. Topsoil samples from agricultural fields, water samples from nearby shallow wells and lakes, and sediment samples from lakes were collected and analyzed for glyphosate and AMPA using the LC/MS...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881745/analytical-methods-for-a-learning-health-system-2-design-of-observational-studies
#9
Michael Stoto, Michael Oakes, Elizabeth Stuart, Elisa L Priest, Lucy Savitz
The second paper in a series on how learning health systems can use routinely collected electronic health data (EHD) to advance knowledge and support continuous learning, this review summarizes study design approaches, including choosing appropriate data sources, and methods for design and analysis of natural and quasi-experiments. The primary strength of study design approaches described in this section is that they study the impact of a deliberate intervention in real-world settings, which is critical for external validity...
December 7, 2017: EGEMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881454/attributions-and-private-theories-of-mental-illness-among-young-adults-seeking-psychiatric-treatment-in-nairobi-an-interpretive-phenomenological-analysis
#10
Judy Wanjiru Mbuthia, Manasi Kumar, Fredrik Falkenström, Mary Wangari Kuria, Caleb Joseph Othieno
Background: Mental illness affects every segment of population including young adults. The beliefs held by young patients regarding the causes of mental illness impact their treatment-seeking behaviour. It is pertinent to know the commonly held attributions around mental illness so as to effectively provide psychological care, especially in a resource constrained context such as Kenya. This helps in targeting services around issues such as stigma and extending youth-friendly services...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876323/heterogeneity-of-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-potential-clinical-implications-and-microbial-community-mechanisms-contributing-to-sinonasal-inflammation
#11
Keehoon Lee, Steven D Pletcher, Susan V Lynch, Andrew N Goldberg, Emily K Cope
Recent studies leveraging next-generation sequencing and functional approaches to understand the human microbiota have demonstrated the presence of diverse, niche-specific microbial communities at nearly every mucosal surface. These microbes contribute to the development and function of physiologic and immunological features that are key to host health status. Not surprisingly, several chronic inflammatory diseases have been attributed to dysbiosis of microbiota composition or function, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875518/single-episode-of-alcohol-use-resulting-in-injury-a-cross-sectional-study-in-21-countries
#12
Cheryl J Cherpitel, Yu Ye, Vladimir Poznyak
Objective: To examine the empirical basis for including the diagnostic category of "a single episode of harmful substance use" in the 11th revision of the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD-11). Methods: We used data on patients admitted to emergency departments in 21 countries with alcohol-related injuries (i.e. with drinking within the preceding six hours) who had no sign of alcohol intoxication or withdrawal, no alcohol in blood and no sign of alcohol dependence or harmful drinking as described in the ICD-10...
May 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863443/locating-the-mechanisms-of-therapeutic-agency-in-family-based-treatment-for-adolescent-anorexia-nervosa-a-pilot-study-of-clinician-researcher-perspectives
#13
Stuart B Murray, Devin Rand-Giovannetti, Scott Griffiths, Jason M Nagata
The theoretical agnosticism of family-based treatment (FBT) has precluded a thorough understanding of treatment mechanisms. We examined clinician and researcher perspectives on the mechanisms of FBT. Thirty-eight clinicians/researchers who had recently published in the domain of anorexia nervosa (AN) indicated their opinions as to the mechanisms of FBT, and content analysis was performed to identify relevant themes. Parental input was deemed crucial for weight-based symptom remission, and weight restoration was deemed crucial for cognitive symptom relief...
June 4, 2018: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862141/the-role-of-diet-and-lifestyle-in-women-with-breast-cancer-an-update-review-of-related-research-in-the-middle-east
#14
REVIEW
Zainab Taha, Sakina E Eltom
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among Arab women in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The incidence of breast cancer has substantially increased in recent years among this women population, especially those younger than 50, and the incidence is expected to double by 2030. Considerable experimental evidence supports the potential role of dietary habits and lifestyle in cancer etiology and cancer prevention. In this review we examined the literature for evidence to link dietary choices and the rise in incidence and mortality of breast cancer among women in EMR...
2018: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860152/commentary-on-grey-matter-or-social-matters-causal-attributions-in-the-era-of-biological-psychiatry
#15
EDITORIAL
Anna Sedda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858964/combined-malonic-and-methylmalonic-aciduria-due-to-acsf3-mutations-benign-clinical-course-in-an-unselected-cohort
#16
Alina Levtova, Paula J Waters, Daniela Buhas, Sébastien Lévesque, Christiane Auray-Blais, Joe T R Clarke, Rachel Laframboise, Bruno Maranda, Grant A Mitchell, Catherine Brunel-Guitton, Nancy E Braverman
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of combined malonic and methylmalonic aciduria due to ACSF3 deficiency (CMAMMA) is controversial. In most publications, affected patients were identified during the investigation of various complaints. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional multicenter retrospective natural history study, we describe the course of all known CMAMMA individuals in the province of Quebec. RESULTS: We identified 25 CMAMMA patients (6 months to 30 years old) with a favorable outcome regardless of treatment...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806707/thin-idealization-and-causal-attributions-mediate-the-association-between-culture-and-obesity-stereotypes-an-examination-of-chinese-and-american-adolescents
#17
Paul A Klaczynski, Wejdan S Felmban
Few studies have examined age or cultural differences in the stereotypes adolescents have of persons with obesity. The present research explored the hypotheses that American adolescents have more negative obesity stereotypes than Chinese adolescents and that the effects of culture are mediated by weight attributions and thin idealization. Participants (N = 335; 181 female; M age = 14.83 years, SD = 1.57 years) completed measures of thin idealization and causal attributions and made generalizations from and attributions of stereotypical personality characteristics to obese figures...
May 28, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805780/no-gene-by-environment-interaction-of-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-and-childhood-maltreatment-on-anxiety-sensitivity-in-a-mixed-race-adolescent-sample
#18
Lindi Martin, Sian Megan Joanna Hemmings, Martin Kidd, Soraya Seedat
Background : Anxiety disorders in youth are attributable to multiple causal mechanisms, comprising biological vulnerabilities, such as genetics and temperament, and unfavourable environmental influences, such as childhood maltreatment (CM). Objective : A gene-environment (G x E) interaction study was conducted to determine the interactive effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and CM to increase susceptibility to anxiety sensitivity (AS) in a sample of mixed race adolescents. Method : Participants ( n =  308, mean age = 15...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805181/developing-hope-among-impoverished-children-using-child-self-portraits-to-measure-poverty-program-impacts
#19
Paul Glewwe, Phillip H Ross, Bruce Wydick
The role of psychological attributes such as hope in escaping poverty has attracted increasing attention. Crucial questions include the impact of early development of positive psychological attributes on socioeconomic outcomes, and whether interventions to reduce poverty increase such attributes. We examine the impact of international child sponsorship on the psychology of Indonesian children by employing a novel program evaluation technique-a quantified analysis of children's self-portraits. To identify causal effects, we exploit an eligibility rule that established a maximum age for participation...
2018: Journal of Human Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801467/a-realist-approach-to-eliciting-the-initial-programme-theory-of-the-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-club-intervention-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa
#20
Ferdinand C Mukumbang, Bruno Marchal, Sara Van Belle, Brian van Wyk
BACKGROUND: The successful initiation of people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa has engendered challenges of poor retention in care and suboptimal adherence to medication. The adherence club intervention was implemented in the Metropolitan area of the Western Cape Province to address these challenges. The adherence club programme has shown potential to relieve clinic congestion, improve retention in care and enhance treatment adherence in the context of rapidly growing HIV patient populations being initiated on ART...
May 25, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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