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Causal attribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718342/reconsidering-the-roles-of-gratitude-and-indebtedness-in-social-exchange
#1
Cong Peng, Rob M A Nelissen, Marcel Zeelenberg
Receiving favors is often a mixed blessing and commonly triggers two emotions: the positive emotion gratitude and negative emotion indebtedness. In three studies, we examined the hypothesis that gratitude and indebtedness have distinct functions in social exchange. Contrary to current views, we believe that the function of gratitude does not primarily reside in facilitating social exchange. Instead, we propose that indebtedness motivates people to repay favours received, and thus accounts for most of the prosocial effects commonly attributed to gratitude...
July 18, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715534/the-association-between-vasectomy-and-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Bimal Bhindi, Christopher J D Wallis, Madhur Nayan, Ann M Farrell, Landon W Trost, Robert J Hamilton, Girish S Kulkarni, Antonio Finelli, Neil E Fleshner, Stephen A Boorjian, R Jeffrey Karnes
Importance: Despite 3 decades of study, there remains ongoing debate regarding whether vasectomy is associated with prostate cancer. Objective: To determine if vasectomy is associated with prostate cancer. Data Sources: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for studies indexed from database inception to March 21, 2017, without language restriction. Study Selection: Cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting relative effect estimates for the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer were included...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704943/constancy-and-change-key-issues-in-housing-and-health-research-1987-2017
#3
Roderick J Lawrence
The low impact of scientific research on the relations between housing and health during the last 30 years can be attributed to a number of reasons. First, statistical analyses have meant to improve understanding of the relations between what are interpreted and measured as causal factors. However, any single statistical approach fails to account for the dynamic non-linear relations between multiple factors and therefore cannot analyze systemic complexity. Second, there has been too little accumulation and validation of knowledge from scientific research owing to the dominance of cross-sectional studies, and the lack of coordinated research agendas using these approaches in order to confirm empirical findings...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699028/the-occipital-face-area-is-causally-involved-in-the-formation-of-identity-specific-face-representations
#4
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Maria Dotzer, Stefan R Schweinberger, Gyula Kovács
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and neuroimaging studies suggest a role of the right occipital face area (rOFA) in early facial feature processing. However, the degree to which rOFA is necessary for the encoding of facial identity has been less clear. Here we used a state-dependent TMS paradigm, where stimulation preferentially facilitates attributes encoded by less active neural populations, to investigate the role of the rOFA in face perception and specifically in image-independent identity processing...
July 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676125/antimicrobial-drug-use-in-food-producing-animals-and-associated-human-health-risks-what-and-how-strong-is-the-evidence
#5
REVIEW
Karin Hoelzer, Nora Wong, Joe Thomas, Kathy Talkington, Elizabeth Jungman, Allan Coukell
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat. Because antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals contributes to the problem, policies restricting the inappropriate or unnecessary agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs are important. However, this link between agricultural antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance has remained contested by some, with potentially disruptive effects on efforts to move towards the judicious or prudent use of these drugs. MAIN TEXT: The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the types of evidence available for each step in the causal pathway from antimicrobial use on farms to human public health risk, and to evaluate the strength of evidence within a 'Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation'(GRADE) framework...
July 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661004/revisiting-young-children-s-understanding-of-the-psychological-causes-of-behavior
#6
REVIEW
Patricia H Miller, Patricia A Aloise-Young
In 1989, Miller and Aloise challenged the prevailing belief that preschoolers tend to explain others' behavior in terms of external events or a person's physical attributes and have little understanding of psychological causes. That review documented preschoolers' understanding of, and even preference for, psychological causes as part of an emerging renaissance in developmental social-cognitive research. The present, updated review (97 articles, participant ages 3 months to 6 years) suggests the emergence of a transformative new perspective in which social-cognition is balanced between social and cognitive aspects rather than tilted toward cognition...
June 29, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656697/hypoxia-ischemia-is-not-an-antecedent-of-most-preterm-brain-damage-the-illusion-of-validity
#7
REVIEW
Floyd Gilles, Pierre Gressens, Olaf Dammann, Alan Leviton
Brain injury in preterm newborn infants is often attributed to hypoxia-ischemia even when neither hypoxia nor ischemia is documented, and many causative speculations are based on the same assumption. We review human and animal study contributions with their strengths and limitations, and conclude that - despite all the work done in human fetal neuropathology and developmental models in animals - the evidence remains unconvincing that hypoxemia, in the fetus or newborn infant, contributes appreciably to any encephalopathy of prematurity...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647570/young-children-s-attributions-of-causal-power-to-novel-invisible-entities
#8
Jonathan D Lane, Patrick Shafto
In two studies, we investigated the development of children's reasoning about potent invisible entities. In Study 1, children aged 2.2-5.5years (N=48) were briefly told about a novel invisible substance that could produce a novel outcome-make a novel box turn green. During this introduction, children watched as one container was inverted over a box and the box lit up green, and then another identical container was inverted over the box and the box did not light up. On test trials, the experimenter inserted a spoon in novel (actually empty) containers and inverted the spoon over the box, which turned green in one trial and did not light up in the other trial...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644848/exploring-the-differences-between-pet-and-non-pet-owners-implications-for-human-animal-interaction-research-and-policy
#9
Jessica Saunders, Layla Parast, Susan H Babey, Jeremy V Miles
There is conflicting evidence about whether living with pets results in better mental and physical health outcomes, with the majority of the empirical research evidence being inconclusive due to methodological limitations. We briefly review the research evidence, including the hypothesized mechanisms through which pet ownership may influence health outcomes. This study examines how pet and non-pet owners differ across a variety of socio-demographic and health measures, which has implications for the proper interpretation of a large number of correlational studies that attempt to draw causal attributions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635959/optogenetic-activation-of-plexin-b1-reveals-contact-repulsion-between-osteoclasts-and-osteoblasts
#10
Abhijit Deb Roy, Taofei Yin, Shilpa Choudhary, Vladimir Rodionov, Carol C Pilbeam, Yi I Wu
During bone remodelling, osteoclasts induce chemotaxis of osteoblasts and yet maintain spatial segregation. We show that osteoclasts express the repulsive guidance factor Semaphorin 4D and induce contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) in osteoblasts through its receptor Plexin-B1. To examine causality and elucidate how localized Plexin-B1 stimulation may spatiotemporally coordinate its downstream targets in guiding cell migration, we develop an optogenetic tool for Plexin-B1 designated optoPlexin. Precise optoPlexin activation at the leading edge of migrating osteoblasts readily induces local retraction and, unexpectedly, distal protrusions to steer cells away...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615275/the-burden-of-cancer-attributable-to-modifiable-risk-factors-the-australian-cancer-paf-cohort-consortium
#11
Maria E Arriaga, Claire M Vajdic, Karen Canfell, Robert MacInnis, Peter Hull, Dianna J Magliano, Emily Banks, Graham G Giles, Robert G Cumming, Julie E Byles, Anne W Taylor, Jonathan E Shaw, Kay Price, Vasant Hirani, Paul Mitchell, Barbara-Ann Adelstein, Maarit A Laaksonen
PURPOSE: To estimate the Australian cancer burden attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors and their combinations using a novel population attributable fraction (PAF) method that accounts for competing risk of death, risk factor interdependence and statistical uncertainty. PARTICIPANTS: 365 173 adults from seven Australian cohort studies. We linked pooled harmonised individual participant cohort data with population-based cancer and death registries to estimate exposure-cancer and exposure-death associations...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609694/relationship-between-out-of-home-care-placement-history-characteristics-and-educational-achievement-a-population-level-linked-data-study
#12
Miriam J Maclean, Catherine L Taylor, Melissa O'Donnell
Studies generally show children who have entered out-of-home care have worse educational outcomes than the general population, although recent research suggests maltreatment and other adversities are major contributing factors. Children's out-of-home care experiences vary and may affect their outcomes. This study examined the influence of placement stability, reunification, type of care, time in care and age at entry to care on children's educational outcomes. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of children born in Western Australia between 1990 and 2010 who sat State or national Year 3 reading achievement tests (N=235,045 children, including 2160 children with a history of out-of-home care)...
June 10, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608786/new-human-immunodeficiency-virus-diagnosis-independently-associated-with-rectal-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#13
Lindley A Barbee, Christine M Khosropour, Julia C Dombrowksi, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: Rectal sexually transmitted infections (STI) have been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis, but inferring a causal association requires disentangling them from receptive anal intercourse (RAI). METHODS: We conducted a stratified case-control study by frequency matching 4 controls to each case within year using clinical data from men who have sex with men (MSM) attending the Seattle STD Clinic 2001 to 2014. Cases were MSM with a new HIV diagnosis and negative HIV test at 12 months or less...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604146/clients-and-carers-perception-of-mental-illness-and-factors-that-influence-help-seeking-where-they-go-first-and-why
#14
Harris K Chilale, Ndumanene Devlin Silungwe, Saulos Gondwe, Charles Masulani-Mwale
OBJECTIVE: In Northern Malawi, the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is longer than that in high-income countries. The reasons for the delay in help-seeking are not known, although studies show multiple reasons. This research was conducted to establish health care help-seeking behaviours and identify barriers that exist between service users and health care providers. The study also intended to establish the beliefs that clients and family members have regarding the causes of mental illness which profoundly shape help-seeking, care giving process and outcomes...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603875/impairments-of-spontaneous-and-deliberative-mentalizing-co-occur-yet-dissociate-in-schizophrenia
#15
Robyn Langdon, Michaela Flynn, Emily Connaughton, Martin Brüne
OBJECTIVES: Evidence of impairment in explicit mentalizing in people with schizophrenia has inspired interventions to improve awareness of others' mental states in these individuals. Less is known of implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia, with current findings mixed. We sought to resolve previous inconsistencies using Heider & Simmel's (H&S) classic animation to elicit spontaneous mentalizing and examined relations between spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing. METHODS: Forty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 27 general-community controls completed two explicit theory-of-mind (TOM) tasks and then described the H&S animation (to elicit spontaneous social attributions about emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviours), before and after an instruction to think of the shapes as people...
June 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602486/supramacroparticulate-pe-in-6-different-joint-endoprostheses-localisations-an-indicator-for-pe-damage
#16
Simon Krenn, Marc Thomsen, Sylvia Usbeck, Leslie F Scheuber, Friedrich Boettner, Manfred Georg Krukemeyer, Monika Huber, Jan Philippe Kretzer, Thorsten Gehrke, Veit Krenn
In the histopathological particle algorithm polyethylene (PE) particles with maximum lengths of more than 100μm - called PE supramacroparticles - are identified exclusively for knee joint and hip prostheses. However, a definitive characterisation, detection in all joint localisations and a causal clarification of the pathogenesis are lacking. In this study a total of 175 SLIM (synovial-like interface membrane) cases with PE supramacroparticles of knee joint prostheses (n=89), hip joint prostheses (n=44), ankle joint prostheses (n=36) and prostheses in three localisations of the upper extremities (n=6) were systematically investigated...
March 31, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598725/a-critical-review-of-the-postulated-role-of-the-non-essential-amino-acid-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-in-neurodegenerative-disease-in-humans
#17
REVIEW
N Chernoff, D J Hill, D L Diggs, B D Faison, B M Francis, J R Lang, M M Larue, T-T Le, K A Loftin, J N Lugo, J E Schmid, W M Winnik
The compound BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) has been postulated to play a significant role in four serious neurological human diseases: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) found on Guam, and ALS, Parkinsonism, and dementia that occur globally. ALS/PDC with symptoms of all three diseases first came to the attention of the scientific community during and after World War II. It was initially associated with cycad flour used for food because BMAA is a product of symbiotic cycad root-dwelling cyanobacteria...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588532/immune-to-situation-the-self-serving-bias-in-unambiguous-contexts
#18
Xiaoyan Wang, Li Zheng, Lin Li, Yijie Zheng, Peng Sun, Fanzhi A Zhou, Xiuyan Guo
Traditionally, the self-serving bias has been investigated in ambiguous contexts in which participants work on tasks that measure novel abilities before making attributions without clear criteria for success or failure feedback. Prior studies have confirmed that the self-serving bias is pervasive in the general population, yet it varies significantly across situations involving ambiguous contexts. The present study features an unambiguous context encompassing interpersonal events that involved implicit causality (with the "self" as an actor or recipient), the inherent logic of which indicated attribution criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587533/public-attitudes-and-support-for-a-sugar-sweetened-beverage-tax-in-america-s-heartland
#19
Laurel E Curry, Todd Rogers, Pam Williams, Ghada Homsi, Jeff Willett, Carol L Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Policy and environmental strategies are part of a comprehensive approach to obesity prevention. We investigated the association between public attitudes about how the environment influences health and support for a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax in Kansas. METHOD: We collected data via a 2014 representative dual-frame (cellular and landline) telephone survey of 2,203 adult Kansans regarding healthy eating policy support and beliefs about obesity causes and solutions...
June 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582654/can-present-biasedness-explain-early-onset-of-diabetes-and-subsequent-disease-progression-exploring-causal-inference-by-linking-survey-and-register-data
#20
Morten Raun Mørkbak, Dorte Gyrd-Hansen, Trine Kjær
Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity, disability, mortality and health care resource use. The increasing prevalence of diabetes may therefore have dramatic future consequences for western societies. Diabetes entails a significant self-management component and it has previously been estimated that people with diabetes provide about 95% of their own care. Despite increased focus, self-management skills including basic knowledge acquisition, problem solving and setting realistic goals are often not mastered...
August 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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