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Causal attribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523596/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-vismodegib-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-malignancies-and-hepatic-impairment
#1
Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Lionel D Lewis, Patricia LoRusso, Michael Maitland, Priya Chandra, Sravanthi Cheeti, Dawn Colburn, Sarah Williams, Brian Simmons, Richard A Graham
PURPOSE: Vismodegib is a Hedgehog pathway inhibitor approved for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Currently, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of vismodegib in patients with hepatic dysfunction are unknown and are the objective of this study. METHODS: Patients with advanced solid malignancies and hepatic impairment were enrolled into one of four cohorts: normal [bilirubin (bili) < upper limit of normal (ULN)], mild (ULN < bili ≤ 1...
May 18, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521815/proportion-of-cancer-in-a-middle-eastern-country-attributable-to-established-risk-factors
#2
Maya A Charafeddine, Sara H Olson, Deborah Mukherji, Sally N Temraz, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Ali I Shamseddine
BACKGROUND: Providing an estimate of the percentage of cancer in Lebanon by 2018 that is due to the exposure to risk factors in 2008. Factors include: smoking, body mass index (BMI), physical inactivity, dietary factors, alcohol consumption, infections, and air pollution in adults. METHOD: Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) was calculated using the proportion of the population exposed and relative risks for each risk factor from meta-analyses. The PAF estimates the proportion of cases in which exposure may have played a causal role...
May 18, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515879/sexual-signals-reflect-telomere-dynamics-in-a-wild-bird
#3
Conor Claverie Taff, Corey R Freeman-Gallant
Telomere dynamics in natural populations have been linked to survival, reproduction, and energetic investment. Given their putative role in mediating life-history trade-offs, telomeres are also a likely candidate for maintaining honesty in sexually selected signals; few studies to date, however, have demonstrated a correlation between sexual signals and telomere dynamics. Here, we show that plumage coloration in male common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) is correlated with both relative telomere length and with the rate of telomere loss between years...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515627/frequently-asked-questions-on-seven-rare-adverse-events-following-immunization
#4
REVIEW
G L D'alò, E Zorzoli, A Capanna, G Gervasi, E Terracciano, L Zaratti, E Franco
Routine mass immunization programs have contributed greatly to the control of infectious diseases and to the improvement of the health of populations. Over the last decades, the rise of antivaccination movements has threatened the advances made in this field to the point that vaccination coverage rates have decreased and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have resurfaced. One of the critical points of the immunization debate revolves around the level of risk attributable to vaccination, namely the possibility of experiencing serious and possibly irreversible adverse events...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512624/the-close-interconnection-between-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-mitophagy-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Matteo Bordi, Francesca Nazio, Silvia Campello
Recent decades have revealed the shape changes of mitochondria and their regulators to be main players in a plethora of physiological cell processes. Mitochondria are extremely dynamic organelles whose highly controlled morphological changes respond to specific and diverse pathophysiological needs. Thus, their qualitative control is crucial for the determination of cell function and fate. Moreover, ever-new metabolic changes, mainly attributable to mitochondrial (dys)functions, are strongly connected to cancer and its microenvironment...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511034/school-collective-occupation-movements-and-substance-use-among-adolescents-a-school-level-panel-design
#6
Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Jay S Kaufman, Esteban Pizarro, José D Marín, Garen Wintemute, Magdalena Cerdá
BACKGROUND: Recently, social movements across the world have demanded reforms to education systems and other institutions. Although such movements have affected large numbers of people across multiple countries, we know little about the impacts they have had on population health. We focus on one example: the massive strikes and collective occupation of secondary schools across Chile, which occurred contemporaneously with a large increase in marijuana use among students in this age group...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508360/genome-to-phenome-a-systems-biology-approach-to-ptsd-using-an-animal-model
#7
Nabarun Chakraborty, James Meyerhoff, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating illness that imposes significant emotional and financial burdens on military families. The understanding of PTSD etiology remains elusive; nonetheless, it is clear that PTSD is manifested by a cluster of symptoms including hyperarousal, reexperiencing of traumatic events, and avoidance of trauma reminders. With these characteristics in mind, several rodent models have been developed eliciting PTSD-like features. Animal models with social dimensions are of particular interest, since the social context plays a major role in the development and manifestation of PTSD...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508119/lipoprotein-a-a-lipoprotein-whose-time-has-come
#8
REVIEW
Erik Kelly, Linda Hemphill
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA and around the world. While we are now able to achieve significant low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering with current therapies, many patients remain at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CVD and accounts for some of the residual CVD risk after LDL-C lowering in several large clinical trials. Moreover, there is now strong evidence supporting the causal relationship between Lp(a) and aortic stenosis as well as peripheral arterial disease...
July 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507147/plate-tectonic-regulation-of-global-marine-animal-diversity
#9
Andrew Zaffos, Seth Finnegan, Shanan E Peters
Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499436/inequality-in-healthcare-costs-between-residing-and-non-residing-patients-evidence-from-vietnam
#10
Hieu M Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Place of residence has been shown to impact health. To date, however, previous studies have only focused on the variability in health outcomes and healthcare costs between urban and rural patients. This study takes a different approach and investigates cost inequality facing non-residing patients - patients who do not reside in the regions in which the hospitals are located. Understanding the sources for this inequality is important, as they are directly related to healthcare accessibility in developing countries...
May 12, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493561/distress-omnipotence-and-responsibility-beliefs-in-command-hallucinations
#11
Lyn Ellett, Olga Luzon, Max Birchwood, Zarina Abbas, Abi Harris, Paul Chadwick
OBJECTIVES: Command hallucinations are considered to be one of the most distressing and disturbing symptoms of schizophrenia. Building on earlier studies, we compare key attributes in the symptomatic, affective, and cognitive profiles of people diagnosed with schizophrenia and hearing voices that do (n = 77) or do not (n = 74) give commands. METHODS: The study employed a cross-sectional design, in which we assessed voice severity, distress and control (PSYRATs), anxiety and depression (HADS), beliefs about voices (BAVQ-R), and responsibility beliefs (RIQ)...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480532/hydrochlorothiazide-use-is-strongly-associated-with-risk-of-lip-cancer
#12
Anton Pottegård, Jesper Hallas, Morten Olesen, Mathias T Svendsen, Laurel A Habel, Gary D Friedman, Søren Friis
BACKGROUND: The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is among the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between use of hydrochlorothiazide and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using Danish nationwide registry data. From the Cancer Registry (2004-2012), we identified 633 case patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip and matched them to 63,067 population controls using a risk-set sampling strategy...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457476/mechanisms-underlying-methamphetamine-related-dental-disease
#13
Jason Clague, Thomas R Belin, Vivek Shetty
BACKGROUND: The authors clarified the causal mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of dental disease encountered in people who habitually use methamphetamine (meth). METHODS: Using a stratified sampling approach, the authors conducted comprehensive oral examinations and psychosocial assessments for 571 study participants who used meth. Three calibrated dentists, who used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocols, characterized the study participants' dental disease...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455196/maternal-il-17a-in-autism
#14
REVIEW
Helen Wong, Charles Hoeffer
Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a strong genetic basis, its etiology is complex, with several genetic factors likely to be involved as well as environmental factors. Immune dysregulation has gained significant attention as a causal mechanism in ASD pathogenesis. ASD has been associated with immune abnormalities in the brain and periphery, including inflammatory disorders and autoimmunity in not only the affected individuals but also their mothers. Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) has been implicated as an environmental risk factor for ASD...
April 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454727/proteomic-approach-to-characterize-biochemistry-of-meat-quality-defects
#15
REVIEW
M W Schilling, S P Suman, X Zhang, M N Nair, M A Desai, K Cai, M A Ciaramella, P J Allen
Proteomics can be used to characterize quality defects including pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat (pork and poultry), woody broiler breast meat, reddish catfish fillets, meat toughness, and beef myoglobin oxidation. PSE broiler meat was characterized by 15 proteins that differed in abundance in comparison to normal broiler breast meat, and eight proteins were differentially expressed in woody breast meat in comparison to normal breast meat. Hemoglobin was the only protein that was differentially expressed between red and normal catfish fillets...
April 21, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453608/time-dependent-associations-between-body-composition-physical-activity-and-current-asthma-in-women-using-marginal-structural-models
#16
Annabelle Bédard, Ignasi Serra, Orianne Dumas, Xavier Basagaña, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Nicole Le Moual, Margaux Sanchez, Valérie Siroux, Raphaëlle Varraso, Judith Garcia-Aymerich
The role of obesity in asthma is well-known in adults, and has been partly attributed to a confounding role of physical inactivity. However, the interrelations between obesity, physical activity and asthma have been incompletely addressed, likely because their time-dependent and bidirectional nature represent a methodologically challenging research question. We aimed to estimate the independent causal effects of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on current asthma using marginal structural models (MSMs)...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452690/patterns-of-abnormal-illness-behavior-among-healthy-individuals
#17
Kirsty N Prior, Malcolm J Bond
OBJECTIVES: We extend the seminal work of Professor Issy Pilowsky by presenting a contemporary re-conceptualization of abnormal illness behavior (AIB) as a general psychological phenomenon evident among healthy community members. METHODS: Participants (N = 344) completed a self- report questionnaire comprising health information and well-validated psychological measures from the field of somatization (eg, AIB, attributional style for physical symptoms, cognitive distortion of somatic information, illness likelihood, maladaptive coping)...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452418/does-psychosocial-stress-explain-socioeconomic-inequities-in-9-year-weight-gain-among-young-women
#18
Kylie Ball, Danielle A J M Schoenaker, Gita D Mishra
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the contribution of psychosocial stress to mediating inequities in weight gain by educational status in a large cohort of young Australian women over a 9-year follow-up. METHODS: This observational cohort study used survey data drawn from 4,806 women, aged 22 to 27 years at baseline (2000), participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, who reported their education level (2000), perceived stress (2003), and weight (2003 and 2012)...
April 28, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447289/electroencephalographic-evidence-of-abnormal-anticipatory-uncertainty-processing-in-gambling-disorder-patients
#19
Alberto Megías, Juan F Navas, Ana Perandrés-Gómez, Antonio Maldonado, Andrés Catena, José C Perales
Putting money at stake produces anticipatory uncertainty, a process that has been linked to key features of gambling. Here we examined how learning and individual differences modulate the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN, an electroencephalographic signature of perceived uncertainty of valued outcomes) in gambling disorder patients (GDPs) and healthy controls (HCs), during a non-gambling contingency learning task. Twenty-four GDPs and 26 HCs performed a causal learning task under conditions of high and medium uncertainty (HU, MU; null and positive cue-outcome contingency, respectively)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446455/the-economic-burden-of-physical-inactivity-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal
#20
REVIEW
Ding Ding, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Binh Nguyen, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Michael Pratt, Kenny D Lawson
OBJECTIVE: To summarise the literature on the economic burden of physical inactivity in populations, with emphases on appraising the methodologies and providing recommendations for future studies. DESIGN: Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016047705). DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases for peer-reviewed and grey literature were systematically searched, followed by reference searching and consultation with experts...
April 26, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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