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Causal attribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234184/a-rare-case-of-fixed-drug-eruption-due-to-ondansetron
#1
Aditi Maitra, Shashwat Bhattacharyya, Sabyasachi Paik, Prerna Pathak, Santanu Kumar Tripathi
Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a unique type of cutaneous drug reaction that typically recurs in the identical locations on re-exposure to the attributed drug. FDE is characterized by the appearance of a single or multiple sharply demarcated violaceous erythematous plaques which heal with residual hyperpigmentation. A 27-year-old woman presented with multiple dark patches over her eyelids, mouth, lips, and shoulders of 1 week's duration. These lesions followed multiple erythematous plaques over the same areas which appeared within 4 hours of the intake of an ondansetron tablet, 12 days previously...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223490/implicit-causality-bias-in-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Haley C Dresang, Lyn S Turkstra
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury often experience impairments in pragmatic language functions. Pragmatic language has been studied primarily in connected language genres such as narratives. It may be, however, that individuals with traumatic brain injury also miss microscopic cues, such as social cues embedded in single word meanings or sentence structure. The current study examined one type of sentence-level pragmatic language cue: implicit causality bias...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222998/experiences-of-connectivity-and-severance-in-the-wake-of-a-new-motorway-implications-for-health-and-well-being
#3
Amy Nimegeer, Hilary Thomson, Louise Foley, Shona Hilton, Fiona Crawford, David Ogilvie
The construction of new urban roads may cause severance, or the separation of residents from local amenities or social networks. Using qualitative data from a natural experimental study, we examined severance related to a new section of urban motorway constructed through largely deprived residential neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland. Semi-structured and photo-elicitation interviews were used to better understand severance and connectivity related to the new motorway, and specifically implications for individual and community-level health and well-being through active travel and social connections...
November 29, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216902/improved-drug-safety-through-intensive-pharmacovigilance-in-hospitalized-pediatric-patients
#4
Alan O Vázquez-Alvarez, Lorena Michele Brennan-Bourdon, Ana Rosa Rincón-Sánchez, María Cristina Islas-Carbajal, Selene G Huerta-Olvera
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to detect and analyze Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) through Intensive Pharmacovigilance (IPV) in hospitalized pediatric patients to improve drug safety. METHODS: A prospective 6-month cross-sectional study was performed in the pediatric service of a regional hospital in Mexico in order to assess hospitalized children from 1 day to 18 years old. The inclusion criteria were: both genders, all hospitalization causes, and at least one prescribed medication (indistinct drug group)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211726/psychosocial-and-socioeconomic-determinants-of-cardiovascular-mortality-in-eastern-europe-a-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Taavi Tillmann, Hynek Pikhart, Anne Peasey, Ruzena Kubinova, Andrzej Pajak, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Sofia Malyutina, Andrew Steptoe, Mika Kivimäki, Michael Marmot, Martin Bobak
BACKGROUND: Eastern European countries have some of the highest rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, much of which cannot be adequately accounted for by conventional CVD risk factors. Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors may affect risk of CVD, but relatively few studies on this issue have been undertaken in Eastern Europe. We investigated whether various psychosocial factors are associated with CVD mortality independently from each other and whether they can help explain differences in CVD mortality between Eastern European populations...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203782/genetic-pleiotropy-between-nicotine-dependence-and-respiratory-outcomes
#6
Jushan Zhang, Shouneng Peng, Haoxiang Cheng, Yoko Nomura, Antonio Fabio Di Narzo, Ke Hao
Smoking is a major cause of respiratory conditions. To date, the genetic pleiotropy between smoking behavior and lung function/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been systematically explored. We leverage large data sets of smoking behavior, lung function and COPD, and addressed two questions, (1) whether the genetic predisposition of nicotine dependence influence COPD risk and lung function; and (2) the genetic pleiotropy follow causal or independent model. We found the genetic predisposition of nicotine dependence was associated with COPD risk, even after adjusting for smoking behavior, indicating genetic pleiotropy and independent model...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202828/calculation-of-the-disease-burden-associated-with-environmental-chemical-exposures-application-of-toxicological-information-in-health-economic-estimation
#7
REVIEW
Philippe Grandjean, Martine Bellanger
Calculation of costs and the Burden of Disease (BoD) is useful in developing resource allocation and prioritization strategies in public and environmental health. While useful, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) metric disregards subclinical dysfunctions, adheres to stringent causal criteria, and is hampered by gaps in environmental exposure data, especially from industrializing countries. For these reasons, a recently calculated environmental BoD of 5.18% of the total DALYs is likely underestimated. We combined and extended cost calculations for exposures to environmental chemicals, including neurotoxicants, air pollution, and endocrine disrupting chemicals, where sufficient data were available to determine dose-dependent adverse effects...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191591/fine-mapping-the-mhc-region-in-asian-populations-identified-novel-variants-modifying-susceptibility-to-lung-cancer
#8
Na Qin, Cheng Wang, Meng Zhu, Qun Lu, Zijian Ma, Mingtao Huang, Juncheng Dai, Hongxia Ma, Guangfu Jin, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen
OBJECTIVES: The polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a vital role in the immune system and drives predisposition to multiple cancers. A number of lung cancer-related genetic variants in the MHC have been identified in recent genome-wide association studies; however, the causal variants remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we conducted a large-scale fine-mapping study of lung cancer in the MHC region of 13,945 unrelated Asian individuals to search for potential causal variants...
October 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190640/perceptual-integration-rapidly-activates-dorsal-visual-pathway-to-guide-local-processing-in-early-visual-areas
#9
Ling Liu, Fan Wang, Ke Zhou, Nai Ding, Huan Luo
Rapidly grouping local elements into an organized object (i.e., perceptual integration) is a fundamental yet challenging task, especially in noisy contexts. Previous studies demonstrate that ventral visual pathway, which is widely known to mediate object recognition, engages in the process by conveying object-level information processed in high-level areas to modulate low-level sensory areas. Meanwhile, recent evidence suggests that the dorsal visual pathway, which is not typically attributable to object recognition, is also involved in the process...
November 30, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189027/goal-versus-trait-explanations-causal-attributions-beyond-the-trait-situation-dichotomy
#10
Irmak Olcaysoy Okten, Gordon B Moskowitz
In 4 studies, we show that two behavioral dimensions specified in Kelley's (1967) model of attribution, consistency and distinctiveness of behaviors, determine perceivers' likelihood to explain others' behaviors in terms of their goals versus traits. Participants tended to attribute the cause of others' behaviors to their goals (vs. traits and other characteristics) when behaviors were characterized by high distinctiveness (Study 1A & 1B) or low consistency (Study 2). On the other hand, traits were ascribed as predominant causal explanations when behaviors had low distinctiveness or high consistency...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184516/chasing-the-rainbow-the-non-conscious-nature-of-being
#11
David A Oakley, Peter W Halligan
Despite the compelling subjective experience of executive self-control, we argue that "consciousness" contains no top-down control processes and that "consciousness" involves no executive, causal, or controlling relationship with any of the familiar psychological processes conventionally attributed to it. In our view, psychological processing and psychological products are not under the control of consciousness. In particular, we argue that all "contents of consciousness" are generated by and within non-conscious brain systems in the form of a continuous self-referential personal narrative that is not directed or influenced in any way by the "experience of consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171903/public-response-to-a-near-miss-nuclear-accident-scenario-varying-in-causal-attributions-and-outcome-uncertainty
#12
Jinshu Cui, Heather Rosoff, Richard S John
Many studies have investigated public reactions to nuclear accidents. However, few studies focused on more common events when a serious accident could have happened but did not. This study evaluated public response (emotional, cognitive, and behavioral) over three phases of a near-miss nuclear accident. Simulating a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) scenario, we manipulated (1) attribution for the initial cause of the incident (software failure vs. cyber terrorist attack vs. earthquake), (2) attribution for halting the incident (fail-safe system design vs...
November 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166895/retrospective-data-on-causes-of-childhood-vision-impairment-in-eritrea
#13
Rajendra Gyawali, Bharat Kumar Bhayal, Rabindra Adhikary, Arjun Shrestha, Rabindra Prasad Sah
BACKGROUND: Proper information on causes of childhood vision loss is essential in developing appropriate strategies and programs to address such causes. This study aimed at identifying the causes of vision loss in children attending the national referral eye hospital with the only pediatric ophthalmology service in Eritrea. METHODS: A retrospective data review was conducted for all the children (< 16 years of age) who attended Berhan Aiyni National Referral Eye Hospital in five years period from January 2011 to December 2015...
November 22, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165627/health-literacy-and-patient-outcomes-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review
#14
Dominic M Taylor, Simon Fraser, Chris Dudley, Gabriel C Oniscu, Charles Tomson, Rommel Ravanan, Paul Roderick
Background: Limited health literacy affects 25% of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and may reduce self-management skills resulting in poorer clinical outcomes. By disproportionately affecting people with low socio-economic status and non-white ethnicity, limited health literacy may promote health inequity. Methods: We performed a systematic review of quantitative studies of health literacy and clinical outcomes among adults with CKD. Results: A total of 29 studies (13 articles; 16 conference abstracts) were included...
November 20, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165350/large-scale-analysis-of-antimicrobial-activities-in-relation-to-amphipathicity-and-charge-reveals-novel-characterization-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#15
Chien-Kuo Wang, Ling-Yi Shih, Kuan Y Chang
It has been unclear to which antimicrobial activities (e.g., anti-gram-positive bacterial, anti-gram-negative bacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and antiviral activities) of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) a given physiochemical property matters most. This is the first computational study using large-scale AMPs to examine the relationships between antimicrobial activities and two major physiochemical properties of AMPs-amphipathicity and net charge. The results showed that among all kinds of antimicrobial activities, amphipathicity and net charge best differentiated between AMPs with and without anti-gram-negative bacterial activities...
November 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164953/unintended-birth-and-children-s-long-term-mental-health
#16
Jessica Houston Su
Research has examined the proximate effects of unintended birth on infants and young children, but we know relatively little about the longer-term effects. Given that unintended birth is associated with several childhood risk factors, it might set the stage for poor mental health in adulthood. Drawing on rich intergenerational survey data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 ( N = 3,742), this study used a variety of statistical techniques to examine whether maternal pregnancy intentions are associated with children's depressive symptoms during early adulthood...
September 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161609/cancers-in-france-in-2015-attributable-to-high-body-mass-index
#17
Melina Arnold, Marina Touillaud, Laure Dossus, Heinz Freisling, Freddie Bray, Irène Margaritis, Valérie Deschamps, Isabelle Soerjomataram
BACKGROUND: Overweight, as defined by high body mass index (BMI), is an established risk factor for various morbidities including cancer. Globally, its prevalence has increased markedly over the past decades. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion and number of cancers that were attributable to high BMI in France in 2015. METHODS: Population attributable fractions (PAFs) and numbers of cancer cases attributable to high BMI (a population mean BMI above the optimum of 22kg/m(2)) were estimated by age and sex, for cancer sites with convincing or probable evidence of an established causal link...
November 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160902/proportion-and-number-of-cancer-cases-and-deaths-attributable-to-potentially-modifiable-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#18
Farhad Islami, Ann Goding Sauer, Kimberly D Miller, Rebecca L Siegel, Stacey A Fedewa, Eric J Jacobs, Marjorie L McCullough, Alpa V Patel, Jiemin Ma, Isabelle Soerjomataram, W Dana Flanders, Otis W Brawley, Susan M Gapstur, Ahmedin Jemal
Contemporary information on the fraction of cancers that potentially could be prevented is useful for priority setting in cancer prevention and control. Herein, the authors estimate the proportion and number of invasive cancer cases and deaths, overall (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers) and for 26 cancer types, in adults aged 30 years and older in the United States in 2014, that were attributable to major, potentially modifiable exposures (cigarette smoking; secondhand smoke; excess body weight; alcohol intake; consumption of red and processed meat; low consumption of fruits/vegetables, dietary fiber, and dietary calcium; physical inactivity; ultraviolet radiation; and 6 cancer-associated infections)...
November 21, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157090/a-critical-review-of-developmental-exposure-to-particulate-matter-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Tiffani A Fordyce, Megan J Leonhard, Ellen T Chang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (ADD/ADHD) are key focuses of current health research due to their increasing prevalence. The objective of this systematic literature search and critical review was to evaluate whether the human epidemiologic data indicate a pattern of association between ASD or ADD/ADHD and developmental exposure to particulate matter (PM), with a focus on exposures encountered before the age of three. A MEDLINE and EMBASE search was conducted; following preliminary and full-text screening, 14 relevant articles were identified for review...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156297/associations-between-causal-attributions-and-personal-stigmatizing-attitudes-in-untreated-persons-with-current-mental-health-problems
#20
Susanne Stolzenburg, Simone Freitag, Silke Schmidt, Georg Schomerus
Past research has shown that among the general public, certain causal explanations like biomedical causes are associated with stronger desire for social distance from persons with mental illness. Aim of this study was to find out how different causal attributions of persons with untreated mental health problems regarding their own complaints are associated with stigmatizing attitudes, anticipated self-stigma when seeking help and perceived stigma-stress. Altogether, 207 untreated persons with a current depressive syndrome were interviewed...
November 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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