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Causal attribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045077/subjective-complaints-as-main-reason-for-biosimilar-discontinuation-after-open-label-transitioning-from-originator-to-biosimilar-infliximab
#1
Lieke Tweehuysen, Bart J F van den Bemt, Iris L van Ingen, Alphons J L de Jong, Willemijn H van der Laan, Frank H J van den Hoogen, Alfons A den Broeder
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate drug survival, effectiveness, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity and safety after transitioning treatment from originator infliximab (Remicade(®) , REM) to biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis in daily practice. METHODS: 192 of 222 REM-treated patients agreed to transition to CT-P13 and were included in this multicenter prospective cohort study. Change in DAS28-CRP, BASDAI, CRP and (anti-) infliximab levels were assessed after six months and adverse events (AEs) were documented...
October 18, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040573/how-much-atopy-is-attributable-to-common-childhood-environmental-exposures-a-population-based-birth-cohort-study-followed-to-adulthood
#2
Hayden H Shin, Stephanie J Lynch, Andrew R Gray, Malcolm R Sears, Robert J Hancox
Background: The rising prevalence of atopic diseases implies a strong influence of environmental determinants. Epidemiological studies have identified several early life exposures that appear to influence the risk of developing atopic sensitization, but the combined influence of these exposures is unknown. We sought to estimate the proportion of atopy that could be attributed to common childhood exposures associated with atopic sensitization in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: Atopic sensitization was measured by skin-prick tests for common aeroallergens in a population-based New Zealand birth cohort at ages 13 and 32 years...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040244/a-prospective-study-of-the-causes-of-bruises-in-premobile-infants
#3
Kenneth W Feldman, Tricia M Tayama, Leslie E Strickler, Lee A Johnson, Gauri Kolhatkar, Catherine A DeRidder, Dana C Matthews, Robert Sidbury, James A Taylor
OBJECTIVE: This study had 2 objectives. First, to determine the behavior of physicians evaluating premobile infants with bruises. Second, and most importantly, to learn whether infants with unexplained bruising who had been initially evaluated by primary care and emergency department (ED) physicians are as likely to have their bruises attributed to child abuse as those children evaluated by child abuse physicians. METHODS: Primary care, ED, and child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) in King County, Washington, San Mateo, Calif, Albuquerque, NM, La Crosse, Wis, and Torrance, Calif prospectively identified and studied infants younger than 6 months with less than 6 bruises, which were judged by the evaluating clinician to be explained or unexplained after their initial clinical examination...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039808/a-diagnosis-of-denial-how-mental-health-classification-systems-have-struggled-to-recognise-family-violence-as-a-serious-risk-factor-in-the-development-of-mental-health-issues-for-infants-children-adolescents-and-adults
#4
Wendy Bunston, Candice Franich-Ray, Sara Tatlow
Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood...
October 17, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038561/vitamin-d-and-cognitive-function-a-mendelian-randomisation-study
#5
Jane Maddock, Ang Zhou, Alana Cavadino, Elżbieta Kuźma, Yanchun Bao, Melissa C Smart, Kai-Uwe Saum, Ben Schöttker, Jorgen Engmann, Marie Kjærgaard, Ville Karhunen, Yiqiang Zhan, Terho Lehtimäki, Suvi P Rovio, Liisa Byberg, Jari Lahti, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Abhijit Sen, Laura Perna, Henrik Schirmer, Archana Singh-Manoux, Juha Auvinen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Mika Kähönen, Lena Kilander, Katri Räikkönen, Håkan Melhus, Erik Ingelsson, Idris Guessous, Katja E Petrovic, Helena Schmidt, Reinhold Schmidt, Peter Vollenweider, Lars Lind, Johan G Eriksson, Karl Michaëlsson, Olli T Raitakari, Sara Hägg, Nancy L Pedersen, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Juha Veijola, Mika Kivimaki, Rolf Jorde, Hermann Brenner, Meena Kumari, Chris Power, David J Llewellyn, Elina Hyppönen
The causal nature of the association between hypovitaminosis D and poor cognitive function in mid- to later-life is uncertain. Using a Mendelian randomisation(MR) approach, we examined the causal relationship between 25(OH)D and cognitive function. Data came from 172,349 participants from 17 cohorts. DHCR7(rs12785878), CYP2R1 rs12794714) and their combined synthesis score were chosen to proxy 25(OH)D. Cognitive tests were standardised into global and memory scores. Analyses were stratified by 25(OH)D tertiles, sex and age...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038496/the-hsp70-homolog-ssb-affects-ribosome-biogenesis-via-the-torc1-sch9-signaling-pathway
#6
Kaivalya Mudholkar, Edith Fitzke, Claudia Prinz, Matthias P Mayer, Sabine Rospert
The Hsp70 Ssb serves a dual role in de novo protein folding and ribosome biogenesis; however, the mechanism by which Ssb affects ribosome production is unclear. Here we establish that Ssb is causally linked to the regulation of ribosome biogenesis via the TORC1-Sch9 signaling pathway. Ssb is bound to Sch9 posttranslationally and required for the TORC1-dependent phosphorylation of Sch9 at T737. Also, Sch9 lacking phosphorylation at T737 displays significantly reduced kinase activity with respect to targets involved in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034876/quantifying-the-contribution-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-to-febrile-illness-amongst-african-children
#7
Ursula Dalrymple, Ewan Cameron, Samir Bhatt, Daniel J Weiss, Sunetra Gupta, Peter W Gething
Suspected malaria cases in Africa increasingly receive a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before antimalarials are prescribed. While this ensures efficient use of resources to clear parasites, the underlying cause of the individual's fever remains unknown due to potential coinfection with a non-malarial febrile illness. Widespread use of RDTs does not necessarily prevent over-estimation of clinical malaria cases or sub-optimal case management of febrile patients. We present a new approach that allows inference of the spatiotemporal prevalence of both Plasmodium falciparum malaria-attributable and non-malarial fever in sub-Saharan African children from 2006-2014...
October 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028521/age-at-menarche-and-depressive-symptoms-in-older-southern-chinese-women-a-mendelian-randomization-study-in-the-guangzhou-biobank-cohort-study
#8
Shiu Lun Au Yeung, Chaoqiang Jiang, Kar Keung Cheng, Lin Xu, Weisen Zhang, Tai Hing Lam, Gabriel Matthew Leung, C Mary Schooling
To clarify the causal role of age at menarche in depressive symptoms we conducted a Mendelian randomization study using a large Southern Chinese cohort (n = 12,233). A genetic allele score was derived using stepwise regression with cross validation. Older age at menarche was not associated with geriatric depression scale score. Our findings suggest that higher rates of depression in women are likely attributable to other factors which require investigation.
September 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025435/withania-somnifera-as-a-potential-candidate-to-ameliorate-high%C3%A2-fat-diet-induced-anxiety-and-neuroinflammation
#9
Taranjeet Kaur, Gurcharan Kaur
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of obesity has reached alarming levels in both developing and developed nations. Excessive calorie intake and sedentary lifestyle due to technological advancements are the main causal factors for overweight and obesity among the human population. Obesity has been associated with a number of co-morbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegeneration and dementia. The progression of neurological disorders in obese subjects has been mainly attributed to neuroinflammation...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018409/innate-viral-receptor-signaling-determines-type-1-diabetes-onset
#10
REVIEW
Zachary J Morse, Marc S Horwitz
Heritable susceptibility of the autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D), only partially equates for the incidence of the disease. Significant evidence attributes several environmental stressors, such as vitamin D deficiency, gut microbiome, dietary antigens, and most notably virus infections in triggering the onset of T1D in these genetically susceptible individuals. Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies have provided credibility to this causal relationship. Infection by the enterovirus, coxsackievirus B, has been closely associated with onset of T1D and is considered a significant etiological agent for disease induction...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016250/scrutinizing-homophobia-a-model-of-perception-of-homosexuals-in-russia
#11
Olga A Gulevich, Evgeny N Osin, Nadezhda A Isaenko, Lilia M Brainis
We aimed to develop and validate a model of associations of perceived threat of homosexuals with lay beliefs about causes of homosexuality, group entitativity of homosexuals, approval of social action strategies targeting homosexuals, and support for their rights using original Russian-language measures. We tested the model in two samples of social network users (n = 1,007) and student respondents (n = 292) using structural equation modeling and path analysis. Attribution of homosexuality to social causes was a positive predictor of perceived threat of homosexuals, whereas biological causes showed an inverse effect...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991977/structural-equation-model-of-total-phosphorus-loads-in-the-red-river-of-the-north-basin-usa-and-canada
#12
Karen R Ryberg
Attribution of the causes of trends in nutrient loading is often limited to correlation, qualitative reasoning, or references to the work of others. This paper represents efforts to improve causal attribution of water-quality changes. The Red River of the North basin provides a regional test case because of international interest in the reduction of total phosphorus loads and the availability of long-term total phosphorus data and ancillary geospatial data with the potential to explain changes in water quality over time...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991888/commonly-prescribed-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-incidence-of-aids-defining-neurological-conditions
#13
Ellen C Caniglia, Andrew Phillips, Kholoud Porter, Caroline A Sabin, Alan Winston, Roger Logan, John Gill, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Diana Barger, Sara Lodi, Santiago Moreno, José Ramón Arribas, Antonio Pacheco, Sandra W Cardoso, George Chrysos, Charalabos Gogos, Sophie Abgrall, Dominique Costagliola, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, Roberto Muga, Santiago Pérez Hoyos, Dominique Braun, Christoph Hauser, Pilar Barrufet, Maria Leyes, Janet Tate, Amy Justice, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown. SETTING: Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988407/accountability-studies-on-air-pollution-and-health-the-hei-experience
#14
REVIEW
Hanna Boogaard, Annemoon M van Erp, Katherine D Walker, Rashid Shaikh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Assessing health effects of air quality interventions is of ever-increasing interest. Given the prominent role Health Effects Institute (HEI) has played in accountability research, this review focuses on HEI's recent experiences, the challenges it has encountered, and provides possible directions for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Most accountability studies to date have focused on effects of relatively short-term, local-scale, and sometimes temporary interventions...
October 7, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984594/alzheimer-s-disease-the-alternative-serotonergic-hypothesis-of-cognitive-decline
#15
Costa Vakalopoulos
The pathognomonic feature of Alzheimer's disease is a loss of declarative memory. This has generally been attributed to early involvement of medial temporal lobe structures with neurofibrillary tangles and loss of neurons in the entorhinal cortex. However, there has been a re-emerging emphasis on the causal role of brainstem monoaminergic nuclei as involvement of the cholinergic basal forebrain loses prominence. The rejection of this latter theory of cognitive decline is related to inconsistencies in time course and modest effects of treatment using cholinergic agents...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984484/the-perceptions-of-the-causes-of-cardiac-diseases-a-taxonomy
#16
Massimo Miglioretti, Claudia Meroni, Giacomo Baiardo, Gaia Savioli, Veronica Velasco
OBJECTIVE: This study verifies whether the open-ended question of the B-IPQ can collect causal attributions of patients with cardiac diseases, define the more frequent causal attributions reported, classify them and describe the relation between the classification of the causes and patients' characteristics. DESIGN: A group of 2011 patients with cardiac diseases was recruited during the first week of cardiac rehabilitation. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Every participant filled in the B-IPQ and the HADS...
October 6, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983918/how-many-cancer-cases-and-deaths-are-potentially-preventable-estimates-for-australia-in-2013
#17
Louise F Wilson, Annika Antonsson, Adele C Green, Susan J Jordan, Bradley J Kendall, Christina M Nagle, Rachel E Neale, Catherine M Olsen, Penelope M Webb, David C Whiteman
Cancer is a leading cause of disease burden in Australia, particularly fatal burden, accounting for an estimated thirty percent of deaths. Many cancers develop because of exposure to lifestyle and environmental factors that are potentially modifiable. We aimed to quantify the proportions and numbers of cancer deaths and cases in Australia in 2013 attributable to 20 modifiable factors in eight broad groupings that are established causes of cancer, namely: tobacco smoke (smoking and second-hand), dietary factors (low intake of fruit, non-starchy vegetables and dietary fibre; and high intake of red and processed meat), overweight/obesity, alcohol, physical inactivity, solar ultraviolet radiation, infections (seven agents), and reproductive factors (lack of breastfeeding, menopausal hormone therapy use, combined oral contraceptive use)...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980266/mendelian-randomization
#18
Sandeep Grover, Fabiola Del Greco M, Catherine M Stein, Andreas Ziegler
Confounding and reverse causality have prevented us from drawing meaningful clinical interpretation even in well-powered observational studies. Confounding may be attributed to our inability to randomize the exposure variable in observational studies. Mendelian randomization (MR) is one approach to overcome confounding. It utilizes one or more genetic polymorphisms as a proxy for the exposure variable of interest. Polymorphisms are randomly distributed in a population, they are static throughout an individual's lifetime, and may thus help in inferring directionality in exposure-outcome associations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976621/higher-temperatures-during-development-reduce-body-size-in-the-zebra-finch-in-the-lab-and-in-the-wild
#19
Samuel C Andrew, Laura L Hurley, Mylene M Mariette, Simon C Griffith
The most commonly documented morphological response across many taxa to climatic variation across their range follows Bergmann's rule, which predicts larger body size in colder climates. In observational data from wild zebra finches breeding across a range of temperatures in the spring and summer, we show that this relationship appears to be driven by the negative effect of high temperatures during development. This idea was then experimentally tested on zebra finches breeding in temperature controlled climates in the laboratory...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975627/meat-consumption-during-pregnancy-and-substance-misuse-among-adolescent-offspring-stratification-of-tcn2-genetic-variants
#20
Joseph R Hibbeln, John Paul SanGiovanni, Jean Golding, Pauline M Emmett, Kate Northstone, John M Davis, Marc Schuckit, Jon Heron
BACKGROUND: Reducing meat consumption is often advised; however, inadvertent nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy may result in residual neurodevelopmental harms to offspring. This study assessed possible effects of maternal diets in pregnancy on adverse substance use among adolescent offspring. METHODS: Pregnant women and their 13-year-old offspring taking part in a prospective birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), provided Food Frequency Questionnaire data from which dietary patterns were derived using principal components analysis...
October 4, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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