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Causal attribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906524/the-development-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-variability-and-causal-complexity
#1
REVIEW
Robert H Wozniak, Nina B Leezenbaum, Jessie B Northrup, Kelsey L West, Jana M Iverson
The autism spectrum is highly variable, both behaviorally and neurodevelopmentally. Broadly speaking, four related factors contribute to this variability: (1) genetic processes, (2) environmental events, (3) gene × environment interactions, and (4) developmental factors. Given the complexity of the relevant processes, it appears unlikely that autism spectrum atypicalities can be attributed to any one causal mechanism. Rather, the development of neural atypicality reflects an interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901266/maternal-prepregnancy-body-mass-index-and-offspring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a%C3%A2-quasi-experimental-sibling-comparison-population-based-design
#2
Erica D Musser, Michael T Willoughby, Suzanne Wright, Elinor L Sullivan, Diane D Stadler, Brent F Olson, Robert D Steiner, Joel T Nigg
BACKGROUND: High maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, whether this effect is attributable to maternal or familial level confounds has been little examined. METHODS: The present study sought to examine these associations, utilizing data from the medical records of a health care system which treats 350,000 patients annually and a sibling-comparison design in a sample of 4,682 children born to 3,645 mothers...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899890/causal-role-of-thalamic-interneurons-in-brain-state-transitions-a-study-using-a-neural-mass-model-implementing-synaptic-kinetics
#3
Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya, Thomas P Bond, Louise O'Hare, Daniel Turner, Simon J Durrant
Experimental studies on the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) of mammals and rodents show that the inhibitory interneurons (IN) receive around 47.1% of their afferents from the retinal spiking neurons, and constitute around 20-25% of the LGN cell population. However, there is a definite gap in knowledge about the role and impact of IN on thalamocortical dynamics in both experimental and model-based research. We use a neural mass computational model of the LGN with three neural populations viz. IN, thalamocortical relay (TCR), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), to study the causality of IN on LGN oscillations and state-transitions...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898442/epidemiology-of-pathologic-myopia-in-asia-and-worldwide
#4
Yee-Ling Wong, Seang-Mei Saw
The myopia epidemic in Asia is evident because the prevalence of high myopia among young adults is higher among Asian (6.8%-21.6%) compared with non-Asian populations (2.0%-2.3%). High myopia is linked to pathologic myopia (PM), which may cause irreversible visual impairment (VI). This review will highlight updates on the prevalence of PM and the associated VI from PM. The prevalence of PM among the middle-aged and elderly (0.9%-3.1%) is higher than the prevalence among children and adolescents (<0.2%). The PM lesions detected among older adults include advanced lesions, such as posterior staphyloma, chorioretinal atrophy, lacquer cracks, and Fuchs spot (in descending frequency of occurrence)...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886520/surprise-20-month-old-infants-understand-the-emotional-consequences-of-false-beliefs
#5
Rose M Scott
Recent studies suggest that by the second year of life, infants can attribute false beliefs to agents. However, prior studies have largely focused on infants' ability to predict a mistaken agent's physical actions on objects. The present research investigated whether 20-month-old infants could also reason about belief-based emotional displays. In Experiments 1 and 2, infants viewed an agent who shook two objects: one rattled and the other was silent. Infants expected the agent to express surprise at the silent object if she had a false belief that both objects rattled, but not if she was merely ignorant about the objects' properties...
November 22, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885883/college-students-stigmatization-of-people-with-mental-illness-familiarity-implicit-person-theory-and-attribution
#6
Amy E Lyndon, Allison Crowe, Karl L Wuensch, Susan L McCammon, Karen B Davis
BACKGROUND: Stigma associated with mental illness (MI) results in underutilization of mental health care. We must understand factors contributing to stigma to shape anti-stigma campaigns. AIMS: To investigate the factors influencing stigma in university students. METHOD: Undergraduate psychology students completed measures on causal attribution, stigma, social distance, implicit person theory (IPT), and familiarity. RESULTS: The hypothesis was partially supported; people who felt personality traits were unchangeable (i...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866225/characterization-of-a-common-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-high-tillering-dwarf-mutant
#7
Tao Xu, Nengfei Bian, Mingxing Wen, Jin Xiao, Chunxia Yuan, Aizhong Cao, Shouzhong Zhang, Xiue Wang, Haiyan Wang
A novel high-tillering dwarf mutant in common wheat Wangshuibai was characterized and mapped to facilitate breeding for plant height and tiller and the future cloning of the causal gene. Tiller number and plant height are two major agronomic traits in cereal crops affecting plant architecture and grain yield. NAUH167, a mutant of common wheat landrace Wangshuibai induced by ethylmethyl sulfide (EMS) treatment, exhibits higher tiller number and reduced plant height. Microscope observation showed that the dwarf phenotype was attributed to the decrease in the number of cells and their length...
November 19, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863516/residential-neighbourhood-greenspace-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-incident-diabetes-in-older-people-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Alice M Dalton, Andrew P Jones, Stephen J Sharp, Andrew J M Cooper, Simon Griffin, Nicholas J Wareham
BACKGROUND: Three cross sectional studies suggest that neighbourhood greenspace may protect against incident diabetes. This study uses data from a longitudinal study with a large sample size to investigate the association between greenspace and the occurrence of incident diabetes over time. METHODS: Data was from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer Norfolk, UK, cohort, recruitment 1993-2007 (N = 23,865). Neighbourhoods were defined as 800 m circular buffers around participants' home locations, according to their home postcode (zip code)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863250/histone-acetylome-wide-association-study-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Wenjie Sun, Jeremie Poschmann, Ricardo Cruz-Herrera Del Rosario, Neelroop N Parikshak, Hajira Shreen Hajan, Vibhor Kumar, Ramalakshmi Ramasamy, T Grant Belgard, Bavani Elanggovan, Chloe Chung Yi Wong, Jonathan Mill, Daniel H Geschwind, Shyam Prabhakar
The association of histone modification changes with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been systematically examined. We conducted a histone acetylome-wide association study (HAWAS) by performing H3K27ac chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) on 257 postmortem samples from ASD and matched control brains. Despite etiological heterogeneity, ≥68% of syndromic and idiopathic ASD cases shared a common acetylome signature at >5,000 cis-regulatory elements in prefrontal and temporal cortex. Similarly, multiple genes associated with rare genetic mutations in ASD showed common "epimutations...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863190/human-papillomavirus-drives-tumor-development-throughout-the-head-and-neck-improved-prognosis-is-associated-with-an-immune-response-largely-restricted-to-the-oropharynx
#10
Ankur Chakravarthy, Stephen Henderson, Stephen M Thirdborough, Christian H Ottensmeier, Xiaoping Su, Matt Lechner, Andrew Feber, Gareth J Thomas, Tim R Fenton
Purpose In squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC), the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) is attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Despite commonly presenting at late stage, HPV-driven OPSCCs are associated with improved prognosis compared with HPV-negative disease. HPV DNA is also detectable in nonoropharyngeal (non-OPSCC), but its pathogenic role and clinical significance are unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine whether HPV plays a causal role in non-OPSCC and to investigate whether HPV confers a survival benefit in these tumors...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862484/%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-autoantibodies-increase-the-susceptibility-of-ventricular-arrhythmias-involving-abnormal-repolarization-in-guinea-pigs
#11
Yu-Hui Zhao, Hai-Xia Huang, Ping Liu, Yun-Hui Du, Peng Wang, Wen Wang, Ye Wu, Li Wang, Chang-Sheng Ma, Hui-Rong Liu
High titers of autoantibodies against the second extracellular loop of β1 -adrenergic receptors (β1 -AA) can be detected in the sera from patients with ventricular arrhythmias, but a causal relationship between β1 -AAs and ventricular arrhythmias has not been established. In this work, electrocardiograms of guinea pigs and isolated guinea pig hearts were recorded. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) were evoked by programmed electrical stimulation of the left ventricular epicardium of isolated guinea pig hearts...
November 11, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859571/my-heart-made-me-do-it-children-s-essentialist-beliefs-about-heart-transplants
#12
Meredith Meyer, Susan A Gelman, Steven O Roberts, Sarah-Jane Leslie
Psychological essentialism is a folk theory characterized by the belief that a causal internal essence or force gives rise to the common outward behaviors or attributes of a category's members. In two studies, we investigated whether 4- to 7-year-old children evidenced essentialist reasoning about heart transplants by asking them to predict whether trading hearts with an individual would cause them to take on the donor's attributes. Control conditions asked children to consider the effects of trading money with an individual...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853060/physical-chemical-and-proteomic-evidence-of-potato-suberin-degradation-by-the-plant-pathogenic-bacterium-streptomyces-scabiei
#13
Carole Beaulieu, Amadou Sidibé, Raoudha Jabloune, Anne-Marie Simao-Beaunoir, Sylvain Lerat, Ernest Monga, Mark A Bernards
Potato peels consist of a tissue called phellem, which is formed by suberized cell layers. The degradation of suberin, a lipidic and recalcitrant polymer, is an ecological process attributed to soil fungal populations; however, previous studies have suggested that Streptomyces scabiei, the causal agent of potato common scab, possesses the ability to degrade suberin. In the present study, S. scabiei was grown in medium containing suberin-enriched potato phellem as the sole carbon source and its secretome was analyzed periodically (10- to 60-d-old cultures) with a special focus on proteins potentially involved in cell wall degradation...
November 17, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846253/functional-analysis-of-the-pathogenicity-related-gene-vdpr1-in-the-vascular-wilt-fungus-verticillium-dahliae
#14
Ya-Lin Zhang, Zhi-Fang Li, Zi-Li Feng, Hong-Jie Feng, Yong-Qiang Shi, Li-Hong Zhao, Xi-Ling Zhang, He-Qin Zhu
Verticillium dahliae Kleb., the causal agent of vascular wilt, can seriously diminish the yield and quality of many crops, including cotton. The pathogenic mechanism to cotton is complicated and unclear now. To screen pathogencity related genes and identify their function is the reliable way to explain the mechanism. In this study, we obtained a low-pathogenicity mutant vdpr1 from a T-DNA insertional library of the highly virulent isolate of V. dahliae Vd080, isolated from cotton. The tagged gene was named pathogenicity-related gene (VdPR1)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835614/depression-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-and-clinical-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-tanzanian-women-living-with-hiv
#15
Christopher R Sudfeld, Sylvia Kaaya, Nilupa S Gunaratna, Fedinand Mugusi, Wafaie W Fawzi, Said Aboud, Mary C Smith Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of depression at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with mortality and clinical outcomes among Tanzanian women living with HIV. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,487 women who initiated ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed using a Tanzanian adapted and validated version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25)...
November 9, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832766/obesity-diet-quality-physical-activity-and-the-built-environment-the-need-for-behavioral-pathways
#16
Adam Drewnowski, Anju Aggarwal, Wesley Tang, Philip M Hurvitz, Jason Scully, Orion Stewart, Anne Vernez Moudon
BACKGROUND: The built environment (BE) is said to influence local obesity rates. Few studies have explored causal pathways between home-neighborhood BE variables and health outcomes such as obesity. Such pathways are likely to involve both physical activity and diet. METHODS: The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) was a longitudinal cohort of 440 adult residents of King Co, WA. Home addresses were geocoded. Home-neighborhood BE measures were framed as counts and densities of food sources and physical activity locations...
November 10, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829951/clinical-impact-of-blood-culture-results-in-acutely-ill-hospitalized-adult-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Robert J Vender, Robert L Vender
BACKGROUND: Blood cultures are obtained clinically to confirm site and source of acute infection as well as to guide effective antibiotic therapies. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at risk for blood stream infection (BSI) as identified from positive blood culture results. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of 190 adult CF patients from January 1, 2001 through December 1, 2015. All positive blood culture results were identified as to clinical relevance and source of BSI...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829384/concepts-of-madness-in-diverse-settings-a-qualitative-study-from-the-intrepid-project
#18
Alex Cohen, Ramachandran Padmavati, Maia Hibben, Samuel Oyewusi, Sujit John, Oluyomi Esan, Vikram Patel, Helen Weiss, Robin Murray, Gerard Hutchinson, Oye Gureje, Rangaswamy Thara, Craig Morgan
BACKGROUND: In order to facilitate case identification of incident (untreated and recent onset) cases of psychosis and controls in three sites in India, Nigeria and Trinidad, we sought to understand how psychoses (or madness) were conceptualized locally. The evidence we gathered also contributes to a long history of research on concepts of madness in diverse settings. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions and individual interviews to collect information about how informants in each site make sense of and respond to madness...
November 9, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826716/the-effects-of-organized-screening-programs-on-the-demand-for-mammography-in-switzerland
#19
Mark Pletscher
The objective of this study is to estimate the causal effect of organized mammography screening programs on the proportion of women between 50 and 69 years of age who have ever used mammography. We exploit the gradual implementation of organized screening programs in nine Swiss cantons using a difference-in-difference approach. An analysis of four waves of the Swiss Health Survey shows that 3.5-5.4% points of the 87.9% utilization rate in cantons with screening programs in 2012 can be attributed to these organized programs...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824269/differential-effects-of-message-framing-on-obesity-policy-support-between-democrats-and-republicans
#20
Tae Kyoung Lee, Hye Kyung Kim
This study tests whether gain- and loss-framed messages about establishing obesity-reducing policies have different persuasive effects on Republicans and Democrats. In a randomized between-subject experiment, participants (N = 384) read a message emphasizing either benefits to a society by establishing policies aimed to reduce obesity (i.e., gain-framed message) or costs to a society that fails to establish those policies (i.e., loss-framed message). Results indicated that Democrats perceived the gain-framed message as more persuasive than the loss-framed message and the perceived argument strength fully mediated the framing effect on Democrats' policy support; however, there was no framing effect on perceived argument strength among Republicans...
November 8, 2016: Health Communication
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