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Attributional style

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446527/the-value-of-different-aspects-of-person-centred-care-a-series-of-discrete-choice-experiments-in-people-with-long-term-conditions
#1
Christopher D Burton, Vikki A Entwistle, Alison M Elliott, Nicolas Krucien, Terry Porteous, Mandy Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To measure the value the patients place on different aspects of person-centred care. DESIGN: We systematically identified four attributes of person-centred care. We then measured their value to 923 people with either chronic pain or chronic lung disease over three discrete choice experiments (DCEs) about services to support self-management. We calculated the value of each attribute for all respondents and identified groups of people with similar preferences using latent class modelling...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443057/cognitive-constructivist-approach-in-medical-settings-the-use-of-personal-meaning-questionnaire-for-neurological-patients-personality-investigation
#2
Barbara Poletti, Laura Carelli, Annalisa Lafronza, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Andrea Ciammola, Monica Grobberio, Vanessa Raimondi, Rita Pezzati, Rita B Ardito, Vincenzo Silani
Objective: The cognitive-constructivist psychotherapy approach considers the self as a continuous regulation process between present and past experience, in which attributions of meaning is characterized by the use of internal rules. In this conception, everyone would be driven by a specific inner coherence called Personal Meaning Organization (PMO). Such approach has never been applied to neurological patients by means of ad hoc developed tools. We performed an explorative study aimed to characterize personality styles in different neurological conditions within the theoretical framework of cognitive-constructivist model...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430868/most-visualization-software-for-producing-automated-textbook-style-maps-of-genome-scale-metabolic-networks
#3
James J Kelley, Shay Maor, Min Kyung Kim, Anatoliy Lane, Desmond S Lun
Summary: Visualization of metabolites, reactions and pathways in genome-scale metabolic networks (GEMs) can assist in understanding cellular metabolism. Three attributes are desirable in software used for visualizing GEMs: 1. automation, since GEMs can be quite large; 2. production of understandable maps that provide ease in identification of pathways, reactions, and metabolites; and 3. visualization of the entire network to show how pathways are interconnected. No software currently exists for visualizing GEMs that satisfies all three characteristics, but MOST-Visualization, an extension of the software package MOST (Metabolic Optimization and Simulation Tool), satisfies (1), and by using a pre-drawn overview map of metabolism based on the Roche map satisfies (2) and comes close to satisfying (3)...
April 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421867/symptom-related-attributional-biases-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#4
Nicole Sanford, Todd S Woodward
INTRODUCTION: Biases in causal attributions and evidence integration have been implicated in delusions, but have not been investigated simultaneously to examine additive or multiplicative effects. It was hypothesised that paranoid delusions would correlate with self-serving and personalising biases ("defence" model of paranoia), particularly when these biases were disconfirmed. METHODS: Constrained principal component analysis was used to investigate differences between schizophrenia patients (paranoid vs...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412667/nurses-perceptions-of-the-impact-of-team-based-learning-participation-on-learning-style-team-behaviours-and-clinical-performance-an-exploration-of-written-reflections
#5
Elizabeth Oldland, Judy Currey, Julie Considine, Josh Allen
Team-Based Learning (TBL) is a teaching strategy designed to promote problem solving, critical thinking and effective teamwork and communication skills; attributes essential for safe healthcare. The aim was to explore postgraduate student perceptions of the role of TBL in shaping learning style, team skills, and professional and clinical behaviours. An exploratory descriptive approach was selected. Critical care students were invited to provide consent for the use for research purposes of written reflections submitted for course work requirements...
March 30, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402046/social-cognition-and-the-course-of-social-functioning-in-first-episode-psychosis
#6
Cindy B Woolverton, Emily K Bell, Aubrey M Moe, Patricia Harrison-Monroe, Nicholas J K Breitborde
BACKGROUND: Social functioning deficits greatly affect individuals with psychotic disorders resulting in decreased ability to maintain relationships, jobs and pursuit of educational goals. Deficits in social cognition have been hypothesized to be an important contributor to these deficits in social functioning. In particular, 5 domains of social cognition have been suggested to be relevant in the study of psychotic disorders: (1) attributional style, (2) emotion recognition, (3) social knowledge, (4) social perception and (5) theory of mind...
April 12, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399829/alcohol-harm-reduction-advertisements-a-content-analysis-of-topic-objective-emotional-tone-execution-and-target-audience
#7
Kimberley Dunstone, Emily Brennan, Michael D Slater, Helen G Dixon, Sarah J Durkin, Simone Pettigrew, Melanie A Wakefield
BACKGROUND: Public health mass media campaigns may contribute to reducing the health and social burden attributed to alcohol consumption, but little is known about which advertising characteristics have been used, or have been effective, in alcohol harm reduction campaigns to date. As a first step towards encouraging further research to identify the impact of various advertising characteristics, this study aimed to systematically identify and examine the content of alcohol harm reduction advertisements (ads)...
April 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398625/novel-creation-of-a-rum-flavor-lexicon-through-the-use-of-web-based-material
#8
Chelsea M Ickes, Soo-Yeun Lee, Keith R Cadwallader
Flavor lexicons help both manufacturers and consumers communicate the intricacies of flavor nuances they experience within a product. Lexicon development typically requires the use of a trained sensory panel to evaluate a representative sample set of the product category to generate terms that describe certain product attributes. In the case of rum, there is considerable variation in terms of style, flavor characteristics, and the sheer number of rums produced making it difficult to create a lexicon in this manner...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390822/the-genetics-of-human-longevity-an-intricacy-of-genes-environment-culture-and-microbiome
#9
REVIEW
Serena Dato, Giuseppina Rose, Paolina Crocco, Daniela Monti, Paolo Garagnani, Claudio Franceschi, Giuseppe Passarino
Approximately one-quarter of the variation in lifespan in developed countries can be attributed to genetic factors. However, even large population based studies investigating genetic influence on human lifespan have been disappointing, identifying only a few genes accounting for genetic susceptibility to longevity. Some environmental and lifestyle determinants associated with longevity have been identified, which interplay with genetic factors in an intricate way. The study of gene-environment and gene-gene interactions can significantly improve our chance to disentangle this complex scenario...
April 5, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384152/social-cognition-in-wilson-s-disease-a-new-phenotype
#10
Elodie Peyroux, Nelly Santaella, Emmanuel Broussolle, Caroline Rigard, Emilie Favre, Anne-Sophie Brunet, Muriel Bost, Alain Lachaux, Caroline Demily
Studies focusing on neuropsychological impairments in Wilson's disease (WD) have highlighted that patients showing neurological signs present significant deficits in a wide range of cognitive domains. Attentional and executive impairments have also been described in people with hepatic WD. However, social cognition abilities, i.e. cognitive processes required to perceive the emotions, intentions and dispositions of other people, have not been clearly investigated in WD. In this study we examined the social cognitive functioning in 19 patients with WD depending on their clinical status-Neurological versus Non-Neurological ("hepatic") forms-compared to 20 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369662/early-pleistocene-hominin-deciduous-teeth-from-the-homo-antecessor-gran-dolina-td6-bearing-level-sierra-de-atapuerca-spain
#11
José María Bermúdez de Castro, María Martinón-Torres, Laura Martín-Francés, Marina Martínez de Pinillos, Mario Modesto-Mata, Cecilia García-Campos, Xiujie Wu, Song Xing, Wu Liu
OBJECTIVES: During the last 13 years, the late Early Pleistocene Gran Dolina-TD6-2 level (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) has yielded an additional sample of 26 dental specimens attributed to Homo antecessor. In this report, we present a descriptive and comparative study of the six deciduous teeth. METHODS: We provide external and internal morphological descriptions following classical terminology, as well as the mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements of the teeth...
March 31, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365271/dietary-and-lifestyle-risk-factors-associated-with-incident-kidney-stones-in-men-and-women
#12
Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Eric N Taylor, Giovanni Gambaro, Gary C Curhan
PURPOSE: Several dietary and lifestyle factors are associated with a higher risk of developing kidney stones. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and number needed to prevent (NNTP) for modifiable risk factors including body mass index (BMI), fluid intake, DASH-style diet, dietary calcium intake and intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II cohorts...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345197/attenuated-intrinsic-connectivity-within-cognitive-control-network-among-individuals-with-remitted-depression-temporal-stability-and-association-with-negative-cognitive-styles
#13
Jonathan P Stange, Katie L Bessette, Lisanne M Jenkins, Amy T Peters, Claudia Feldhaus, Natania A Crane, Olusola Ajilore, Rachel H Jacobs, Edward R Watkins, Scott A Langenecker
Many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience cognitive dysfunction including impaired cognitive control and negative cognitive styles. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging studies of individuals with current MDD have documented altered resting-state connectivity within the default-mode network and across networks. However, no studies to date have evaluated the extent to which impaired connectivity within the cognitive control network (CCN) may be present in remitted MDD (rMDD), nor have studies examined the temporal stability of such attenuation over time...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336319/influence-of-gender-of-the-teaching-staff-on-students-acceptance-of-a-virtual-implant-planning-course
#14
Emeka Nkenke, Elefterios Vairaktaris, Hans-Günter Schaller, Christos Perisanidis, Stephan Eitner
Acceptance of new technology is influenced by a number of situational and social factors. So far, only limited data are available on the influence of the teaching staff's gender on the acceptance of virtual dental implant planning by students. This study aimed at assessing the influence of the teaching staff's gender on the acceptance of a virtual implant planning course by male and female undergraduate dental students and their general attitude toward implantology. Two groups of third-year dental students (group 1, 9 males, 22 females; group 2, 12 males, 20 females) attended a virtual dental implant planning course...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322656/identity-processes-among-older-norwegians-living-in-urban-and-rural-areas
#15
Mary H Kalfoss, Gail Low, Liv Halvorsrud
Guided by the Identity Process Theory, we examined whether 424 Norwegians 60+ years of age would attribute their physical and mental functioning to their health (identity assimilation), to aging itself (identity accommodation), or to both (identity balance). We were also interested in the effect of these attribution styles upon depressive symptoms. Secondary data from the 2004 World Health Organization Quality of Life OLD Group Norwegian Field Study were analyzed using General Linear Model Regression and subsequent Path Analyses...
January 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319909/stability-and-change-in-disease-prestige-a-comparative-analysis-of-three-surveys-spanning-a-quarter-of-a-century
#16
Dag Album, Lars E F Johannessen, Erik B Rasmussen
In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of three survey studies of disease prestige in medical culture. The studies were conducted in 1990, 2002 and 2014 using the same research design. In each of the three rounds, a sample of Norwegian physicians was asked to rate a set of 38 diseases on a scale from 1 to 9 according to the prestige they believed health personnel in general would award them. The results show a remarkable stability in the prestige rank order over 25 years. The top three diseases in all three surveys were leukaemia, brain tumour and myocardial infarction...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304269/toward-a-conceptualization-and-operationalization-of-satisfaction-with-nonpharmacological-interventions
#17
Souraya Sidani, Dana R Epstein
BACKGROUND: Although satisfaction is recognized as an essential aspect in the evaluation of interventions' effectiveness, there is lack of clarity on its conceptualization and operationalization. In this article, we present conceptual and operational definitions that specify the domains and attributes of satisfaction with nonpharmacological interventions. METHODS: An integrative review of conceptual and empirical literature was conducted to generate the conceptual and operational definitions of satisfaction with interventions...
August 1, 2016: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279142/male-and-female-ministers-comparing-roman-catholic-and-methodist-deacons-on-personality-structure-religious-beliefs-and-leadership-styles
#18
Joseph R Ferrari
Christian deacons (50 Roman Catholic; 50 Methodist) self-reported their personality, religiosity, and leadership attributes, plus social desirability tendencies. There were no significant correlates between social desirability and any of these self-reported variables. Results also found no significant differences across Christian denominations on personality dimensions, religious and spirituality beliefs, or leadership styles. Also, there were no significant differences in self-reported personality, religiosity, or leadership among Catholic male deacons with Methodist female deacons only ( n = 43)...
March 2017: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262973/trouble-in-transit-organizational-barriers-to-workers-health
#19
Nicole P Bowles, Bruce S McEwen, Carla Boutin-Foster
BACKGROUND: Valuable insights on the health and behavior of transit workers can be obtained from qualitative research that considers the social environment, which affects job performance and determines levels of perceived stress. METHODS: Using a grounded theory approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with American transit workers (n = 32). Recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a constant comparative method. RESULTS: Participants described categories related to entrenched organizational practices, particularly managements' leadership style, which created an atmosphere of distrust...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239365/characterizing-early-maternal-style-in-a-population-of-guide-dogs
#20
Emily E Bray, Mary D Sammel, Dorothy L Cheney, James A Serpell, Robert M Seyfarth
In both humans and non-humans, differences in maternal style during the first few weeks of life can be reliably characterized, and these differences affect offspring's temperament and cognition in later life. Drawing on the breeding population of dogs at The Seeing Eye, a guide dog school in Morristown, New Jersey, we conducted videotaped focal follows on 21 mothers and their litters (n = 138 puppies) over the first 3 weeks of the puppies' lives in an effort to characterize maternal style. We found that a mother's attitude and actions toward her offspring varied naturally between individuals, and that these variations could be summarized by a single principal component, which we described as Maternal behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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