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Attributional style

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909418/risk-and-ambiguity-in-information-seeking-eye-gaze-patterns-reveal-contextual-behavior-in-dealing-with-uncertainty
#1
Peter Wittek, Ying-Hsang Liu, Sándor Darányi, Tom Gedeon, Ik Soo Lim
Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905108/the-effects-of-cognitive-style-and-emotional-trade-off-difficulty-on-information-processing-in-decision-making
#2
Dawei Wang, Leilei Hao, Phil Maguire, Yixin Hu
This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty (ETOD) on information processing in decision-making. Eighty undergraduates (73.75% female, M = 21.90), grouped according to their cognitive style (field-dependent or field-independent), conducted an Information Display Board (IDB) task, through which search time, search depth and search pattern were measured. Participants' emotional states were assessed both before and after the IDB task. The results showed that participants experienced significantly more negative emotion under high ETOD compared to those under low ETOD...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895699/resilience-and-burnout-status-among-nurses-working-in-oncology
#3
Sevinc Kutluturkan, Elif Sozeri, Nese Uysal, Figen Bay
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the resilience and burnout status of nurses working in the field of oncology. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted with 140 oncology nurses. The data were collected using a socio-demographic attributes form, Resilience Scale for Adults, and the Maslach's Burnout Inventory. Percentage ratios, mean and median values, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, correlation analysis, and multiple stepwise linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the data...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891415/urban-rural-comparison-of-anthropometry-and-menarcheal-status-of-adolescent-school-going-girls-of-jodhpur-rajasthan-india
#4
Shyama Choudhary, Satyendra Khichar, Dhanraj Dabi, Manish Parakh, Pawan K Dara, Poonam Parakh, Suyasha Vyas, Bindu Deopa
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is the formative period of life. Poor adolescent health translates into poor maternal health leading to increased maternal morbidity with inter-generational consequences. AIM: To compare anthropometric, socio-demographic, menstrual and nutritional status of rural and urban adolescent school going girls of Western Rajasthan, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in two rural schools and one urban school of Jodhpur region...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884133/recovering-disrupted-social-capital-insights-from-lao-dpr-rural-villagers-perceptions-of-local-leadership
#5
Jinho Kim, Ji-Hye Kim, Vanphanom Sychareun, Minah Kang
BACKGROUND: Social capital is often believed to be one of the key prerequisites for successful implementation of community-based health programs. In less-developed countries, local leaders are positioned as major players in broad community health strategies and interventions, and their capacities and roles are expected to increase in prominence in future community-health-care promotions. In this study, we examined how local leaders' capacities could be related to social capital in rural villages in Lao PDR, and thus to villagers' willingness to participate in community-based health efforts...
November 25, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875167/temporal-summary-images-an-approach-to-narrative-visualization-via-interactive-annotation-generation-and-placement
#6
Chris Bryan, Kwan-Liu Ma, Jonathan Woodring
Visualization is a powerful technique for analysis and communication of complex, multidimensional, and time-varying data. However, it can be difficult to manually synthesize a coherent narrative in a chart or graph due to the quantity of visualized attributes, a variety of salient features, and the awareness required to interpret points of interest (POls). We present Temporal Summary Images (TSIs) as an approach for both exploring this data and creating stories from it. As a visualization, a TSI is composed of three common components: (1) a temporal layout, (2) comic strip-style data snapshots, and (3) textual annotations...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872489/experience-driven-differences-in-childhood-cortisol-predict-affect-relevant-brain-function-and-coping-in-adolescent-monozygotic-twins
#7
Cory A Burghy, Michelle E Fox, M Daniela Cornejo, Diane E Stodola, Sasha L Sommerfeldt, Cecilia A Westbrook, Carol Van Hulle, Nicole L Schmidt, H Hill Goldsmith, Richard J Davidson, Rasmus M Birn
Stress and emotion involve diverse developmental and individual differences. Partially attributed to the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the amygdala, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the precise genetic and experiential contributions remain unknown. In previous work, childhood basal cortisol function predicted adolescent resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) and psychopathology. To parse experience-driven (non-genetic) contributions, we investigated these relations with a monozygotic (MZ) twin design...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869904/-neural-basis-of-social-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder
#8
Filippo Turchi, Giovanni Amodeo, Ettore Favaretto, Stefania Righini, Eugenia Mellina, Carmelo La Mela, Andrea Fagiolini
AIM: This article review studies social and interpersonal functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and reports on the neurobiological underpinnings of the dysfunctions in emotion recognition, i.e. one of the main domains of social cognition. METHODS: A bibliographical research of controlled studies from 1967 to 2015 was completed in PubMed and PsycINFO using the keywords: "fMRI", "emotion comprehension", "emotion perception", "affect comprehension", "affect perception", "facial expression", "prosody", "theory of mind", "mentalizing", "attributional style", "social perception", "empathy" and "bipolar disorder" or "unipolar depression"...
September 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868083/combining-social-cognitive-treatment-cognitive-remediation-and-functional-skills-training-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Javier Peña, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Pedro Sánchez, Maria B Iriarte, Edorta Elizagarate, Maria A Garay, Miguel Gutiérrez, Aránzazu Iribarren, Natalia Ojeda
This study examined the efficacy of an integrative cognitive remediation program (REHACOP) in improving cognition and functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. The program combines cognitive remediation, social cognitive intervention, and functional skills training. Few studies have attempted this approach. One hundred and eleven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to either the cognitive remediation group (REHACOP) or an active control group (occupational activities) for 4 months (three sessions per week, 90 min)...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860079/perceptions-of-schizophrenia-and-coping-styles-in-caregivers-comparison-between-india-and-switzerland
#10
S Rexhaj, A E Jose, P Golay, J Favrod
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Negative perceptions of illnesses can increase caregivers' use of ineffective coping strategies, which may increase their burdens and distress. Scientific and theoretical framework showed that culture and health organization system influence perception of illnesses and thus also has an impact on the coping strategies used. There is a lack of data on comparative perceptions of illnesses and coping styles between India and Switzerland and that is why this hypothesis needs to be confirmed...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860037/the-impact-of-physicians-communication-styles-on-evaluation-of-physicians-and-information-processing-a-randomized-study-with-simulated-video-consultations-on-contraception-with-an-intrauterine-device
#11
Martina Bientzle, Tim Fissler, Ulrike Cress, Joachim Kimmerle
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at examining the impact of different types of physicians' communication styles on people's subsequent evaluation of physician attributes as well as on their information processing, attitude and decision making. METHOD: In a between-group experiment, 80 participants watched one of three videos in which a gynaecologist displayed a particular communication style in a consultation situation on contraception with an intrauterine device. We compared doctor-centred communication (DCC) vs patient-centred communication (PCC) vs patient-centred communication with need-orientation (PCC-N)...
November 18, 2016: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855645/introducing-explorer-of-taxon-concepts-with-a-case-study-on-spider-measurement-matrix-building
#12
Hong Cui, Dongfang Xu, Steven S Chong, Martin Ramirez, Thomas Rodenhausen, James A Macklin, Bertram Ludäscher, Robert A Morris, Eduardo M Soto, Nicolás Mongiardino Koch
BACKGROUND: Taxonomic descriptions are traditionally composed in natural language and published in a format that cannot be directly used by computers. The Exploring Taxon Concepts (ETC) project has been developing a set of web-based software tools that convert morphological descriptions published in telegraphic style to character data that can be reused and repurposed. This paper introduces the first semi-automated pipeline, to our knowledge, that converts morphological descriptions into taxon-character matrices to support systematics and evolutionary biology research...
November 17, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849639/wecareadvisor%C3%A2-the-development-of-a-caregiver-focused-web-based-program-to-assess-and-manage-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia
#13
Helen C Kales, Laura N Gitlin, Barbara Stanislawski, Katherine Marx, Molly Turnwald, Daphne C Watkins, Constantine G Lyketsos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are nearly universal in dementia and associated with multiple negative outcomes. Current real-world management is largely pharmacologic, despite poor risk/benefit. The WeCareAdvisor was designed to enable family caregivers to assess, manage, and track BPSD using nonpharmacologic strategies. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative data were collected from family caregivers of people with dementia to inform: (1) style of approach and "look and feel" of the tool, and (2) the types of psychoeducation most needed by caregivers...
November 15, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846242/understanding-health-workers-job-preferences-to-improve-rural-retention-in-timor-leste-findings-from-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#14
Marc-Francois Smitz, Sophie Witter, Christophe Lemiere, Patrick Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Tomas Lievens, Rashid U Zaman, Kay Engelhardt, Xiaohui Hou
BACKGROUND: Timor-Leste built its health workforce up from extremely low levels after its war of independence, with the assistance of Cuban training, but faces challenges as the first cohorts of doctors will shortly be freed from their contracts with government. Retaining doctors, nurses and midwives in remote areas requires a good understanding of health worker preferences. METHODS: The article reports on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) carried out amongst 441 health workers, including 173 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842464/attachment-anxiety-and-avoidance-as-mediators-of-the-association-between-childhood-maltreatment-and-adult-personality-dysfunction
#15
Lisa J Cohen, Firouz Ardalan, Thachell Tanis, Winter Halmi, Igor Galynker, Agnes Von Wyl, Michael P Hengartner
This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients...
November 14, 2016: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822285/the-relationship-between-interpersonal-cognitive-distortions-and-attribution-styles-among-divorce-applicant-couples-and-its-impact-on-sexual-satisfaction
#16
Morteza Mahdoodizaman, Samira Razaghi, Lili Amirsardari, Omran Hobbi, Davod Ghaderi
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between cognitive distortions and attribution styles among divorce applicant couples and its impact on sexual satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study and its statistical samples were 55 divorce applicant couples (110 individuals) referred to Urmia courts, Urmia, Iran, from 2012 to 2013. The required data were gathered by interpersonal cognitive distortions, Larson sexual satisfaction and attribution style questionnaire...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816075/perceived-control-as-a-mediator-of-family-environment-in-etiological-models-of-childhood-anxiety-republished-article
#17
Bruce F Chorpita, Timothy A Brown, David H Barlow
Recent developments in cognitive and emotion theory emphasize the importance of cognitive dimensions related to control and helplessness. Drawing from evidence in the area of control and explanatory style, the present study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate structural models investigating the relation of perceived control and attribution to family environment, negative affect, and clinical disturbance. It was hypothesized that the anxiogenic and depressogenic influences of a controlling family environment on negative affect would be mediated by cognitive dimensions...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793153/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-relationship-between-parents-and-children-s-physical-activity
#18
Jodie A Stearns, Ryan Rhodes, Geoff D C Ball, Normand Boule, Paul J Veugelers, Nicoleta Cutumisu, John C Spence
BACKGROUND: Though parents' physical activity (PA) is thought to be a predictor of children's PA, findings have been mixed. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pedometer-measured steps/day of parents' and their children and potential moderators of this relationship. We also assessed the parent-child PA relationship as measured by questionnaires. METHODS: Six-hundred and twelve 7-8 year olds and one of their parents wore Steps Count (SC)-T2 pedometers for four consecutive days...
October 28, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790969/what-mediates-the-link-between-childhood-maltreatment-and-depression-the-role-of-emotion-dysregulation-attachment-and-attributional-style
#19
Anna Schierholz, Antje Krüger, Jens Barenbrügge, Thomas Ehring
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been shown to be related to a severe and/or chronic course of depression. This study investigated which psychological processes mediate this relationship. METHOD: A large sample of acute or recovered depressed individuals (N=340) participated in an online survey assessing characteristics of depression, trauma exposure, and potential mediators (emotion regulation difficulties, attributional style, and attachment). RESULTS: The experience of CM was related to more severe depression and more depressive episodes...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771557/deficits-in-social-cognition-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Kristin M Healey, Cali F Bartholomeusz, David L Penn
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with chronic schizophrenia (SCZ) consistently show impairments in social cognition (SC) that are associated with functional decline, and work suggests that similar associations exist in first-episode psychosis (FEP). The goal of the current article is to review and synthesize the current body of work examining SC in FEP. Secondary aims are to examine the relationship between SC and symptoms, and change in SC over time in FEP. DESIGN: Literature is reviewed from four key SC domains: emotion processing (EP), theory of mind (ToM), social perception (SP), and attributional style (AS)...
December 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
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