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Attributional style

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811499/the-role-of-dermcidin-isoform-2-in-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-diabetes
#1
Suman Bhattacharya, Md Mobidullah Khan, Chandradipa Ghosh, Sarbashri Bank, Smarajit Maiti
Diabetes is now epidemic worldwide. Several hundred-million peoples are presently suffering from this disease with other secondary-disorders. Stress, hypertension, sedentary life-style, carbohydrate/lipid metabolic-disorders due to genetic or environmental factors attributes to type-1 and/or type-2 diabetes. Present investigation demonstrates that stress-induced protein dermcidin isoform-2 (DCN-2) which appears in the serum of diabetic-patients play a key-role in this disease pathogenesis/severity. DCN-2 suppresses insulin production-release from liver/pancreas...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761694/the-effect-of-minimalist-footwear-and-instruction-on-running-an-observational-study
#2
Massimo Giuseppe Barcellona, Linda Buckley, Lisa J M Palmer, Roisin M Ormond, Gwawr Owen, Daniel J Watson, Roger Woledge, Di Newham
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the effects on altered running style which are attributed to minimalist footwear can be achieved by verbal instructions in standard running shoes (SRS). AIM: To explore the effect of Vibram FiveFingers (VFF) versus SRS plus running instruction on lower extremity spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb joint kinematics. METHODS: 35 healthy subjects (mean=30 years, 18 females) were assessed on two occasions with 3D motion analysis...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749346/attribute-and-or-grammar-for-joint-parsing-of-human-pose-parts-and-attributes
#3
Seyoung Park, Xiaohan Nie, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style...
July 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735169/aberrant-link-between-empathy-and-social-attribution-style-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#4
Philipp Homan, Marianne C Reddan, Tobias Brosch, Harold W Koenigsberg, Daniela Schiller
In social interactions, we often need to quickly infer why other people do what they do. More often than not, we infer that behavior is a result of personality rather than circumstances. It is unclear how the tendency itself may contribute to psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe interpersonal dysfunction. Here, we investigated if this dysfunction is related to the tendency to over-attribute behaviors to personality traits. Healthy controls and patients with BPD judged positive and negative behaviors presented within a situational constraint during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732799/monocausal-attribution-and-its-relationship-with-reasoning-biases-in-schizophrenia
#5
Steffen Moritz, Richard P Bentall, Katharina Kolbeck, Daniela Roesch-Ely
BACKGROUND: Aberrant attributional styles are counted to a set of circumscribed cognitive biases that are implicated in the pathogenesis of (paranoid) psychosis. However, evidence for a specific profile (e.g., an exaggerated self-serving bias, other-blaming bias) has become equivocal over the years. More recently, one-sided (monocausal) attributions have been reported in patients with psychosis. METHODS: We compared a large sample of patients with diagnosed schizophrenia (n=145) to nonclinical controls (n=30) on a revised version of the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ-R)...
July 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728372/supplementary-effects-of-higher-levels-of-various-disaccharides-on-processing-yield-quality-properties-and-sensory-attributes-of-chinese-style-pork-jerky
#6
Chih-Ming Chen, Hsien-Tang Lin
Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various dissaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ). Methods: CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm) with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720021/ricky-and-lucy-gender-stereotyping-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-us-deep-south-and-the-implications-for-hiv-risk-in-a-severely-affected-population
#7
Bronwen Lichtenstein, Emma Sophia Kay, Ian Klinger, Matt G Mutchler
HIV disproportionately affects young Black men who have sex with men in the USA, with especially high rates in the Deep South. In this Alabama study, we interviewed 24 pairs of young Black men who have sex with men aged 19-24 and their close friends (n = 48) about sexual scripts, dating men and condom use. Three main themes emerged from the study: the power dynamics of 'top' and 'bottom' sexual positions for condom use; gender stereotyping in the iconic style of the 'I Love Lucy' show of the 1950s; and the sexual dominance of 'trade' men...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709998/aversive-smell-associations-shape-social-judgment
#8
Philipp Homan, Benjamin A Ely, May Yuan, Tobias Brosch, John Ng, Yaacov Trope, Daniela Schiller
Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted with the smell-conditioned face (without any smell), the participants tended to judge both positive and negative behaviors as indicative of personality traits rather than related to the situation...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701970/the-depressive-attributional-style-is-not-that-depressive-for-buddhists
#9
Michelle T Liu, Fei Wang, Kaiping Peng
Numerous studies have shown that depression-prone people are characterized by a chronic style of attributing failures to internal, stable, and global causes, sometimes labeled as the "depressive attributional style." Much less is known, however, about how social-cultural factors such as religious beliefs might modulate these processes. In the current study, we hypothesized that Buddhism's view of ultimate internal controllability plays a buffering role against the depressive attributional style and reduces its negative impacts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701081/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-older-adults
#10
K Lippert, L Kedenko, L Antonielli, I Kedenko, C Gemeier, M Leitner, A Kautzky-Willer, B Paulweber, E Hackl
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have become highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and the human gut microbiota, due to its influence on host energy metabolism, has been attributed an important role therein. This pilot study explores host-microbiota relationships in men and women affected by various types of glucose metabolism disorder. Among 20 individuals aged 58 to 71 years with either normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus the gut bacterial communities were compared based on barcoded 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples...
July 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690602/geography-ethnicity-or-subsistence-specific-variations-in-human-microbiome-composition-and-diversity
#11
REVIEW
Vinod K Gupta, Sandip Paul, Chitra Dutta
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677035/symptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis-surgery-stenting-or-medical-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Ashley M Wabnitz, Tanya N Turan
Symptomatic carotid artery disease is a significant cause of ischemic stroke, and these patients are at high risk for recurrent vascular events. Patients with symptoms of stroke or transient ischemic attack attributable to a significantly stenotic vessel (70-99% luminal narrowing) should be treated with intensive medical therapy. Intensive medical therapy is a combination of pharmacologic and lifestyle interventions consistent with best-known practices as follows: initiation of antiplatelet agent or anticoagulation if medically indicated, high potency statin medication, blood pressure control with goal blood pressure of greater than 140/90, Mediterranean-style diet, exercise, and smoking cessation...
August 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665241/shunt-dependent-hydrocephalus-management-style-among-members-of-the-american-society-of-pediatric-neurosurgeons
#13
Mark R Kraemer, Carolina Sandoval-Garcia, Taryn Bragg, Bermans J Iskandar
OBJECTIVE The authors conducted a survey to evaluate differences in the understanding and management of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus among members of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons (ASPN). METHODS Surveys were sent to all 204 active ASPN members in September 2014. One hundred thirty responses were received, representing a 64% response rate. Respondents were asked 13 multiple-choice and free-response questions regarding 4 fundamental problems encountered in shunted-hydrocephalus management: shunt malfunction, chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overdrainage, chronic headaches, and slit ventricle syndrome (SVS)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#14
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598535/functional-impairment-and-risk-of-venous-thrombosis-in-older-adults
#15
Marissa J Engbers, Jeanet W Blom, Mary Cushman, Frits R Rosendaal, Astrid van Hylckama Vlieg
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of age-specific risk factors for thrombosis in older age, such as functional impairment. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: The Age and Thrombosis-Acquired and Genetic risk factors in the Elderly Study, a two-center study conducted in the Netherlands and the United States from 2008 to 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 70 and older with a first-time deep venous thrombosis in the leg or pulmonary embolism (n = 401) and controls aged 70 and older (n = 431) without a history of thrombosis...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595114/the-tendency-of-unconscious-thought-toward-global-processing-style
#16
Jiansheng Li, Fan Wang, Mowei Shen, Gang Fan
This study explored whether unconscious thought has a tendency to process information globally. In three experiments, a Navon task was used to activate global or local processing styles. Findings showed that in the unconscious-thought groups, those performing the local Navon task presented a poorer decision-making performance when compared to those performing the global Navon task (Experiment 1); participants reported that their judgments were made based on partial attributes (Experiment 2), and evaluated a target individual mainly based on information consistent with stereotypes (Experiment 3)...
June 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579994/identification-of-high-temperature-tolerant-lentil-lens-culinaris-medik-genotypes-through-leaf-and-pollen-traits
#17
Kumari Sita, Akanksha Sehgal, Jitendra Kumar, Shiv Kumar, Sarvjeet Singh, Kadambot H M Siddique, Harsh Nayyar
Rising temperatures are proving detrimental for various agricultural crops. Cool-season legumes such as lentil (Lens culunaris Medik.) are sensitive to even small increases in temperature during the reproductive stage, hence the need to explore the available germplasm for heat tolerance as well as its underlying mechanisms. In the present study, a set of 38 core lentil accessions were screened for heat stress tolerance by sowing 2 months later (first week of January; max/min temperature >32/20°C during the reproductive stage) than the recommended date of sowing (first week of November; max/min temperature <32/20°C during the reproductive stage)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573326/-law-and-the-phase-of-life-old-age
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Klie
In spite of the greatly increased role, which the law attributes to the design of individual life styles and living of elderly people, there is no special legal area known in the German legal system, such as "rights of the elderly", which is the case in the field of the youth law. Special legal regulations covering the concerns/issues of elderly people were always considered to be in danger, as they may have the potential to discrimination, either in a positive or negative way. Due to this fact, the rights of the elderly can be described as synthetic and are subject to constant changes, as can be observed within the pension act...
June 1, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557942/beyond-selection-the-use-of-situational-judgement-tests-in-the-teaching-and-assessment-of-professionalism
#19
Barbara D Goss, Anna T Ryan, Joshua Waring, Terry Judd, Neville G Chiavaroli, Richard Charles O'Brien, Stephen C Trumble, Geoffrey J McColl
PROBLEM: Professionalism is a critical attribute of medical graduates. Its measurement is challenging. The authors sought to assess final-year medical students' knowledge of appropriate professional behavior across a broad range of workplace situations. APPROACH: Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are used widely in applicant selection to assess judgement or decision making in work-related settings as well as attributes such as empathy, integrity, and resilience...
June 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517041/modifying-illness-beliefs-in-recent-onset-psychosis-carers-evaluating-the-impact-of-a-cognitively-focused-brief-group-intervention-in-a-routine-service
#20
Juliana Onwumere, Naomi Glover, Sarah Whittaker, Shireen Rahim, Lai Chu Man, Gareth James, Sanna Khan, Roya Afsharzadegan, Saal Seneviratne, Raythe Harvey, Anna Georgiades, David Raune
AIMS: At first-episode psychosis (FEP), many patients will be routed within familial networks and supported by informal carers who are predominately close family members such as parents. Carer burden, distress and poorer coping styles are associated with different illness beliefs. The current study sought to examine the impact and acceptability of a 3 session, cognitively informed, group intervention targeting illness beliefs previously linked to distress and poorer caregiving experiences in FEP carers...
May 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
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