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Attributional style

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709998/aversive-smell-associations-shape-social-judgment
#1
Philipp Homan, Benjamin A Ely, May Yuan, Tobias Brosch, John Ng, Yaacov Trope, Daniela Schiller
Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted with the smell-conditioned face (without any smell), the participants tended to judge both positive and negative behaviors as indicative of personality traits rather than related to the situation...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701970/the-depressive-attributional-style-is-not-that-depressive-for-buddhists
#2
Michelle T Liu, Fei Wang, Kaiping Peng
Numerous studies have shown that depression-prone people are characterized by a chronic style of attributing failures to internal, stable, and global causes, sometimes labeled as the "depressive attributional style." Much less is known, however, about how social-cultural factors such as religious beliefs might modulate these processes. In the current study, we hypothesized that Buddhism's view of ultimate internal controllability plays a buffering role against the depressive attributional style and reduces its negative impacts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701081/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-older-adults
#3
K Lippert, L Kedenko, L Antonielli, I Kedenko, C Gemeier, M Leitner, A Kautzky-Willer, B Paulweber, E Hackl
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have become highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and the human gut microbiota, due to its influence on host energy metabolism, has been attributed an important role therein. This pilot study explores host-microbiota relationships in men and women affected by various types of glucose metabolism disorder. Among 20 individuals aged 58 to 71 years with either normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus the gut bacterial communities were compared based on barcoded 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples...
July 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690602/geography-ethnicity-or-subsistence-specific-variations-in-human-microbiome-composition-and-diversity
#4
REVIEW
Vinod K Gupta, Sandip Paul, Chitra Dutta
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677035/symptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis-surgery-stenting-or-medical-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Ashley M Wabnitz, Tanya N Turan
Symptomatic carotid artery disease is a significant cause of ischemic stroke, and these patients are at high risk for recurrent vascular events. Patients with symptoms of stroke or transient ischemic attack attributable to a significantly stenotic vessel (70-99% luminal narrowing) should be treated with intensive medical therapy. Intensive medical therapy is a combination of pharmacologic and lifestyle interventions consistent with best-known practices as follows: initiation of antiplatelet agent or anticoagulation if medically indicated, high potency statin medication, blood pressure control with goal blood pressure of greater than 140/90, Mediterranean-style diet, exercise, and smoking cessation...
August 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665241/shunt-dependent-hydrocephalus-management-style-among-members-of-the-american-society-of-pediatric-neurosurgeons
#6
Mark R Kraemer, Carolina Sandoval-Garcia, Taryn Bragg, Bermans J Iskandar
OBJECTIVE The authors conducted a survey to evaluate differences in the understanding and management of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus among members of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons (ASPN). METHODS Surveys were sent to all 204 active ASPN members in September 2014. One hundred thirty responses were received, representing a 64% response rate. Respondents were asked 13 multiple-choice and free-response questions regarding 4 fundamental problems encountered in shunted-hydrocephalus management: shunt malfunction, chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overdrainage, chronic headaches, and slit ventricle syndrome (SVS)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#7
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598535/functional-impairment-and-risk-of-venous-thrombosis-in-older-adults
#8
Marissa J Engbers, Jeanet W Blom, Mary Cushman, Frits R Rosendaal, Astrid van Hylckama Vlieg
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of age-specific risk factors for thrombosis in older age, such as functional impairment. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: The Age and Thrombosis-Acquired and Genetic risk factors in the Elderly Study, a two-center study conducted in the Netherlands and the United States from 2008 to 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 70 and older with a first-time deep venous thrombosis in the leg or pulmonary embolism (n = 401) and controls aged 70 and older (n = 431) without a history of thrombosis...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595114/the-tendency-of-unconscious-thought-toward-global-processing-style
#9
Jiansheng Li, Fan Wang, Mowei Shen, Gang Fan
This study explored whether unconscious thought has a tendency to process information globally. In three experiments, a Navon task was used to activate global or local processing styles. Findings showed that in the unconscious-thought groups, those performing the local Navon task presented a poorer decision-making performance when compared to those performing the global Navon task (Experiment 1); participants reported that their judgments were made based on partial attributes (Experiment 2), and evaluated a target individual mainly based on information consistent with stereotypes (Experiment 3)...
June 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579994/identification-of-high-temperature-tolerant-lentil-lens-culinaris-medik-genotypes-through-leaf-and-pollen-traits
#10
Kumari Sita, Akanksha Sehgal, Jitendra Kumar, Shiv Kumar, Sarvjeet Singh, Kadambot H M Siddique, Harsh Nayyar
Rising temperatures are proving detrimental for various agricultural crops. Cool-season legumes such as lentil (Lens culunaris Medik.) are sensitive to even small increases in temperature during the reproductive stage, hence the need to explore the available germplasm for heat tolerance as well as its underlying mechanisms. In the present study, a set of 38 core lentil accessions were screened for heat stress tolerance by sowing 2 months later (first week of January; max/min temperature >32/20°C during the reproductive stage) than the recommended date of sowing (first week of November; max/min temperature <32/20°C during the reproductive stage)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573326/-law-and-the-phase-of-life-old-age
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Klie
In spite of the greatly increased role, which the law attributes to the design of individual life styles and living of elderly people, there is no special legal area known in the German legal system, such as "rights of the elderly", which is the case in the field of the youth law. Special legal regulations covering the concerns/issues of elderly people were always considered to be in danger, as they may have the potential to discrimination, either in a positive or negative way. Due to this fact, the rights of the elderly can be described as synthetic and are subject to constant changes, as can be observed within the pension act...
June 1, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557942/beyond-selection-the-use-of-situational-judgement-tests-in-the-teaching-and-assessment-of-professionalism
#12
Barbara D Goss, Anna T Ryan, Joshua Waring, Terry Judd, Neville G Chiavaroli, Richard Charles O'Brien, Stephen C Trumble, Geoffrey J McColl
PROBLEM: Professionalism is a critical attribute of medical graduates. Its measurement is challenging. The authors sought to assess final-year medical students' knowledge of appropriate professional behavior across a broad range of workplace situations. APPROACH: Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are used widely in applicant selection to assess judgement or decision making in work-related settings as well as attributes such as empathy, integrity, and resilience...
June 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517041/modifying-illness-beliefs-in-recent-onset-psychosis-carers-evaluating-the-impact-of-a-cognitively-focused-brief-group-intervention-in-a-routine-service
#13
Juliana Onwumere, Naomi Glover, Sarah Whittaker, Shireen Rahim, Lai Chu Man, Gareth James, Sanna Khan, Roya Afsharzadegan, Saal Seneviratne, Raythe Harvey, Anna Georgiades, David Raune
AIMS: At first-episode psychosis (FEP), many patients will be routed within familial networks and supported by informal carers who are predominately close family members such as parents. Carer burden, distress and poorer coping styles are associated with different illness beliefs. The current study sought to examine the impact and acceptability of a 3 session, cognitively informed, group intervention targeting illness beliefs previously linked to distress and poorer caregiving experiences in FEP carers...
May 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481176/do-overgeneral-memories-make-us-feel-better-an-experimental-examination
#14
Sarah L Bunnell, Andrea Follmer Greenhoot
A critical assumption of the CaR-FA-X model, that overgeneral memory is partly attributable to the "functional avoidance" of specific details about one's past experiences, has not been experimentally tested. Further, while it is assumed that the reinforcing properties of said avoidance leads to the emergence of an overgeneral recall style over time, this question has not been addressed developmentally. To explore these issues, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, 41 children and adolescents (Mage = 12 years) were randomly assigned to recall overgeneral or specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test; participants later listened to their memories and provided pre- and post-tests of their emotional states at four time points: before and after memory generation and before and after memory exposure...
May 8, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459260/investigating-the-cognitive-structure-of-stereotypes-generic-beliefs-about-groups-predict-social-judgments-better-than-statistical-beliefs
#15
Matthew D Hammond, Andrei Cimpian
Stereotypes are typically defined as beliefs about groups, but this definition is underspecified. Beliefs about groups can be generic or statistical. Generic beliefs attribute features to entire groups (e.g., men are strong), whereas statistical beliefs encode the perceived prevalence of features (e.g., how common it is for men to be strong). In the present research, we sought to determine which beliefs-generic or statistical-are more central to the cognitive structure of stereotypes. Specifically, we tested whether generic or statistical beliefs are more influential in people's social judgments, on the assumption that greater functional importance indicates greater centrality in stereotype structure...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452690/patterns-of-abnormal-illness-behavior-among-healthy-individuals
#16
Kirsty N Prior, Malcolm J Bond
OBJECTIVES: We extend the seminal work of Professor Issy Pilowsky by presenting a contemporary re-conceptualization of abnormal illness behavior (AIB) as a general psychological phenomenon evident among healthy community members. METHODS: Participants (N = 344) completed a self- report questionnaire comprising health information and well-validated psychological measures from the field of somatization (eg, AIB, attributional style for physical symptoms, cognitive distortion of somatic information, illness likelihood, maladaptive coping)...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450893/reliability-and-validity-of-the-attributional-style-questionnaire-survey-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Ian I Kneebone, Sophie J Dewar
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of an attributional style measure that can be administered remotely, to people who have multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A total of 495 participants with MS were recruited. Participants completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire-Survey (ASQ-S) and two comparison measures of cognitive variables via postal survey on three occasions, each 12 months apart. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability and congruent validity were considered...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446527/the-value-of-different-aspects-of-person-centred-care-a-series-of-discrete-choice-experiments-in-people-with-long-term-conditions
#18
Christopher D Burton, Vikki A Entwistle, Alison M Elliott, Nicolas Krucien, Terry Porteous, Mandy Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To measure the value the patients place on different aspects of person-centred care. DESIGN: We systematically identified four attributes of person-centred care. We then measured their value to 923 people with either chronic pain or chronic lung disease over three discrete choice experiments (DCEs) about services to support self-management. We calculated the value of each attribute for all respondents and identified groups of people with similar preferences using latent class modelling...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443057/cognitive-constructivist-approach-in-medical-settings-the-use-of-personal-meaning-questionnaire-for-neurological-patients-personality-investigation
#19
Barbara Poletti, Laura Carelli, Annalisa Lafronza, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Andrea Ciammola, Monica Grobberio, Vanessa Raimondi, Rita Pezzati, Rita B Ardito, Vincenzo Silani
Objective: The cognitive-constructivist psychotherapy approach considers the self as a continuous regulation process between present and past experience, in which attributions of meaning is characterized by the use of internal rules. In this conception, everyone would be driven by a specific inner coherence called Personal Meaning Organization (PMO). Such approach has never been applied to neurological patients by means of ad hoc developed tools. We performed an explorative study aimed to characterize personality styles in different neurological conditions within the theoretical framework of cognitive-constructivist model...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430868/most-visualization-software-for-producing-automated-textbook-style-maps-of-genome-scale-metabolic-networks
#20
James J Kelley, Shay Maor, Min Kyung Kim, Anatoliy Lane, Desmond S Lun
Summary: Visualization of metabolites, reactions and pathways in genome-scale metabolic networks (GEMs) can assist in understanding cellular metabolism. Three attributes are desirable in software used for visualizing GEMs: 1. automation, since GEMs can be quite large; 2. production of understandable maps that provide ease in identification of pathways, reactions, and metabolites; and 3. visualization of the entire network to show how pathways are interconnected. No software currently exists for visualizing GEMs that satisfies all three characteristics, but MOST-Visualization, an extension of the software package MOST (Metabolic Optimization and Simulation Tool), satisfies (1), and by using a pre-drawn overview map of metabolism based on the Roche map satisfies (2) and comes close to satisfying (3)...
April 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
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