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Attributional style

Fatima M Felisberti
This study investigated whether adults' ability to attribute emotions to brief facial expressions (microexpressions) is associated with family-related environmental factors (FrFs) such as one's number of siblings (Experiment 1), attachment style (Experiment 2), or perceived parental authority style (Experiment 3). Participants' accuracy and reaction time (RT) to the recognition of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness to facial microexpressions (exposure: 100 ms) were measured with a six-alternative forced choice computerised method (6AFC)...
July 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Sarkis Manoukian, Sally Stewart, Stephanie Dancer, Nicholas Graves, Helen Mason, Agi McFarland, Chris Robertson, Jacqui Reilly
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) affects millions of patients worldwide. HAI is associated with increased healthcare costs, owing primarily to increased hospital length of stay (LOS) but calculating these costs is complicated due to time-dependent bias. Accurate estimation of excess LOS due to HAI is essential to ensure we invest in cost-effective infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. AIM: To identify and review the main statistical methods that have been employed to estimate differential LOS between patients with, and without, HAI; to highlight and discuss potential biases of all statistical approaches...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Sergey S Kurginyan, Ekaterina Y Osavolyuk
The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) is a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility (CF) necessary to successfully challenge and restructure maladaptive beliefs with more balanced and adaptive thinking; it is particularly popular for use with English speakers. The CFI has recently been translated into five languages (Chinese, Japanese, Iranian, Turkish, and Russian), although estimates of reliability and validity of these translated versions are scarce. This study reports on the factor structure, internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity of the CFI...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lucy E Napper
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between perceived alcohol norms (descriptive and injunctive) and theoretical predictors of normative (mis)perceptions. Based on models of social norms, we explored whether recall and ease of imagining of other students' drinking, exposure to media and peer conversations normalizing alcohol use, and a tendency to make internal, stable, and global attributions predicted perceived alcohol norms for distal and proximal targets. METHOD: The sample comprised 194 college students (51...
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Matthew J Blake, John A Trinder, Nicholas B Allen
There is robust evidence of an association between insomnia, anxiety, and depression in adolescence. The aim of this review is to describe and synthesize potential mechanisms underlying this association and explore implications for the design of adolescent behavioral sleep interventions. Specifically, we examine whether insomnia symptoms are a mechanism for the development of internalizing symptoms in adolescence and whether sleep interventions are an effective treatment for both insomnia and internalizing symptoms in adolescence because they target the shared mechanisms underlying these disorders...
May 28, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Owoicho Adogwa, Shyam A Desai, Victoria D Vuong, Daniel T Lilly, Bichun Ouyang, Mark Davison, Syed Khalid, Carlos A Bagley, Joseph Cheng
BACKGROUND: Hospital leaders are seeking ways to improve resource utilization and minimize long postoperative hospital stays. Common explanations for extended stay are baseline patient illness, postoperative complications, or physician practice differences. However, the degree extended length of stay (LOS) represents illness severity or postoperative complications remains unknown. The aim is to investigate the influence of postoperative complications and patient comorbidities on extended length of stay after lumbar spine surgery in elderly patients...
May 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Erin D Solomon, Michelle D Repice, Jacinta M Mutambuki, Denise A Leonard, Cheryl A Cohen, Jia Luo, Regina F Frey
Active learning with clickers is a common approach in high-enrollment, lecture-based courses in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In this study, we describe the procedures that faculty at one institution used when implementing clicker-based active learning, and how they situated these activities in their class sessions. Using a mixed-methods approach, we categorized faculty into four implementation styles based on quantitative observation data and conducted qualitative interviews to further understand why faculty used these styles...
June 2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
Junyi Shen, Takako Nakashima, Izumi Karasawa, Tatsuro Furui, Kenichiro Morishige, Tatsuyoshi Saijo
Perinatal care in rural Japan is currently facing a crisis because of the lack of medical staff, especially obstetricians. In this study, a new style of postnatal care facility that combines both medical and nonmedical support is considered. Contrary to most postnatal care facilities in Japan, this new postnatal care facility accepts a puerperant from the cooperating maternity facility soon after birth (≤2 days). We conducted a hypothetical choice experiment to investigate whether this new postnatal care facility could be accepted by women in Gero City, Hida, Gifu Prefecture and how these women evaluate different kinds of postnatal care services...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Ling Zhang, Jeanine Schwarz, Maria Kleinstäuber, Kurt Fritzsche, Wiebke Hannig, Jing Wei, Jianzhong Yang, Lan Zhang
Causal illness attributions influence how individuals cope with somatic symptoms and illnesses. Dimensions of causal symptom attributions have been examined in Western cultures with the subscale 'causes' of the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Some previous studies have identified a stronger somatic attribution style in Asian patients. In this study it was examined if the factorial structure of causal attributions identified in Western populations can be identified in a large Chinese sample of patients presenting with somatic symptoms...
January 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Antonio G Cordente, Mark Solomon, Alex Schulkin, I Leigh Francis, Alice Barker, Anthony R Borneman, Christopher D Curtin
It is well established that the choice of yeast used to perform wine fermentation significantly influences the sensory attributes of wines; different yeast species and strains impart different profiles of esters, volatile fatty acids, higher alcohols, and volatile sulphur compounds. Indeed, choice of yeast remains one of the simplest means by which winemakers can modulate the sensory characteristics of wine. Consequently, there are more than 100 commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains available, mostly derived by isolation from vineyards and successful fermentations...
May 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Terrin N Tamati, Esther Janse, Deniz Başkent
OBJECTIVES: Real-life, adverse listening conditions involve a great deal of speech variability, including variability in speaking style. Depending on the speaking context, talkers may use a more casual, reduced speaking style or a more formal, careful speaking style. Attending to fine-grained acoustic-phonetic details characterizing different speaking styles facilitates the perception of the speaking style used by the talker. These acoustic-phonetic cues are poorly encoded in cochlear implants (CIs), potentially rendering the discrimination of speaking style difficult...
May 9, 2018: Ear and Hearing
A López-López, A H Sánchez-Gómez, A Montaño, A Cortés-Delgado, A Garrido-Fernández
This work studies the influence of cultivar and farming area on the sensory profile of green Spanish-style table olives, using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The lexicon developed was subsequently applied to samples of Gordal (G), Manzanilla (M), and Hojiblanca (H) from different origins: Arahal (A), Utrera (U), Alameda (Al), Estepa (E), Casariche (C), Alcalá de Guadaira (AG), Posadas (P), and Almendralejo (Am). The analysis of the data by ANOVA, considering the effect of the sample as fixed and those of the panelists and the sessions as random, showed good repeatability (no significant effect of the session)...
June 2018: Food Research International
Conrad Musinguzi, Leticia Namale, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Aruna Dahal, Patricia Nahirya-Ntege, Adeodata Kekitiinwa
Background: Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee's motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Leadership
Behnaz Navid, Maryam Mohammadi, Saman Maroufizadeh, Payam Amini, Zahra Shirin, Reza Omani-Saman
Background: Many infertile couples experience psychological distress and suffer from impaired quality of life. Generally, when couples are dealing with uncontrolled events such as infertility, it is important to manage it well and to use the suitable coping style; so this can represent an example of attribution style. The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality of life, relationship beliefs and attribution style in infertile couples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study consisted of 50 infertile couples, who were at least 18 years of age and could read and write in Persian...
July 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Rita Wiesinger, Laura Pagnin, Marta Anghelone, Ligia M Moretto, Emilio F Orsega, Manfred Schreiner
Knowledge of the techniques employed by artists, such as the composition of the paints, colour palette, and painting style, is of crucial importance not only to attribute works of art to the workshop or artist but also to develop strategies and measures for the conservation and restoration of the art. While much research has been devoted to investigating the composition of an artist's materials from a qualitative point of view, little effort has been made in terms of quantitative analyses. This study aims to quantify the relative concentrations of binders (acrylic and alkyd) and inorganic pigments in different paint samples by IR and Raman spectroscopies...
June 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Owoicho Adogwa, Daniel T Lilly, Victoria D Vuong, Shyam A Desai, Bichun Ouyang, Syed Khalid, Ryan Khanna, Carlos A Bagley, Joseph Cheng
BACKGROUND: Health care systems are increasing efforts to minimize postoperative hospital stays to improve resource use. Common explanations for extended postoperative stay are baseline patient sickness, postoperative complications, or physician practice differences. However, the degree to which extended length of stay (LOS) represents patient illness or postoperative complications remains unknown. The aim is to investigate the influence of postoperative complications and elderly patient comorbidities on extended LOS after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion...
April 22, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Anastasia Lim, Hans W Hoek, Samrad Ghane, Mathijs Deen, Jan Dirk Blom
Background: Among Muslim patients, a common cultural concept of distress is the notion that jinn may be the cause of mental health problems, especially in the presence of hallucinations. Objective: This study examines the frequency with which this attribution style is manifest in a specific psychiatric outpatient population with a Muslim background. Methods: Of all patients registered at an outpatient clinic specialized in transcultural psychiatry, data were collected on folk belief, religion, hallucinations (if present), and medical diagnosis...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Carlotta Cogoni, Andrea Carnaghi, Aleksandra Mitrovic, Helmut Leder, Carlo Fantoni, Giorgia Silani
A controversial hypothesis, named the Sexualized Body Inversion Hypothesis (SBIH), claims similar visual processing of sexually objectified women (i.e., with a focus on the sexual body parts) and inanimate objects as indicated by an absence of the inversion effect for both type of stimuli. The current study aims at shedding light into the mechanisms behind the SBIH in a series of 4 experiments. Using a modified version of Bernard et al.´s (2012) visual-matching task, first we tested the core assumption of the SBIH, namely that a similar processing style occurs for sexualized human bodies and objects...
2018: PloS One
Hongjian Cao, Xiaojiao Yuan, Mark Fine, Nan Zhou, Xiaoyi Fang
On the basis of three annual waves of data obtained from 268 Chinese couples, we tested an actor-partner interdependence mediation model in which spouses' neuroticism was linked to their own and partners' marital satisfaction through both intrapersonal processes (i.e., marital attribution) and interpersonal processes (i.e., marital aggression). Considering intra- and interpersonal processes simultaneously, four indirect, mediating pathways were identified: Time 1 Wives' Neuroticism → Time 2 Wives' Attribution or Aggression, while controlling for Time 1 Wives' Attribution or Aggression → Time 3 Wives' or Husbands' Marital Satisfaction, while controlling for Time 1 Wives' or Husbands' Marital Satisfaction...
March 30, 2018: Family Process
David Kernot, Terry Bossomaier, Roger Bradbury
Little is known of the private life of William Shakespeare, but he is famous for his collection of plays and poems, even though many of the works attributed to him were published anonymously. Determining the identity of Shakespeare has fascinated scholars for 400 years, and four significant figures in English literary history have been suggested as likely alternatives to Shakespeare for some disputed works: Bacon, de Vere, Stanley, and Marlowe. A myriad of computational and statistical tools and techniques have been used to determine the true authorship of his works...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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