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Attributional style

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643820/the-attribution-of-mental-health-problems-to-jinn-an-explorative-study-in-a-transcultural-psychiatric-outpatient-clinic
#1
Anastasia Lim, Hans W Hoek, Samrad Ghane, Mathijs Deen, Jan Dirk Blom
Background: Among Muslim patients, a common cultural concept of distress is the notion that jinn may be the cause of mental health problems, especially in the presence of hallucinations. Objective: This study examines the frequency with which this attribution style is manifest in a specific psychiatric outpatient population with a Muslim background. Methods: Of all patients registered at an outpatient clinic specialized in transcultural psychiatry, data were collected on folk belief, religion, hallucinations (if present), and medical diagnosis...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621249/understanding-the-mechanisms-behind-the-sexualized-body-inversion-hypothesis-the-role-of-asymmetry-and-attention-biases
#2
Carlotta Cogoni, Andrea Carnaghi, Aleksandra Mitrovic, Helmut Leder, Carlo Fantoni, Giorgia Silani
A controversial hypothesis, named the Sexualized Body Inversion Hypothesis (SBIH), claims similar visual processing of sexually objectified women (i.e., with a focus on the sexual body parts) and inanimate objects as indicated by an absence of the inversion effect for both type of stimuli. The current study aims at shedding light into the mechanisms behind the SBIH in a series of 4 experiments. Using a modified version of Bernard et al.´s (2012) visual-matching task, first we tested the core assumption of the SBIH, namely that a similar processing style occurs for sexualized human bodies and objects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603205/neuroticism-and-marital-satisfaction-during-the-early-years-of-chinese-marriage-the-mediating-roles-of-marital-attribution-and-aggression
#3
Hongjian Cao, Xiaojiao Yuan, Mark Fine, Nan Zhou, Xiaoyi Fang
On the basis of three annual waves of data obtained from 268 Chinese couples, we tested an actor-partner interdependence mediation model in which spouses' neuroticism was linked to their own and partners' marital satisfaction through both intrapersonal processes (i.e., marital attribution) and interpersonal processes (i.e., marital aggression). Considering intra- and interpersonal processes simultaneously, four indirect, mediating pathways were identified: Time 1 Wives' Neuroticism → Time 2 Wives' Attribution or Aggression, while controlling for Time 1 Wives' Attribution or Aggression → Time 3 Wives' or Husbands' Marital Satisfaction, while controlling for Time 1 Wives' or Husbands' Marital Satisfaction...
March 30, 2018: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599734/using-shakespeare-s-sotto-voce-to-determine-true-identity-from-text
#4
David Kernot, Terry Bossomaier, Roger Bradbury
Little is known of the private life of William Shakespeare, but he is famous for his collection of plays and poems, even though many of the works attributed to him were published anonymously. Determining the identity of Shakespeare has fascinated scholars for 400 years, and four significant figures in English literary history have been suggested as likely alternatives to Shakespeare for some disputed works: Bacon, de Vere, Stanley, and Marlowe. A myriad of computational and statistical tools and techniques have been used to determine the true authorship of his works...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599712/environmental-enrichment-expedites-acquisition-and-improves-flexibility-on-a-temporal-sequencing-task-in-mice
#5
Darius Rountree-Harrison, Thomas J Burton, Catherine A Leamey, Atomu Sawatari
Environmental enrichment (EE) via increased opportunities for voluntary exercise, sensory stimulation and social interaction, can enhance the function of and behaviours regulated by cognitive circuits. Little is known, however, as to how this intervention affects performance on complex tasks that engage multiple, definable learning and memory systems. Accordingly, we utilised the Olfactory Temporal Order Discrimination (OTOD) task which requires animals to recall and report sequence information about a series of recently encountered olfactory stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579904/wine-tasting-based-on-emotional-responses-an-expedite-approach-to-distinguish-between-warm-and-cool-climate-dry-red-wine-styles
#6
Amaury Coste, Paulo Sousa, Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira
In this study, we improved an empirical tasting sheet including emotional responses and common sensory attributes. An Optimized Descriptive Profile (ODP) was run to characterize different red wines according to sensory descriptors used in the improved sheet. A total of 5 wines were evaluated by a Consumer Panel (CP) of 103 subjects (36 females, 67 males) using the improved sheet and a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) list of 25 emotions. In the ODP, the panel identified the main discriminating sensory attributes as "Complexity", "Astringency" and "Duration of the wine fragrance"...
April 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571033/child-maltreatment-and-adult-depressive-symptoms-roles-of-self-compassion-and-gratitude
#7
Qinglu Wu, Peilian Chi, Xiuyun Lin, Hongfei Du
Child maltreatment, including abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) and neglect (physical and emotional), is positively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood. However, most studies have been conducted within a psychopathological framework and focused on underlying dysfunctional processes (e.g., insecure attachment styles, maladaptive schemas, and negative attribution styles). Protective factors that affect the relationship between child maltreatment and adult depressive symptoms are underexplored...
March 20, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563535/modelling-the-sensory-space-of-varietal-wines-mining-of-large-unstructured-text-data-and-visualisation-of-style-patterns
#8
Carlo C Valente, Florian F Bauer, Fritz Venter, Bruce Watson, Hélène H Nieuwoudt
The increasingly large volumes of publicly available sensory descriptions of wine raises the question whether this source of data can be mined to extract meaningful domain-specific information about the sensory properties of wine. We introduce a novel application of formal concept lattices, in combination with traditional statistical tests, to visualise the sensory attributes of a big data set of some 7,000 Chenin blanc and Sauvignon blanc wines. Complexity was identified as an important driver of style in hereto uncharacterised Chenin blanc, and the sensory cues for specific styles were identified...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546432/factors-affecting-choice-of-sponsoring-institution-for-residency-among-medical-students-in-singapore
#9
Chew Lip Ng, Xuan Dao Liu, Renuka Murali Govind, Jonathan Wei Jian Tan, Shirley Beng Suat Ooi, Sophia Archuleta
INTRODUCTION: Postgraduate medical education in Singapore underwent major transition recently, from a British-style system and accreditation to a competency-based residency programme modelled after the American system. We aimed to identify the relative importance of factors influencing the choice of residency sponsoring institutions (SIs) among medical students during this transition period. METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of Singaporean undergraduate medical students across all years of study was performed in 2011...
March 16, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543183/the-effect-of-realistic-appearance-of-virtual-characters-in-immersive-environments-does-the-character-s-personality-play-a-role
#10
Katja Zibrek, Elena Kokkinara, Rachel Mcdonnell
Virtual characters that appear almost photo-realistic have been shown to induce negative responses from viewers in traditional media, such as film and video games. This effect, described as the uncanny valley, is the reason why realism is often avoided when the aim is to create an appealing virtual character. In Virtual Reality, there have been few attempts to investigate this phenomenon and the implications of rendering virtual characters with high levels of realism on user enjoyment. In this paper, we conducted a large-scale experiment on over one thousand members of the public in order to gather information on how virtual characters are perceived in interactive virtual reality games...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535646/randomized-clinical-trial-with-e-motionaltraining-%C3%A2-1-0-for-social-cognition-rehabilitation-in-schizophrenia
#11
Yolanda Maroño Souto, Miriam Vázquez Campo, Francisco Díaz Llenderrozas, Marina Rodríguez Álvarez, Raimundo Mateos, Alejandro García Caballero
Background: Schizophrenia patients present deficits in social cognition (SC), emotion and social perception, theory of mind (ToM), and attributional style. This study tested the efficacy, in real clinical conditions, of a online self-training program in SC, e-Motional Training® , in comparison with treatment as usual. Method: A randomized single-blinded multicenter clinical trial was conducted with 60 schizophrenia stable outpatients. All patients (control and intervention) were treated with drug therapy, case management, and individual and group psychotherapy (not focused on SC)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527072/authorship-identification-of-documents-with-high-content-similarity
#12
Andi Rexha, Mark Kröll, Hermann Ziak, Roman Kern
The goal of our work is inspired by the task of associating segments of text to their real authors. In this work, we focus on analyzing the way humans judge different writing styles. This analysis can help to better understand this process and to thus simulate/ mimic such behavior accordingly. Unlike the majority of the work done in this field (i.e. authorship attribution, plagiarism detection, etc.) which uses content features, we focus only on the stylometric, i.e. content-agnostic, characteristics of authors...
2018: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512405/symptom-attribution-and-treatment-seeking-in-australian-veterans
#13
Breanna K Wright, Helen L Kelsall, David M Clarke, Alexander C McFarlane, Malcolm R Sim
To understand the role of symptom attribution in treatment-seeking behaviours, survey results of 1356 veterans (age = 38-72 years) were analysed. Controlling for symptom frequency, significant relationships were found for specialist and psychological-related consultations. Those who favoured psychological explanations for symptoms were more likely to attend specialist and psychology-related consultations and filled significantly more prescriptions than people who predominantly explained symptoms by situational factors (normalisers)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485286/volatile-compounds-related-to-stone-fruit-aroma-attributes-in-viognier-and-chardonnay-wines
#14
Tracey E Siebert, Alice Barker, Wes Pearson, Sheridan R Barter, Miguel A de Barros Lopes, Philippe Darriet, Markus J Herderich, I Leigh Francis
A 'stone fruit' aroma is important in many white wine varieties and styles, but little is known about the chemical basis of this wine aroma attribute. A set of Viognier and Chardonnay wines that featured 'stone fruit' aroma attributes were selected by a panel of wine experts. The selected wines were characterized by sensory descriptive analysis and detailed volatile chemical composition analyses. This comprehensive data also allowed Viognier wine to be profiled for the first time. By partial least-squares regression, several esters and fatty acids and benzaldehyde were indicated as contributing to the 'peach' attribute; however, a reconstitution sensory study was unsuccessful in mimicking this attribute...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481113/barbara-henker-1935-2017
#15
Stephen P Hinshaw, Jill Waterman
Presents an obituary for Barbara Henker, who died January 24, 2017, at the age of 81. Henker was professor emerita and a pioneering female faculty member in the Psychology Department at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Arriving in 1965, she served on the faculty in the clinical and developmental psychology areas at UCLA as the first woman faculty member hired by the department. Henker also worked in the areas of health-related behaviors, attributional styles, cognitive-behavioral interventions, and early use of electronic diaries to monitor the behavior and emotions of youth and parents...
February 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474425/the-existence-of-parenting-styles-in-the-owner-dog-relationship
#16
Ineke R van Herwijnen, Joanne A M van der Borg, Marc Naguib, Bonne Beerda
Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire for the parent-child relationship and an adapted version for dog owners...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463456/traumatic-life-event-exposure-and-psychotic-like-experiences-a-multiple-mediation-model-of-cognitive-based-mechanisms
#17
Lauren E Gibson, Lauren E Reeves, Shanna Cooper, Thomas M Olino, Lauren M Ellman
Several cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for the relationship between exposure to traumatic life events (TLEs) and the entire psychosis spectrum. However, only few of these mechanisms have been empirically tested and those that have been tested have not considered multiple mechanisms simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived stress, dissociation, negative self-schemas, negative other-schemas, and/or external locus of control mediated the association between TLEs and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs)...
February 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447200/discovery-of-two-new-species-of-crotalaria-leguminosae-crotalarieae-from-western-ghats-india
#18
Shabir A Rather, Shweta Subramaniam, Shagun Danda, Arun K Pandey
Two new species of Fabaceae-Papilionoideae are described and illustrated. Crotalaria suffruticosa from Karul Ghat region of Maharashtra is morphologically close to C. albida and C. epunctata. C. multibracteata from Panhala region of Maharashtra resembles C. vestita. C. suffruticosa differs from C. albida and C. epunctata in its habit, leaf, inflorescence, callosity, keel type, stigma, style morphology and number of seeds/pod. To test if the new species differ from their morphologically most similar species, we measured various traits and performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446707/arsenic-cadmium-and-mercury-induced-hypertension-mechanisms-and-epidemiological-findings
#19
Airton da Cunha Martins, Maria Fernanda Hornos Carneiro, Denise Grotto, Joseph A Adeyemi, Fernando Barbosa
Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) are toxic elements widely distributed in the environment. Exposure to these elements was attributed to produce several acute and chronic illnesses including hypertension. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the most frequently proposed mechanisms underlying hypertension associated with As, Cd, and Hg exposure including: oxidative stress, impaired nitric oxide (NO) signaling, modified vascular response to neurotransmitters and disturbed vascular muscle Ca2+ signaling, renal damage, and interference with the renin-angiotensin system...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444084/attributional-style-and-depressive-symptoms-in-a-male-prison-sample
#20
Danny J O'Sullivan, Maura E O'Sullivan, Brendan D O'Connell, Ken O'Reilly, Kiran M Sarma
The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI)...
2018: PloS One
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