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Attributional style

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199406/the-role-of-negative-affect-in-the-assessment-of-quality-of-life-among-women-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Nicola R Gawlik, Malcolm J Bond
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of negative affect (defined in terms of lack of optimism, depressogenic attributional style, and hopelessness depression) on the quality of life of women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Participants (n=177) completed either an online or paper questionnaire made available to members of Australian diabetes support groups. Measures of optimism, attributional style, hopelessness depression, disease-specific data, and diabetes-related quality of life were sought...
November 7, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173238/toward-a-two-dimensional-model-of-social-cognition-in-clinical-neuropsychology-a-systematic-review-of-factor-structure-studies
#2
Aurore Etchepare, Antoinette Prouteau
OBJECTIVE: Social cognition has received growing interest in many conditions in recent years. However, this construct still suffers from a considerable lack of consensus, especially regarding the dimensions to be studied and the resulting methodology of clinical assessment. Our review aims to clarify the distinctiveness of the dimensions of social cognition. METHOD: Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statements, a systematic review was conducted to explore the factor structure of social cognition in the adult general and clinical populations...
November 27, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156295/components-of-schizophrenia-liability-are-not-uniformly-associated-with-stress-sensitivity-resilience-and-coping
#3
Christian Ruzibiza, Rebecca E Grattan, Rebekah Eder, Richard J Linscott
Stress sensitization is a candidate final common pathway for the development of schizophrenia. In other psychopathologies, resilience attenuates the stressor-outcome relationships. Therefore, we sought to determine whether resilience moderates the association between stress sensitivity and schizophrenia liability. Undergraduates (n = 230) self-reported cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganisation attributes of schizophrenia liability as well as ratings of sensitivity to stress, resilience, and dispositional coping behaviour...
November 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151088/cotard-syndrome
#4
Sebastian Dieguez
Cotard's syndrome is often described as the delusional belief that one is dead or non-existent. However, Jules Cotard's initial description (1880) of the "delusion of negations" was much richer and also involved delusions and claims of immortality and enormity, feelings of damnation, and illusions of bodily dissolution and transformation. Alternatively conceived as an extreme case of depression, hypochondria, or psychosis, the condition is considered rare and remains poorly understood. Cotard himself provided a taxonomy and several explanations for the condition, focusing on its distinction from classical persecutory delusions and suggesting that it could be a kind of reversed grandiosity...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117927/sexual-health-and-the-internet-cross-sectional-study-of-online-preferences-among-adolescents
#5
Antonella Juline von Rosen, Frederik Tilmann von Rosen, Peter Tinnemann, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider
BACKGROUND: The Internet is widely used by adolescents for sexual health information and bears the potential to increase knowledge and positively affect behavior. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess students' preferences when looking for sexual health information online. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among ninth grade students in a convenience sample of 13 secondary schools in Berlin, Germany. During a regular school period, participants were requested to rate the importance they attribute to nine aspects of sexual health websites in a paper-based questionnaire...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108595/depression-in-later-life-a-closer-look-at-the-gender-gap
#6
Francesco Acciai, Melissa Hardy
Gender differences in depressive symptoms have been extensively documented, with women reporting a higher number of depressive symptoms than men. However, studies offer different explanations for why such a gap exists. The goal of the current paper is to analyze how much of the observed gender gap in depression may be attributed to (1) compositional versus (2) reporting differences or (3) differences in reactivity to adversities. We contribute to this literature by testing, net of compositional differences, whether the relationship between reporting behavior and depressive symptoms is gendered and whether accounting for the possibility of gender-specific reactivity alters the structure of the gender gap at older ages...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099149/closure-methods-for-laparotomy-incisions-for-preventing-incisional-hernias-and-other-wound-complications
#7
REVIEW
Sunil V Patel, David D Paskar, Richard L Nelson, Satyanarayana S Vedula, Scott R Steele
BACKGROUND: Surgeons who perform laparotomy have a number of decisions to make regarding abdominal closure. Material and size of potential suture types varies widely. In addition, surgeons can choose to close the incision in anatomic layers or mass ('en masse'), as well as using either a continuous or interrupted suturing technique, of which there are different styles of each. There is ongoing debate as to which suturing techniques and suture materials are best for achieving definitive wound closure while minimising the risk of short- and long-term complications...
November 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096130/impaired-self-agency-inferences-in-schizophrenia-the-role-of-cognitive-capacity-and-causal-reasoning-style
#8
M Prikken, A van der Weiden, R S Kahn, H Aarts, N E M van Haren
BACKGROUND: The sense of self-agency, i.e., experiencing oneself as the cause of one's own actions, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Normally, inferences of self-agency are enhanced when actual outcomes match with pre-activated outcome information, where this pre-activation can result from explicitly set goals (i.e., goal-based route) or implicitly primed outcome information (i.e., prime-based route). Previous research suggests that patients show specific impairments in the prime-based route, implicating that they do not rely on matches between implicitly available outcome information and actual action-outcomes when inferring self-agency...
September 20, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093695/measurements-of-rationality-individual-differences-in-information-processing-the-transitivity-of-preferences-and-decision-strategies
#9
Patrycja Sleboda, Joanna Sokolowska
The first goal of this study was to validate the Rational-Experiential Inventory (REI) and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) through checking their relation to the transitivity axiom. The second goal was to test the relation between decision strategies and cognitive style as well as the relation between decision strategies and the transitivity of preferences. The following characteristics of strategies were investigated: requirements for trade-offs, maximization vs. satisficing and option-wise vs. attribute-wise information processing...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058811/consumer-perception-of-retail-pork-bacon-attributes-using-adaptive-choice-based-conjoint-analysis-and-maximum-differential-scaling
#10
K G McLean, D J Hanson, S M Jervis, M A Drake
Bacon is one of the most recognizable consumer pork products and is differentiated by appearance, flavor, thickness, and several possible product claims. The objective of this study was to explore the attributes of retail bacon that influence consumers to purchase and consume bacon. An Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was designed for attributes of raw American-style bacon. An ACBC survey (N = 1410 consumers) and Kano questioning were applied to determine the key attributes that influenced consumer purchase...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045160/taxi-driver-speeding-who-when-where-and-how-a-comparative-study-between-shanghai-and-new-york
#11
Yizhe Huang, Daniel Jian Sun, Juanyu Tang
OBJECTIVE: The three objectives of this study are: 1) To identify the driving style characteristics of taxi drivers in Shanghai and NYC using taxi GPS data and make a comparative analysis; 2) To explore the influence of different driving style characteristics on the frequency of speeding (who and how?) 3) To explore the influence of driving style characteristics, road attributes and environmental factors on the speeding rate (when, where and how?) Methods: This study proposes a Driver-Road-Environment Identification (DREI) method to investigate the determinant factors of taxi speeding violations...
October 18, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044446/social-cognition-in-schizophrenia-unaffected-relatives-and-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-what-do-we-currently-know
#12
Alejandra Mondragón-Maya, Daniela Ramos-Mastache, Pedro D Román, Guillermina Yáñez-Téllez
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia patients show impairments in social cognition (SC), which is a set of cognitive processes that underlie social interactions. The research about SC in schizophrenia has identified four main domains: Theory of mind (ToM), social perception, attributional style and emotional processing. The present review aims to summarize the most recent and consistent findings about SC in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected relatives and ultra-high risk for psychosis individuals (UHR), as well as its association with clinical variables and functional outcome...
September 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966049/child-feeding-style-and-dietary-outcomes-in-a-cohort-of-latino-farmworker-families
#13
Edward H Ip, Sarah A Marshall, Thomas A Arcury, Cynthia K Suerken, Grisel Trejo, Joseph A Skelton, Sara A Quandt
BACKGROUND: The high level of obesity in Latino children, especially in farmworker families, may be partly attributed to feeding styles of parents. Feeding styles used in Latino farmworker families have not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify and describe feeding styles used by mothers in farmworker families with 2.5- to 3.5-year-old children, describe how styles change over time, and characterize the relationship of feeding styles to dietary outcomes and measures of overweight and obesity...
September 29, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957435/the-predictive-value-of-childhood-recurrent-abdominal-pain-for-adult-emotional-disorders-and-the-influence-of-negative-cognitive-style-findings-from-a-cohort-study
#14
Kate Stein, Rebecca M Pearson, Alan Stein, Mina Fazel
BACKGROUND: Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in childhood is common, with no explanatory pathology identified in the majority of cases. Previous studies have consistently demonstrated an association between childhood RAP and later emotional distress disorders. The aim of this study was to replicate this finding through the analysis of a large dataset, and explore how a negative style of thinking could potentially influence this relationship. METHODS: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a population cohort of children born in the Avon area of the UK, between 1991-1992...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942579/distribution-of-tomato-planta-macho-viroid-in-germinating-pollen-and-transmitting-tract
#15
Yosuke Matsushita, Hironobu Yanagisawa
Vertical and horizontal pollen transmission is important for efficient infection by viroids. Vertical pollen transmission of viroids is attributed to the infection by viroid in the embryo sac through infected pollen. To identify the viroid infection in pollen and pollen tubes elongating through the transmitting tract, we used in situ hybridization to histochemically analyze the distribution of Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) in pollen grains, the stigma, and style of petunia plants. TPMVd was present in the generative nucleus and vegetative nucleus of mature infected pollen grains and germinating pollen grains...
September 23, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940511/climate-mitigation-by-dairy-intensification-depends-on-intensive-use-of-spared-grassland
#16
David Styles, Alejandra Gonzalez-Mejia, Jon Moorby, Andreas Foskolos, James Gibbons
Milk and beef production cause 9% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have shown that dairy intensification reduces the carbon footprint of milk by increasing animal productivity and feed conversion efficiency. None of these studies simultaneously evaluated indirect GHG effects incurred via teleconnections with expansion of feed crop production and replacement suckler-beef production. We applied consequential LCA to incorporate these effects into GHG mitigation calculations for intensification scenarios among grazing-based dairy farms in an industrialized country (UK), in which milk production shifts from average to intensive farm typologies, involving higher milk yields per cow and more maize and concentrate feed in cattle diets...
September 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929841/effectively-leading-for-quality
#17
Peter Lachman, Wendy Nicklin
Although significant advances have occurred in medical and related sciences, the quality improvement and patient safety movements have been slow to gain traction. There are many "pockets" of progress around the globe; however, the scale and spread has been slow. Stimulating culture and system change in healthcare requires a definitive change in leadership style and approach. Health leaders of today must commit to the critical success factors and demonstrate the attributes necessary to create change and raise the bar for quality improvement and safety...
September 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910326/sex-differences-in-the-herding-styles-of-working-sheepdogs-and-their-handlers
#18
Erin Kydd, Paul McGreevy
Working sheepdog trials test the attributes of dogs as well as the dogmanship and stockmanship skills of handlers. They generally include standard elements such as outrun, lift, fetch, drive, shed, pen and single to test all facets of the work that dogs perform on a farm. While both male and female handlers participate, these trials are traditionally dominated by male handlers. Both male and female dogs compete on equal terms within the same events. Drawing data from files (n = 60) downloaded from YouTube, the current study explores whether behaviours of dogs and their handlers during sheepdog trials differ between handler gender and dog sex at different levels of competition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883175/semi-automatic-terminology-generation-for-information-extraction-from-german-chest-x-ray-reports
#19
Jonathan Krebs, Hamo Corovic, Georg Dietrich, Max Ertl, Georg Fette, Mathias Kaspar, Markus Krug, Stefan Stoerk, Frank Puppe
Extraction of structured data from textual reports is an important subtask for building medical data warehouses for research and care. Many medical and most radiology reports are written in a telegraphic style with a concatenation of noun phrases describing the presence or absence of findings. Therefore a lexico-syntactical approach is promising, where key terms and their relations are recognized and mapped on a predefined standard terminology (ontology). We propose a two-phase algorithm for terminology matching: In the first pass, a local terminology for recognition is derived as close as possible to the terms used in the radiology reports...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863864/two-pools-of-vesicles-associated-with-synaptic-ribbons-are-molecularly-prepared-for-release
#20
Proleta Datta, Jared Gilliam, Wallace B Thoreson, Roger Janz, Ruth Heidelberger
Neurons that form ribbon-style synapses are specialized for continuous exocytosis. To this end, their synaptic terminals contain numerous synaptic vesicles, some of which are ribbon associated, that have difference susceptibilities for undergoing Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. In this study, we probed the relationship between previously defined vesicle populations and determined their fusion competency with respect to SNARE complex formation. We found that both the rapidly releasing vesicle pool and the releasable vesicle pool of the retinal bipolar cell are situated at the ribbon-style active zones, where they functionally interact...
November 21, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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