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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146143/reported-mistreatment-during-the-surgery-clerkship-varies-by-student-career-choice
#1
Michael T Kemp, Margaret Smith, Scott Kizy, Michael Englesbe, Rishindra M Reddy
BACKGROUND: Student mistreatment is often a major concern during the surgery clerkship. We hypothesized that mistreatment is decreasing and that career choice may reflect perceived mistreatment. METHODS: We surveyed 2319 physicians about their surgery clerkships. Mistreatment reporting was correlated to physician specialty and medical school graduation year. RESULTS: The response rate was 18.9% (440/2319). Recent graduates reported less mistreatment than more senior graduates (24...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142115/males-harm-females-less-when-competing-with-familiar-relatives
#2
Samuel J Lymbery, Leigh W Simmons
Sexual conflict occurs when reproductive partners have different fitness optima, and can lead to the evolution of traits in one sex that inflict fitness costs on the opposite sex. Recently, it has been proposed that antagonism by males towards females should be reduced when they compete with relatives, because reducing the future productivity of a female would result in an indirect fitness cost for a harmful male. We tested this prediction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, the males of which harm females with genital spines and pre-copulatory harassment...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116986/it-is-time-for-zero-tolerance-for-sexual-harassment-in-academic-medicine
#3
Carol K Bates, Reshma Jagsi, Lynn K Gordon, Elizabeth Travis, Archana Chatterjee, Marin Gillis, Olivia Means, Linda Chaudron, Rebecca Ganetzky, Martha Gulati, Barbara Fivush, Poonam Sharma, Amelia Grover, Diana Lautenberger, Terence R Flotte
While there are more women in leadership positions in academic medicine now than ever before in our history, evidence from recent surveys of women and from graduating medical students demonstrates that sexual harassment continues in our institutions. Our ability to change the culture is hampered by fear of reporting episodes of harassment, which is largely due to fear of retaliation. We describe some efforts in scientific societies that are addressing this and working to establish safe environments at national meetings...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108508/a-non-randomised-pragmatic-trial-of-a-school-based-group-cognitive-behavioural-programme-for-preventing-depression-in-girls
#4
Heléne Zetterström Dahlqvist, Evelina Landstedt, Ylva B Almqvist, Katja Gillander Gådin
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the DISA-programme in preventing depressive symptoms (DS) in adolescent girls, as implemented in a real-world school setting, accounting for baseline socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and to investigate whether the effects of these baseline variables on DS differed between intervention participants and non-participants. In this non-randomised pragmatic trial, an electronic questionnaire was disseminated in 2011 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) in schools in one municipality in northern Sweden...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094715/university-systems-allow-sexual-harassers-to-thrive
#5
Laurel Issen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093051/defining-cyberbullying
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth Englander, Edward Donnerstein, Robin Kowalski, Carolyn A Lin, Katalin Parti
Is cyberbullying essentially the same as bullying, or is it a qualitatively different activity? The lack of a consensual, nuanced definition has limited the field's ability to examine these issues. Evidence suggests that being a perpetrator of one is related to being a perpetrator of the other; furthermore, strong relationships can also be noted between being a victim of either type of attack. It also seems that both types of social cruelty have a psychological impact, although the effects of being cyberbullied may be worse than those of being bullied in a traditional sense (evidence here is by no means definitive)...
November 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079963/the-effects-of-non-physical-peer-sexual-harassment-on-high-school-students-psychological-well-being-in-norway-consistent-and-stable-findings-across-studies
#7
Mons Bendixen, Josef Daveronis, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair
OBJECTIVES: The paper examines how strongly non-physical peer sexual harassment is associated with a wide range of well-being outcomes from symptoms of depression and anxiety to self-esteem and body image. METHODS: Two large community samples of high school students were analyzed (n = 1384 and n = 1485). Students responded to questionnaires on being subject to non-physical sexual harassment, sexual coercion and forced intercourse, and to well-being indicators ranging from anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067831/social-and-structural-factors-increase-inconsistent-condom-use-by-sex-workers-one-time-and-regular-clients-in-northern-uganda
#8
Putu Duff, Josephine Birungi, Sabina Dobrer, Monika Akello, Godfrey Muzaaya, Kate Shannon
While sex workers (SWs) bear the brunt of the epidemic in Uganda, there remains a dearth of empirical research on the structural drivers of HIV prevention among SWs. This study examined the drivers of inconsistent condom use by one-time and regular clients of young women SWs in Gulu, Northern Uganda. Data were drawn from the Gulu Sexual Health Study, a cross-sectional study of young SWs, aged 14 years and older (2011-2012). SWs were recruited using peer/SW-led outreach, in partnership with The AIDS Support Organization and other CBOs...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056822/the-economic-and-career-effects-of-sexual-harassment-on-working-women
#9
Heather McLaughlin, Christopher Uggen, Amy Blackstone
Many working women will experience sexual harassment at some point in their careers. While some report this harassment, many leave their jobs to escape the harassing environment. This mixed-methods study examines whether sexual harassment and subsequent career disruption affect women's careers. Using in-depth interviews and longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, we examine the effect of sexual harassment for women in the early career. We find that sexual harassment increases financial stress, largely by precipitating job change, and can significantly alter women's career attainment...
June 2017: Gender & Society: Official Publication of Sociologists for Women in Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032496/school-practices-to-foster-lgbt-supportive-climate-associations-with-adolescent-bullying-involvement
#10
Amy L Gower, Myriam Forster, Kari Gloppen, Abigail Z Johnson, Marla E Eisenberg, John E Connett, Iris W Borowsky
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience disproportionate rates of bullying compared to their heterosexual peers. Schools are well-positioned to address these disparities by creating supportive school climates for LGBT youth, but more research is needed to examine the variety of practices and professional development opportunities put in place to this end. The current study examines how school practices to create supportive LGBT student climate relate to student reports of bullying. Student-level data come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey, a state-wide survey of risk and protective factors...
October 14, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972302/the-sexual-harassment-suicide-connection-in-the-u-s-military-contextual-effects-of-hostile-work-environment-and-trusted-unit-leaders
#11
James Griffith
Sexual harassment has been associated with suicidal behaviors, and with the rise in suicides in the U.S. military, sexual harassment's role in suicide has been of growing interest. Lacking are studies that examine group- or unit-level variables in the relationship of sexual harassment to suicidal behaviors (thoughts, plans, and attempts). In this study, survey data from soldiers (12,567 soldiers in 180 company-sized units) who completed the Unit Risk Inventory administered during calendar year 2010 were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling...
October 3, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964264/mental-health-sexual-identity-and-interpersonal-violence-findings-from-the-australian-longitudinal-women-s-health-study
#12
Laura A Szalacha, Tonda L Hughes, Ruth McNair, Deborah Loxton
BACKGROUND: We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. METHODS: We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health...
September 30, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954150/-prevalence-and-violence-associated-factors-in-the-work-environment-of-female-prison-guards-in-brazil
#13
Marcelo José Monteiro Ferreira, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia Macena, Rosa Maria Salani Mota, Roberto da Justa Pires, Ageo Mário Cândido da Silva, Luiza Jane Eyre Sousa Vieira, Bernard Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr
This article aims to estimate the prevalence and violence-associated factors in the work environment of female correctional officers in Brazil. A cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted in 15 female correctional facilities in Brazil's five regions. Pearson's chi-square test was performed. The Odds Ratio and Confidence Intervals were estimated for factors that showed a significant association or were confounding factors. The prevalence of having experienced at least one violent occurrence during professional duty as an officer was 28...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942730/workplace-sexual-harassment-and-depressive-symptoms-a-cross-sectional-multilevel-analysis-comparing-harassment-from-clients-or-customers-to-harassment-from-other-employees-amongst-7603-danish-employees-from-1041-organizations
#14
Maria K Friborg, Jørgen V Hansen, Per T Aldrich, Anna P Folker, Susie Kjær, Maj Britt D Nielsen, Reiner Rugulies, Ida E H Madsen
BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work. This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate...
September 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933441/scientists-sexual-harassment-case-sparks-protests-at-university-of-rochester
#15
Alexandra Witze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906037/patterns-of-smoking-and-unhealthy-alcohol-use-following-sexual-trauma-among-u-s-service-members
#16
Amber D Seelig, Anna C Rivera, Teresa M Powell, Emily C Williams, Arthur V Peterson, Alyson J Littman, Charles Maynard, Amy E Street, Jonathan B Bricker, Edward J Boyko
In the first known longitudinal study of the topic, we examined whether experiencing sexual assault or sexual harassment while in the military was associated with increased risk for subsequent unhealthy alcohol use and smoking among U.S. service members in the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2012). Adjusted complementary log-log models were fit to estimate the relative risk of (a) smoking relapse among former smokers (men: n = 4,610; women: n = 1,453); (b) initiation of unhealthy alcohol use (problem drinking and/or drinking over recommended limits) among those with no known history of unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 8,459; women: n = 4,816); and (c) relapse among those previously reporting unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 3,487; women: n = 1,318)...
October 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903839/comparison-of-cognitive-professionalism-in-residents-of-public-and-private-hospitals-of-karachi
#17
Nighat Shah, Masood Javed, Nusrat Shah, Mariam Soomro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the cognitive professionalism in resident medical officers (RMOs) of public and private hospitals of Karachi. STUDY DESIGN: Across-sectional survey. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Civil Hospital and Ziauddin Medical University Clifton Campus, Karachi, from August to December 2014. METHODOLOGY: This survey was conducted in one public and one private medical college. All residents from Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medicine and Surgery departments were included with non-probability purposive sampling...
August 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883027/addressing-the-knowledge-gap-sexual-violence-and-harassment-in-the-uk-armed-forces
#18
Lauren R Godier, M Fossey
Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertaining to the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in the military, explore potential reasons for this gap in knowledge and outline future directions and priorities for academic research...
September 6, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846054/severe-clinical-events-in-100-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-retrospective-clinical-description-using-a-system-specific-psychopathological-approach
#19
Moritz E Wigand, Fabian U Lang, Lea Reichhardt, Thomas G Schulze, Sebastian Walther, Thomas Becker, Markus Jäger
Catatonic states and numerous other severe clinical events can complicate the course of schizophrenia. Whether these severe courses are associated with particular system-specific symptom dimensions remain unclear. Aim is to assess the frequency of severe clinical events in a clinical population and to investigate the association of these events with sociodemographic data and system-specific psychopathology, combining qualitative and quantitative data. We performed a comprehensive retrospective description of a well-described and geographically stable sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and linked severe clinical events with sociodemographic data at inclusion into the study (as indicators of social functioning) and symptoms at first admission, classified with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS)...
August 28, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835267/workplace-violence-in-a-tertiary-care-israeli-hospital-a-systematic-analysis-of-the-types-of-violence-the-perpetrators-and-hospital-departments
#20
Sigal Shafran-Tikva, Revital Zelker, Zvi Stern, David Chinitz
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there is a widespread and disturbing pattern of violence towards healthcare workers. However, violent occurrences in Israeli hospitals have often been unrecognized and underreported. Moreover, most studies have not sufficiently differentiated among the different types of violence. To examine the different types of violence experienced by nurses and physicians, the types of perpetrators and the specialty fields involved. METHODS: A quantitative questionnaire was used to assess the incidence of a "basket" of violent behaviors, divided into eight types of violent manifestations...
August 23, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
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