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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732297/influence-of-environmental-conditions-on-the-toxicokinetics-of-cadmium-in-the-marine-copepod-acartia-tonsa
#1
Maria D Pavlaki, Rui G Morgado, Cornelis A M van Gestel, Ricardo Calado, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
mMarine and estuarine ecosystems are highly productive areas that often act as a final sink for several pollutants, such as cadmium. Environmental conditions in these habitats can affect metal speciation, as well as its uptake and depuration by living organisms. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium uptake and depuration rates in the euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa under different pH, salinity and temperature conditions. Cadmium speciation did not vary with changing pH or temperature, but varied with salinity...
July 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732265/chronic-work-stress-and-decreased-vagal-tone-impairs-decision-making-and-reaction-time-in-jockeys
#2
Kathleen Landolt, Paul Maruff, Ben Horan, Michael Kingsley, Glynda Kinsella, Paul D O'Halloran, Matthew W Hale, Bradley J Wright
The inverse relationship between acute stress and decision-making is well documented, but few studies have investigated the impact of chronic stress. Jockeys work exhaustive schedules and have extremely dangerous occupations, with safe performance requiring quick reaction time and accurate decision-making. We used the effort reward imbalance (ERI) occupational stress model to assess the relationship of work stress with indices of stress physiology and decision-making and reaction time. Jockeys (N=32) completed computerised cognitive tasks (Cogstate) on two occasions; September and November (naturally occurring lower and higher stress periods), either side of an acute stress test...
July 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732180/the-role-of-noncoding-genetic-variation-in-isolated-orofacial-clefts
#3
F Thieme, K U Ludwig
In the past decade, medical genetic research has generated multiple discoveries, many of which were obtained via genome-wide association studies (GWASs). A major GWAS finding is that the majority of risk variants for complex traits map to noncoding regions. This has resulted in a paradigm shift in terms of the interpretation of human genomic sequence variation, with more attention now being paid to what was previously termed "junk DNA." Translation of genetic findings into biologically meaningful results requires 1) large-scale and cell-specific efforts to annotate non-protein-coding regions and 2) the integration of comprehensive genomic data sets...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731910/new-answers-to-old-conundrums-what-antibodies-exosomes-and-inflammasomes-bring-to-the-conversation-canadian-national-transplant-research-program-international-summit-report
#4
Mélanie Dieudé, Lori J West, Daniel A Muruve, Lakshman Gunaratman, Thalachallour Mohanakumar, Emmanuel Zorn, Christopher W Cairo, Darren H Freed, Kirk R Schultz, Robert L Fairchild, Marie-Josée Hébert
Antibody-mediated injury is a major cause of allograft dysfunction and loss. Antibodies to ABH(O) blood group antigens are classical mediators of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) graft rejection, while donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies and, more recently, autoantibodies are appreciated as important contributors to allograft inflammation and dysfunction. In August 2016, the International Summit of the Canadian National Transplant Research Program focused on recent advances in the field of antibody-mediated rejection...
July 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731878/correlation-of-corneal-biomechanical-stiffness-with-refractive-error-and-ocular-biometry-in-a-pediatric-population
#5
Jyoti Matalia, Mathew Francis, Pooja Gogri, Pratibha Panmand, Himanshu Matalia, Abhijit Sinha Roy
PURPOSE: To assess the correlation between corneal biomechanical stiffness and refractive error (RE) in the pediatric population. METHODS: A total of 733 pediatric eyes were included in the study retrospectively. All eyes underwent corneal tomography (Pentacam), RE assessment, and air-puff deformation (Corvis-ST). Waveform analyses of deformation provided corneal stiffness (CS) and extraocular tissue stiffness (EOS). Eyes were subgrouped into emmetropia [manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) ∼ 0 D], hyperopia (MRSE > 0 D), myopia I (MRSE between 0 D and -3 D), myopia II (MRSE between -3 D and -6 D), and myopia III (MRSE greater than -6 D) for multivariate analyses...
July 19, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731869/individual-and-population-level-impacts-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-maternal-characteristics-on-subsequent-offending-behavior
#6
Handan Wand, Melanie Simpson, Eva Malacova, Peter W Schofield, David B Preen, Robyn Tate, Tony Butler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the individual- and population-level impact of a combination of factors, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) and certain maternal characteristics, on subsequent criminal conviction. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective record linkage study involving a cohort of 30 599 individuals born between 1980 and 1985, with ratio of 1 (with TBI): 3 (no TBI), matched by sex and the year of birth. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Cox proportional hazard regression models and population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) were used to assess the contribution of TBI and other risk factors on subsequent criminal convictions...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731868/inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumors-of-the-female-genital-tract-are-under-recognized-a-low-threshold-for-alk-immunohistochemistry-is-required
#7
Justine L Pickett, Angela Chou, Juliana A Andrici, Adele Clarkson, Loretta Sioson, Amy Sheen, Jessica Reagh, Fedaa Najdawi, Yoomee Kim, Denise Riley, Jayne Maidens, David Nevell, Kirsten McIlroy, Susan Valmadre, Greg Gard, Russell Hogg, John Turchini, Gregory Robertson, Michael Friedlander, Anthony J Gill
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the female genital tract is under-recognized. We investigated the prevalence of ALK-positive IMT in lesions previously diagnosed as gynecologic smooth muscle tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ALK was performed on tissue microarrays of unselected tumors resected from 2009 to 2013. Three of 1176 (0.26%) "leiomyomas" and 1 of 44 (2.3%) "leiomyosarcomas" were ALK IHC positive, confirmed translocated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and therefore more appropriately classified as IMT...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731847/the-colorful-world-of-extracellular-electron-shuttles
#8
Nathaniel R Glasser, Scott H Saunders, Dianne K Newman
Descriptions of the changeable, striking colors associated with secreted natural products date back well over a century. These molecules can serve as extracellular electron shuttles (EESs) that permit microbes to access substrates at a distance. In this review, we argue that the colorful world of EESs has been too long neglected. Rather than simply serving as a diagnostic attribute of a particular microbial strain, redox-active natural products likely play fundamental, underappreciated roles in the biology of their producers, particularly those that inhabit biofilms...
July 21, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731800/natural-history-constrains-the-macroevolution-of-foot-morphology-in-european-plethodontid-salamanders
#9
Dean C Adams, Dana Korneisel, Morgan Young, Annamaria Nistri
The natural history of organisms can have major effects on the tempo and mode of evolution, but few examples show how unique natural histories affect rates of evolution at macroevolutionary scales. European plethodontid salamanders (Plethodontidae: Hydromantes) display a particular natural history relative to other members of the family. Hydromantes commonly occupy caves and small crevices, where they cling to the walls and ceilings. On the basis of this unique and strongly selected behavior, we test the prediction that rates of phenotypic evolution will be lower in traits associated with climbing...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731791/sensory-drive-color-and-color-vision
#10
Trevor D Price
Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731738/spin-orbital-correlated-dynamics-in-the-spinel-type-vanadium-oxide-mnv_-2-o_-4
#11
Keisuke Matsuura, Hajime Sagayama, Amane Uehara, Yoichi Nii, Ryoichi Kajimoto, Kazuya Kamazawa, Kazuhiko Ikeuchi, Sungdae Ji, Nobuyuki Abe, Taka-Hisa Arima
We investigate the magnetic dynamics in the spinel-type vanadium oxide MnV_{2}O_{4}. Inelastic neutron scattering around 10 meV and a Heisenberg model analysis have revealed that V^{3+} spin-wave modes exist at a lower-energy region than previously reported. The scattering around 20 meV cannot be reproduced with the spin-wave analysis. We propose that this scattering could originate from the spin-orbital coupled excitation. This scattering is most likely attributable to V^{3+} spin-wave modes, entangled with the orbital hybridization between t_{2g} orbitals...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731727/incidence-of-gastrointestinal-infections-among-u-s-active-component-service-members-stationed-in-the-u-s-compared-to-u-s-civilians-2012-2014
#12
Sarah E Hill, Daniela E Poss, Stic Harris
Gastrointestinal (GI) infections in the U.S. Armed Forces have consistently been among the most frequent disease and non-battle injury diagnoses. A retrospective analysis of surveillance data categorized as GI infections among active component service members during 2012-2014 was performed. During the study period, 99% of inpatient and outpatient GI encounters were reported as nonspecific GI infection (13,331 cases per 100,000 people), leaving only a small percentage of cases attributed to specific causes. The five most common organisms associated with GI infections were Campylobacter (10...
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731685/lipophilic-polycation-vehicles-display-high-plasmid-dna-delivery-to-multiple-cell-types
#13
Yaoying Wu, Adam E Smith, Theresa M Reineke
A class of cationic poly(alkylamidoamine)s (PAAAs) containing lipophilic methylene linkers were designed and examined as in vitro plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery agents. The PAAAs were synthesized via step-growth polymerization between a diamine monomer and each of four different diacid chloride monomers with varying methylene linker lengths, including glutaryl chloride, adipoyl chloride, pimeloyl chloride, and suberoyl chloride, which served to systematically increase the lipophilicity of the polymers. The synthesized polymers successfully complexed with pDNA in reduced serum medium at N/P ratios of 5 and greater, resulting in polyplexes with hydrodynamic diameters of approximately 1 μm...
July 21, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731503/impact-of-soybean-aging-conditions-on-tofu-sensory-characteristics-and-acceptance
#14
Neide Kiyoko Kondo Kamizake, Lilian Catarini Pereira Silva, Sandra Helena Prudencio
BACKGROUND: Tofu from aged soybeans has poor quality, mainly texture. Texture defects related in literature are contradictory. No study has approached all sensory properties simultaneously. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soybean aging conditions (natural: ambient temperature and RH, 18 months, and accelerated: 30 °C, 84% RH, 6 months) on all the sensory characteristics and acceptance of tofu. Texture and color were also evaluated by instrumental method. Control condition was -20 °C, 47% RH...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731338/tunable-magnetism-and-extraordinary-sunlight-absorbance-in-indium-triphosphide-monolayer
#15
Naihua Miao, Bin Xu, Nicholas C Bristowe, Jian Zhou, Zhimei Sun
Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials have received considerable research interest due to their extraordinary properties and promising applications. Here we predict the mono-layered indium triphosphide (InP3) as a new semiconducting 2D material with a range of favourable functional properties by means of ab initio calculations. The 2D InP3 crystal shows high stability and promise of experimental synthesis. It possesses an indirect band-gap of 1.14 eV and a high electron mobility of 1919 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), which can be strongly manipulated with applied strain...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731298/lead-speciation-in-microorganisms
#16
Theodora J Stewart
The biogeochemical cycles of lead (Pb) have been largely affected by anthropogenic activities as a result of its high natural abundance and use over the centuries [1]. At sites more strongly impacted by urbanization [2] and mining [3], Pb is found at high nano to low micromolar concentrations in surface waters, and can be significantly higher in soil and sediment [4]. Microorganisms are found everywhere and their responses to Pb exposure can range from resistant to highly sensitive [5, 6]. These varying levels of toxicity can be attributed to the cellular handling of Pb, making it important to understand the role of intracellular Pb speciation for more accurate toxicity predictions...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731231/comparative-analysis-of-juice-volatiles-in-selected-mandarins-mandarin-relatives-and-other-citrus-genotypes
#17
Yuan Yu, Jinhe Bai, Chunxian Chen, Anne Plotto, Elizabeth A Baldwin, Frederick G Gmitter
BACKGROUND: Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. This study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (C. aurantium), one blood orange (C. sinensis), one lime (C. limonia), one clementine (C. clementina) and one satsuma (C. unshiu). RESULTS: Large differences were observed in volatiles compositions among the citrus genotypes...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731214/from-positive-psychology-to-psychopathology-the-continuum-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Corina U Greven, Jan K Buitelaar, Giovanni A Salum
BACKGROUND: Integration of positive psychology into clinical research and treatment has been slow. This integration can be facilitated by the conceptualisation of mental disorders as the high, symptomatic extreme of continuous normal variation. This assumes that there is also a low, positive extreme, which is, however, unchartered territory. This study aims to examine how well current measures capture the low extreme of mental disorder continua, using attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an example...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731205/smart-construction-of-nitrogen-doped-carbon-coated-mose2-microspheres-with-enhanced-performance-for-lithium-storage
#19
Wangjia Tang, Dong Xie, Tong Shen, Xiuli Wang, Donghuang Wang, Xuqing Zhang, Xinhui Xia, Jianbo Wu, Jiangping Tu
Exploring advanced anode materials with highly reversible capacity have gained great interests for large-scale lithium storage. Herein, a facile two-step method is developed to synthesize nitrogen-doped carbon coated MoSe2 microspheres via hydrothermal plus thermal polymerization. The MoSe2 microspheres composed of interconnected nanoflakes are homogeneously coated by thin nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) layer. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the MoSe2/N-C composite shows better reversibility, smaller polarization and higher electrochemical reactivity as compared to the unmodified MoSe2 microspheres...
July 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731171/protective-role-of-pollen-typhae-total-flavone-against-the-palmitic-acid-induced-impairment-of-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-involving-gpr40-signaling-in-ins-1-cells
#20
Xiao-Tao Feng, Hui-Ming Duan, Shuang-Lei Li
Prolonged elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) contribute to the impairment of insulin secretion function of pancreatic β cells, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, which is partly attributed to the dysfunction of G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) signaling. Pollen Typhae total flavone (PTF), an extract from a Chinese herbal medicine named Pollen Typhae, has been reported to effectively treat type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, palmitic acid (PA), a saturated fatty acid, severely impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in a time-dependent manner in INS-1 cells, and PTF treatment prevented the impairment in a dose-dependent manner...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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