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Pregnancy associated breast cancer

Ashley S Case
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer refers to breast cancer that is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The incidence is increasing as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy while protecting the fetus and mother with excellent outcomes for both. Avoiding diagnostic delays is vital to prognosis. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging, management, and prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Camille Powe, Deirdre K Tobias, Karin Michels, Wendy Y Chen, A Heather Eliassen, JoAnn E Manson, Bernard Rosner, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu, Cuilin Zhang, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Kathryn M Rexrode
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with breast cancer in epidemiologic studies. Pregnancy also modifies breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which shares pathogenesis and risk factors with type 2 diabetes, would have greater invasive breast cancer risk than parous women without a history of GDM. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis among parous women in the Nurses' Health Study II, with mean age 35 years in 1989...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Rachel Denholm, Bianca De Stavola, John H Hipwell, Simon J Doran, Marta C Busana, Amanda Eng, Mona Jeffreys, Martin O Leach, David Hawkes, Isabel Dos Santos Silva
BACKGROUND: Breast density, the amount of fibroglandular tissue in the adult breast for a women's age and body mass index, is a strong biomarker of susceptibility to breast cancer, which may, like breast cancer risk itself, be influenced by events early in life. In the present study, we investigated the association between pre-natal exposures and breast tissue composition. METHODS: A sample of 500 young, nulliparous women (aged approximately 21 years) from a U...
October 12, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Jingjing Cao, Chenglin Luo, Rui Peng, Qiaoyun Guo, Kaijuan Wang, Peng Wang, Hua Ye, Chunhua Song
RAD51, RAD52, and XRCC2 are all involved in DNA homologous recombinational repair, and there are interactions among those genes. Polymorphisms in 3'-UTR of DNA repair genes may change DNA repair capacity by regulating gene expression. However, potential regulatory variants affecting their expression remain largely unexplored. Five miRNA-binding site SNPs (rs7180135 and rs45549040 in RAD51, rs1051669 and rs7963551 in RAD52 and rs3218550 in XRCC2) selected by bioinformatics method were genotyped in 498 breast cancer (BC) patients and 498 matched controls in Chinese population...
October 10, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Katherine Hughes, Maximilian Blanck, Sara Pensa, Christine J Watson
Mammary gland regression at the cessation of lactation (involution) is an exquisitely orchestrated process of cell death and tissue remodelling in which Stat3 signalling has an essential role. The involution microenvironment of the mammary gland is considered to be pro-tumourigenic and a proportion of cases of pregnancy-associated breast cancer are suggested to originate in tandem with involution. However, the apparent paradox that STAT3 is required for cell death in normal mammary gland, but is associated with breast cancer cell survival, has not been resolved...
October 6, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Malihe Hasanzadeh, Norrie Sharifi, Marjaneh Farazestanian, Seyed Saman Nazemian, Faezeh Madani Sani
BACKGROUND: Finding a tumor marker to predict the aggressive behavior of molar pregnancy in early stages has yet been a topic for studies. OBJECTIVES: In this survey we planned to study patients with molar pregnancy to 1) assess the p53 and c-erbB-2 expression in trophoblastic tissue, 2) to study the relationship between their expression intensity and progression of a molar pregnancy to gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, and 3) to determine a cut off value for the amount of p53 and c-erbB-2 expression which might correlate with aggressive behavior of molar pregnancy...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention
Emily K Hartman, Guy D Eslick
OBJECTIVE: Previous meta-analyses have examined the prognosis of women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) as well as pregnancy that follows breast cancer diagnosis. Since then, many additional studies have been performed. We conducted an updated meta-analysis to examine the prognosis for women who become pregnant before, during and after a diagnosis of breast cancer. We also performed analyses on the various subgroups within PABC such as pregnancy and postpartum cases, as well as on time periods postpartum...
November 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Warapen Treekitkarnmongkol, Hiroshi Katayama, Kazuharu Kai, Kaori Sasai, Jennifer Carter Jones, Jing Wang, Li Shen, Aysegul A Sahin, Mihai Gagea, Naoto T Ueno, Chad J Creighton, Subrata Sen
Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis have revealed that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) amplification and overexpression characterize a distinct subset of human tumors across multiple cancer types. Although elevated expression of AURKA has been shown to induce oncogenic phenotypes in cells in vitro, findings from transgenic mouse models of Aurora-A overexpression in mammary glands have been distinct depending on the models generated. In the present study, we report that prolonged overexpression of AURKA transgene in mammary epithelium driven by ovine β-lactoglobulin promoter, activated through multiple pregnancy and lactation cycles, results in the development of mammary adenocarcinomas with alterations in cancer-relevant genes and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
September 13, 2016: Carcinogenesis
Michalis Mazonakis, Antonis Tzedakis, John Damilakis
This study estimated the fetal dose and risks from radiotherapy for breast cancer with 6 MV X-rays. Breast irradiation was simulated with the MCNP code using two mathematical phantoms corresponding to patients in the early and middle periods of pregnancy. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the appropriate fetal shielding. For a 50-Gy tumor dose, the unshielded fetal dose reached up to 133.1 mGy. Fetal protection with a lead shield of dimensions 30 × 30 × 5 cm(3) placed besides the treatment couch resulted in maximum doses of 22...
September 9, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Jose Russo
The hormonal milieu of an early full-term pregnancy induces lobular development, completing the cycle of differentiation of the breast. This process induces a specific genomic signature in the mammary gland that is represented by the stem cell containing a heterochomatin condensed nucleus (HTN). Even though differentiation significantly reduces cell proliferation in the mammary gland, the mammary epithelium remains capable of responding with proliferation to given stimuli, such as a new pregnancy. The stem cell HTN is able to metabolize the carcinogen and repair the induced DNA damage more efficiently than the stem cell containing an euchromatinic structure (EUN), as it has been demonstrated in the rodent experimental system...
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Arash Ardalan, Timothy Bungum
There is limited evidence that the gestational age at delivery may influence the risk of maternal breast cancer. While extreme prematurity has been suggested to increase the risk, there seems to be no study available so far that investigates the due effects of a late delivery. This research aimed to identify the impact of both preterm and late deliveries on the risk of maternal breast cancer within a period of 5 years after birth. Our dataset was created by linking data from the Nevada Cancer Registry database (1995-2008) and the birth certificates issued by the Nevada State Health Division (1994-2003)...
August 10, 2016: Breast Journal
Jorge E Chavarro, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Audrey J Gaskins, Leslie V Farland, Kathryn L Terry, Cuilin Zhang, Stacey A Missmer
OBJECTIVES: To review the Nurses' Health Study's (NHS's) contribution to identifying risk factors and long-term health consequences of reproductive events. METHODS: We performed a narrative review of the NHS I, NHS II, NHS3, and Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) publications between 1976 and 2016. RESULTS: Collection of detailed reproductive history to identify breast cancer risk factors allowed the NHS to document an association between menstrual irregularities, a proxy for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
M Wielsøe, S Gudmundsdottir, E C Bonefeld-Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of breast cancer in Greenland has increased considerably since 1970. It has been suggested that the previous low incidence is associated with the traditional lifestyle and marine food diet, and that the increase in breast cancer risk may be due to changes to a more westernized diet and lifestyle. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between food intake, reproductive factors and the risk of breast cancer in Greenlandic Inuit women. DESIGN: A case control study with participants from all regions of Greenland...
August 2016: Public Health
Harindra Jayasekara, Robert J MacInnis, Allison M Hodge, Robin Room, Roger L Milne, John L Hopper, Graham G Giles, Dallas R English
PURPOSE: It is plausible that breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens, including ethanol, between menarche and the first full-term pregnancy ("first pregnancy"). There is some epidemiological evidence that intake before the first pregnancy is more closely associated with risk of breast cancer than is intake thereafter. We examined this association using lifetime alcohol consumption data from a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We calculated usual alcohol intake for age periods 15-19 years and for 10-year period from age 20 to current age (in grams per day) using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 13,630 parous women who had their first pregnancy at age 20 years or later, had no cancer history and were aged 40-69 years at enrollment...
September 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Hussein Khaled, Nasr Al Lahloubi, Noha Rashad
Thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy after breast cancer. The goal of management is to control malignancy and prevent maternal and fetal complications as a result of maternal hypothyroidism. The role of female sex hormones as an etiologic factor was investigated, with no clear association. Pregnancy can cause an increase in size of a previously existed thyroid nodule through the structural similarity between TSH and BHCG, and the normally expressed estrogen receptors on thyroid gland cells...
July 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
Maria Theresa E Montales, Stepan B Melnyk, Shi J Liu, Frank A Simmen, Y Lucy Liu, Rosalia C M Simmen
The emerging links between breast cancer and metabolic dysfunctions brought forth by the obesity pandemic predict a disproportionate early disease onset in successive generations. Moreover, sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents may be influenced by the patient's metabolic status that affects the disease outcome. Maternal metabolic stress as a determinant of drug response in progeny is not well defined. Here, we evaluated mammary tumor response to doxorubicin in female mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt1 transgenic offspring exposed to a metabolically compromised environment imposed by maternal high-fat diet...
September 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Diana L Caragacianu, Erica L Mayer, Yoon S Chun, Stephanie Caterson, Jennifer R Bellon, Julia S Wong, Susan Troyan, Esther Rhei, Laura S Dominici, Katherine E Economy, Nadine M Tung, Lidia Schapira, Ann Partridge, Katherina Zabicki Calvillo
BACKGROUND: Surgical management of breast cancer in pregnancy (BCP) requires balancing benefits of therapy with potential risks to the developing fetus. Minimal data describe outcomes after mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (IR) in pregnant patients. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent IR after mastectomy within a BCP cohort. Parameters included intra- and post-operative complications, short-term maternal/fetal outcomes, surgery duration, and delayed reconstruction in non-IR cohort...
August 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Fedro A Peccatori, Hatem A Azim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Abhishek Thakur, Subhash C Mandal, Sugato Banerjee
A predominant number of diseases affecting women are related to female hormones. In most of the cases, these diseases are reported to be associated with menstrual problems. These diseases affect female reproductive organs such as the breast, uterus, and ovaries. Estrogen is the main hormone responsible for the menstrual cycle, so irregular menstruation is primarily due to a disturbance in estrogen levels. Estrogen imbalance leads to various pathological conditions in premenopausal women, such as endometriosis, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, poly cysts, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, etc...
June 2016: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Camile Castilho Fontelles, Elissa Carney, Johan Clarke, Nguyen M Nguyen, Chao Yin, Lu Jin, M Idalia Cruz, Thomas Prates Ong, Leena Hilakivi-Clarke, Sonia de Assis
While many studies have shown that maternal weight and nutrition in pregnancy affects offspring's breast cancer risk, no studies have investigated the impact of paternal body weight on daughters' risk of this disease. Here, we show that diet-induced paternal overweight around the time of conception can epigenetically reprogram father's germ-line and modulate their daughters' birth weight and likelihood of developing breast cancer, using a mouse model. Increased body weight was associated with changes in the miRNA expression profile in paternal sperm...
2016: Scientific Reports
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