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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209661/non-topical-management-of-recalcitrant-paediatric-atopic-dermatitis
#1
REVIEW
Jin Ho Chong, Mark Jean Aan Koh
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic, pruritic skin disease in children. As the incidence of AD increases, especially in high-income countries, paediatricians may see an increasing number of recalcitrant AD cases in their practice. Although these cases are principally managed by paediatric dermatologists, it is important for paediatricians to be aware of the use and side effects of non-topical treatment like phototherapy and systemic agents as well as the evidence for alternative treatment, which caregivers may ask about...
February 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149709/evaluation-of-a-health-promoting-schools-program-in-a-school-board-in-nova-scotia-canada
#2
Jessie-Lee D McIsaac, Tarra L Penney, Nicole Ata, Lori Munro-Sigfridson, Jane Cunningham, Paul J Veugelers, Kate Storey, Arto Ohinmaa, Sara F L Kirk, Stefan Kuhle
A Health promoting schools (HPS) approach aims to make schools a healthy place through a holistic approach that promotes a supportive 'school ethos' and emphasizes improvements in physical, social, and emotional well-being and educational outcomes. A HPS initiative in rural Nova Scotia (Canada) provided an opportunity for a population-level natural experiment. This study investigated student well-being and health behaviours between schools with and without HPS implementation and schools with high and low school ethos scores...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099077/disease-complexity-in-a-declining-alaskan-muskox-ovibos-moschatus-population
#3
Josephine A Afema, Kimberlee B Beckmen, Stephen M Arthur, Kathy Burek Huntington, Jonna A K Mazet
The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) population inhabiting the eastern North Slope (ENS) of Alaska declined dramatically during 1999-2006, whereas populations in western Alaska (WA) were stable or increasing. To understand morbidity and mortality factors contributing to the decline, Alaska Department of Fish and Game conducted pathologic investigations of carcasses from 2005 until 2008. Additionally, archived sera from both ENS and WA muskoxen collected during 1984-1992, before the documented beginning of the ENS decline; sera collected during 2000, near the beginning of the decline; and contemporary sera (from live capture-release, adult females) collected during 2006, 2007, and 2008 were analyzed to determine whether prevalence of antibody to potential pathogens differed in the two areas or changed over time...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#4
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073552/ciguatera-fish-poisoning-incidence-health-costs-and-risk-perception-on-moorea-island-society-archipelago-french-polynesia
#5
Ewen Morin, Clémence Gatti, Tamatoa Bambridge, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007-2013 epidemiological data...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955723/nutrition-ethical-issues-and-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Robert B Rucker, Michael R Rucker
For nutrition and its associated disciplines, ethical considerations related to research are often complicated by factors that range from the use of experimental research designs that are overly holistic to inextricable links between nutrition research and marketing. As a consequence, there is the need for constant vigilance to assess and deal with apparent conflicts of interest. Also, there are few scientific disciplines that are defined by cultural, religious, or political codifications as is nutrition. Accordingly, examples of historical, cultural, and political events are described that have influenced ethical approaches related to nutrition research...
November 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921418/-diabetic-foot-syndrome-from-the-perspective-of-internist-educated-in-podiatry
#7
Alexandra Jirkovská
Podiatry is the science dealing with the diagnostics and treatment of the foot and ankle and associated tissues and structures by all appropriate methods and also with the local manifestation of the overall processes in this area. Diabetic foot disease is defined as infection, ulceration or destruction of tissues of the foot associated with neuropathy and/or peripheral artery disease in the lower extremity of people with diabetes according to the latest edition of the International Consensus. Successful treatment and prevention of diabetic foot syndrome depends on a holistic approach, in which it is seen as part of the multiple organ involvement...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893579/the-psychological-impact-of-first-burn-camp-in-nicaragua
#8
Lisa L Tropez-Arceneaux, Arlen Tatiana Castillo Alaniz, Ivette Lucia Icaza, Evelyn Alejandra Murillo
Asociacion Pro-Ninos Quemados de Nicaragua (APROQUEN) is a comprehensive burn center that provides a holistic and integrated approach to treating burns. APROQUEN has set the standards internationally with acute treatment for burns, intensive care, reconstructive surgeries, nutritional care, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological treatment. APROQUEN is excelling within Central and South America with life-saving techniques and quality of care. It is imperative that burn centers in Central America recognize that the treatment of a child with a burn injury surpasses physical care to include psychological treatment for the complete well-being of the child...
January 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871361/recreating-the-synthesis-of-starch-granules-in-yeast
#9
Barbara Pfister, Antoni Sánchez-Ferrer, Ana Diaz, Kuanjen Lu, Caroline Otto, Mirko Holler, Farooque Razvi Shaik, Florence Meier, Raffaele Mezzenga, Samuel C Zeeman
Starch, as the major nutritional component of our staple crops and a feedstock for industry, is a vital plant product. It is composed of glucose polymers that form massive semi-crystalline granules. Its precise structure and composition determine its functionality and thus applications; however, there is no versatile model system allowing the relationships between the biosynthetic apparatus, glucan structure and properties to be explored. Here, we expressed the core Arabidopsis starch-biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae purged of its endogenous glycogen-metabolic enzymes...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859478/effect-of-a-new-treatment-protocol-called-functional-chewing-training-on-chewing-function-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
S Serel Arslan, N Demir, A A Karaduman
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent sensorimotor impairments. Children with CP have various feeding difficulties including chewing disorder, which may affect their nutritional status. Functional Chewing Training (FuCT) was designed as a holistic approach to improve chewing function by providing postural alignment, sensory and motor training, and food and environmental adjustments. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FuCT on chewing function in children with CP. This study was designed as a double-blind, randomised controlled trial...
January 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832789/a-prospective-evaluation-of-first-people-s-health-promotion-program-design-in-the-goulburn-murray-rivers-region
#11
Joyce Doyle, Sharon Atkinson-Briggs, Petah Atkinson, Bradley Firebrace, Julie Calleja, Rachel Reilly, Margaret Cargo, Therese Riley, Tui Crumpen, Kevin Rowley
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs) provide community-focussed and culturally safe services for First Peoples in Australia, including crisis intervention and health promotion activities, in a holistic manner. The ecological model of health promotion goes some way towards describing the complexity of such health programs. The aims of this project were to: 1) identify the aims and purpose of existing health promotion programs conducted by an alliance of ACCOs in northern Victoria, Australia; and 2) evaluate the extent to which these programs are consistent with an ecological model of health promotion, addressing both individual and environmental determinants of health...
November 10, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784225/polyphenols-beyond-barriers-a-glimpse-into-the-brain
#12
Inês Figueira, Regina Menezes, Diana Macedo, Inês Costa, Cláudia Nunes Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Ageing can be simply defined as the process of becoming older, which is genetically determined but also environmentally modulated. With the continuous increase of life expectancy, quality of life during ageing has become one of the biggest challenges of developed countries. The quest for a healthy ageing has led to the extensive study of plant polyphenols with the aim to prevent age-associated deterioration and diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. The world of polyphenols has fascinated researchers over the past decades, and in vitro, cell-based, animal and human studies have attempted to unravel the mechanisms behind dietary polyphenols neuroprotection...
October 26, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756263/type-and-extent-of-trans-disciplinary-co-operation-to-improve-food-security-health-and-household-environment-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-systematic-review
#13
Santosh Gaihre, Janet Kyle, Sean Semple, Jo Smith, Madhu Subedi, Debbi Marais
BACKGROUND: Although linkages have been found between agricultural interventions and nutritional health, and the development of clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves in reducing household air pollution and adverse health effects, the extent of the potential of combined household interventions to improve health, nutrition and the environment has not been investigated. A systematic review was conducted to identify the extent and type of community-based agricultural and household interventions aimed at improving food security, health and the household environment in low and middle income countries...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755690/convergence-of-detrital-stoichiometry-predicts-thresholds-of-nutrient-stimulated-breakdown-in-streams
#14
David W P Manning, Amy D Rosemond, Vladislav Gulis, Jonathan P Benstead, John S Kominoski, John C Maerz
Nutrient enrichment of detritus-based streams increases detrital resource quality for consumers and stimulates breakdown rates of particulate organic carbon (C). The relative importance of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) vs. phosphorus (P) for detrital quality and their effects on microbial- vs. detritivore-mediated detrital breakdown are poorly understood. We tested effects of experimental N and P additions on detrital stoichiometry (C:N, C:P) and total and microbial breakdown (i.e., with and without detritivorous shredders, respectively) of five detritus types (four leaf litter species and wood) with different initial C : nutrient content...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720348/scientific-evidence-and-daily-food-for-a-better-life-milan-19-june-2015
#15
F Phillips, C H S Ruxton
This paper presents a report of a nutrition conference held at EXPO 2015 in Milan. Over the course of a day, seven speakers from four continents discussed the evidence and scientific processes that underpin the development of dietary guidelines, highlighting issues and challenges at each stage. These include the quality of studies associating disease outcomes with diet, specifically a reliance on observational studies, short duration of intervention trials, low statistical power and lack of follow-up. Concerns were raised over the oversimplification of dietary messages which promote carbohydrates in general without evidence of benefit, while restricting fats when meta-analyses suggests that different fatty acids have different effects on disease risk...
November 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720104/qualitative-analysis-of-dietary-behaviors-in-picture-book-fiction-for-4-to-8-year-olds
#16
Oksana Matvienko
OBJECTIVE: Picture books may facilitate parents' efforts to decrease pickiness and other undesirable food habits in children. This study conducted a content analysis of dietary behaviors and feeding strategies featured in fictional picture books compared with those discussed in the research literature. DESIGN: Several databases were searched for fictional picture books about dietary behavior, published between 2000 and 2016, accessible in the US, available in print format, and designated for 4- to 8-year-olds...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717610/investing-in-the-foundation-of-sustainable-development-pathways-to-scale-up-for-early-childhood-development
#17
REVIEW
Linda M Richter, Bernadette Daelmans, Joan Lombardi, Jody Heymann, Florencia Lopez Boo, Jere R Behrman, Chunling Lu, Jane E Lucas, Rafael Perez-Escamilla, Tarun Dua, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Karin Stenberg, Paul Gertler, Gary L Darmstadt
Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children...
7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682573/weight-management-for-children-with-severe-obesity
#18
(no author information available yet)
In areas where weight management services are not established, an integrated approach is required to sustain results. This article in Primary Health Care suggests using a stepped care approach using a model such as SHINE (Self, Help, Independence, Nutrition and Exercise). This model can be used to provide a holistic and integrative care pathway for children and young people with severe obesity.
September 28, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677369/ultraviolet-radiation-and-effects-on-humans-the-paradigm-of-maternal-vitamin-d-production-during-pregnancy
#19
A Anastasiou, S N Karras, A Bais, W B Grant, K Kotsa, D G Goulis
Current evidence indicates that neonates born of mothers with vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy have greater risk for developing hypocalcemia, rickets and extra-skeletal disorders. Despite the classic knowledge that ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure is the most efficient way for a future mother to obtain optimal vitamin D concentrations, no current consensus or clinical recommendations exist regarding the duration and timing of UVB exposure for pregnant women. This article offers a narrative review of available data regarding how UVB exposure affects maternal vitamin D production during pregnancy, along with a discourse on clinical implications of this public health issue...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669980/lack-of-sleep-as-a-contributor-to-obesity-in-adolescents-impacts-on-eating-and-activity-behaviors
#20
Jean-Philippe Chaput, Caroline Dutil
BACKGROUND: Sleep is an important contributor to physical and mental health; however, chronic sleep deprivation has become common in adolescents, especially on weekdays. Adolescents aged 14-17 years are recommended to sleep between 8 and 10 h per night to maximize overall health and well-being. Although sleep needs may vary between individuals, sleep duration recommendations are important for surveillance and help inform policies, interventions, and the population of healthy sleep behaviors...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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