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John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Ian S Metzler, Rebecca Smith-Bindman, Michelle Moghadassi, Ralph C Wang, Marshall L Stoller, Thomas Chi
PURPOSE: In the emergency department (ED), ultrasonography (US) is emerging as an alternative to computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing patients with nephrolithiasis. In this multi-center randomized clinical trial, we examined rates of urologic referral and intervention to elucidate if initial diagnostic imaging modality affected management of nephrolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients ages 18-76 years who presented to the ED with renal colic across 15 diverse treatment centers were randomized to receive either an abdominal US by an ED physician, a radiologist or an abdominal CT...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Urology
N Karsan, P Prabhakar, P J Goadsby
BACKGROUND: The premonitory stage of migraine attacks, when symptomatology outside of pain can manifest hours to days before the onset of the headache, is well recognised. Such symptoms have been reported in adults in a number of studies, and have value in predicting an impending headache. These symptoms have not been extensively studied in children. We aimed to characterise which, if any, of these symptoms are reported in children seen within a Specialist Headache Service. METHODS: We reviewed clinic letters from the initial consultation of children and adolescents seen within the Specialist Headache Service at Great Ormond Street Hospital between 1999 and 2015 with migraine in whom we had prospectively assessed clinical phenotype data...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
T J Tan, Kenneth K Lau, Dana Jackson, Nicholas Ardley, Adina Borasu
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR), and filtered back projection (FBP) image reconstruction algorithms in the delineation of ureters and overall image quality on non-enhanced computed tomography of the renal tracts (NECT-KUB). This was a prospective study of 40 adult patients who underwent NECT-KUB for investigation of ureteric colic. Images were reconstructed using FBP, SIR, and MBIR techniques and individually and randomly assessed by two blinded radiologists...
October 21, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Charbel Karam, Sally Lord, Rohan Gett, Alan P Meagher
BACKGROUND: Leak rates of over 5% following anastomoses between the ileum and colon continue to be reported in large series and are associated with substantial morbidity and with mortality rates of 10-20%. In 1994, we began performing circumferentially oversewn inverted stapled anastomoses in patients undergoing ileo-colic anastomoses or ileostomy closure. It has become increasingly apparent that this method is associated with a low risk of leakage, which we should report. METHODS: The anastomotic technique described was used in all patients undergoing ileo-colic anastomosis or closure of ileostomy by surgeon 1 (1994-2015) and in all ileo-colic anastomoses by surgeon 2 (2007-2015)...
October 20, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Francesco Savino, Andrea Quartieri, Angela De Marco, Maria Garro, Alberto Amaretti, Stefano Raimondi, Marta Simone, Maddalena Rossi
AIM: This study compared the faecal microbial composition of formula-fed infants who did and did not have colic. METHODS: Faecal samples from formula-fed infants under 16 weeks of age with (n=38) and without (n=39) colic were collected at Department of Pediatrics in Turin, Italy, between February 2014 and October 2015. The pH and faecal ammonia were determined and total bacteria, bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliforms were quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH)...
October 20, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Frank T D'Arcy, Mike Leveridge, Dermot O'Kane, Joseph Ischia, David Webb, Damien Bolton, Nathan Lawrentschuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
Marco Fiore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The aims of this prospective population-based cohort study were to identify the patient and hospital characteristics associated with emergency cholecystectomy, and the influences of these in determining variations between hospitals. METHODS: Data were collected for consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy in acute UK and Irish hospitals between 1 March and 1 May 2014. Potential explanatory variables influencing the performance of emergency cholecystectomy were analysed by means of multilevel, multivariable logistic regression modelling using a two-level hierarchical structure with patients (level 1) nested within hospitals (level 2)...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Surgery
Rene Razzak, Todd McMullen, Eric L R Bédard
We report a case involving a female patient with primary hyperparathyroidism arising from a middle mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Initial diagnosis was made based on a history of polyuria and recurrent renal colic. At the age of 77 she underwent videoscopic assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) for resection of the adenoma which was localized using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT). This case illustrates the importance for accurate pre-operative localization and intra-operative monitoring to ensure complete surgical removal in order to improve postoperative normocalcemia success rates...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
C Cossart, G Le Moal, M Garcia, E Frouin, E Hainaut-Wierzbicka, F Roblot
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is not normally expressed in skin. Herein, we describe the case of an HIV-positive patient who developed two unusual skin manifestations during an episode of visceral leishmaniasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 48-year-old female patient consulted initially for infiltrated purpura of all four limbs. Skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with Leishman-Donovan bodies. Laboratory tests showed medullary, splenic, gastric and colic involvement, suggesting systemic disease, and enabling visceral leishmaniasis to be diagnosed...
October 11, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Enza Giglione, Flavia Prodam, Simonetta Bellone, Sonia Monticone, Sheila Beux, Agostina Marolda, Alessia Pagani, Diana Di Gioia, Mario Del Piano, Giovanni Mogna, Gianni Bona
GOALS: To assess the effectiveness of Bifidobacterium breve B632 and BR03 association in the reduction of infants crying over time. The second endpoint was to observe the effect of the same strains on daily evacuations and on the number of regurgitations and vomits. BACKGROUND: Infant colics represent a clinical condition in childhood, characterized by an uncontrollable crying that occurs without any apparent organic cause. An altered intestinal microbiota composition in the very first months may induce intestinal colics in infants...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Yvan Vandenplas, Muath Abdurrahman Alturaiki, Wafaa Al-Qabandi, Fawaz AlRefaee, Ziad Bassil, Bassam Eid, Ahmed El Beleidy, Ali Ibrahim Almehaidib, Pierre Mouawad, Maroun Sokhn
This paper covers algorithms for the management of regurgitation, constipation and infantile colic in infants. Anti-regurgitation formula may be considered in infants with troublesome regurgitation, while diagnostic investigations or drug therapy are not indicated in the absence of warning signs. Although probiotics have shown some positive evidence for the management of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the evidence is not strong enough to make a recommendation. A partially hydrolyzed infant formula with prebiotics and β-palmitate may be considered as a dietary intervention for functional constipation in formula fed infants...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Ritva Kaikkonen, Kati Niinistö, Tiina Lindholm, Marja Raekallio
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of geosediment (further referred as sand) may cause weight loss, diarrhea and acute or recurrent colic in horses. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of three treatment protocols in clearing colonic sand accumulations in clinical patients. This retrospective clinical study consisted of 1097 horses and ponies, which were radiographed for the presence of colonic sand. Horses included to the study (n = 246) were displaying areas of sand in the radiographs of ≥75 cm(2) and were treated medically monitoring the response with radiographs...
October 12, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Abdelrahman A Nimeri, Ahmed Maasher, Talat Al Shaban, Elnazeer Salim, Maha Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Conversion of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) to other operations is commonly done for significant weight recidivism and complications. METHODS: This is a consecutive series of LAGB converted to RYGB done at the Bariatric and Metabolic Institute (BMI) Abu Dhabi from 2009 to 2013 for weight recidivism. Our preferred approach is to convert LAGB to LRYGB in one stage. All patients undergo upper endoscopy (EGD) and upper gastrointestinal series and are started on clears liquids 2 h after surgery without performing UGI studies...
October 12, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Chang Kyu Sung, Min Hoan Moon, Hwancheol Son, Sohee Oh, Myoung Seok Lee, Hyunsik Woo
PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of reduced-radiation-dose computed tomography (CT) protocols in the tracing of the ureter in patients with suspected renal colic. METHODS: The study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the participants. From July 2012 to April 2014, 310 consecutive patients with suspected urolithiasis were recruited to undergo unenhanced CT at 280 (n = 62), 200 (n = 62), 140 (n = 62), 100 (n = 62), and 70 (n = 62) reference mA seconds (mAs) while keeping other imaging parameters constant...
October 11, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
David B Price, Gene Colice, Elliot Israel, Nicolas Roche, Dirkje S Postma, Theresa W Guilbert, Willem M C van Aalderen, Jonathan Grigg, Elizabeth V Hillyer, Victoria Thomas, Richard J Martin
Asthma management guidelines recommend adding a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) or increasing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as step-up therapy for patients with uncontrolled asthma on ICS monotherapy. However, it is uncertain which option works best, which ICS particle size is most effective, and whether LABA should be administered by separate or combination inhalers. This historical, matched cohort study compared asthma-related outcomes for patients (aged 12-80 years) prescribed step-up therapy as a ≥50% extrafine ICS dose increase or add-on LABA, via either a separate inhaler or a fine-particle ICS/LABA fixed-dose combination (FDC) inhaler...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Ashish Chogle, Carlo A Velasco-Benitez, Ilan J Koppen, Jairo E Moreno, Carmen R Ramírez Hernández, Miguel Saps
OBJECTIVE: To perform a population-based study with Rome III criteria to describe the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children in Colombia. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a multicity cross-sectional study to investigate the epidemiology of FGIDs in children 0-48 months of age using the Rome III criteria in Colombia. Children with organic medical diseases were excluded. Parents provided demographic information and completed the Spanish version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms for Infants & Toddlers...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Hazrulrizawati Abd Hamid, Roziasyahira Mutazah, Mashitah M Yusoff, Nurul Ashikin Abd Karim, Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects and has been used to treat wounds, colic diarrhoea, heartburns, abscesses and gynaecopathy. The potential antiproliferative activities of R. tomentosa extracts from different solvents were evaluated in vitro on HepG2, MCF-7 and HT 29 cell lines while antioxidant activity was monitored by radical scavenging assay (DPPH), copper reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Extracts from R. tomentosa show the viability of the cells in concentration-dependent manner...
October 7, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Joshua W Elder, M Kit Delgado, Benjamin I Chung, Elizabeth A Pirrotta, N Ewen Wang
BACKGROUND: Renal colic results in > 1 million ED visits per year, yet there exists a gap in understanding how the majority of these visits, namely uncomplicated cases, are managed. OBJECTIVE: We assessed patient- and hospital-level variation for emergency department (ED) management of uncomplicated kidney stones. METHODS: We identified ED visits from non-elderly adults (aged 19-79 years) with a primary diagnosis indicating renal stone or colic from the 2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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