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Exosome AND cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432594/microrna-transfer-between-bone-marrow-adipose-and-multiple-myeloma-cells
#1
REVIEW
Luna Soley, Carolyne Falank, Michaela R Reagan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease, largely due to the tumor-supportive role of the bone marrow microenvironment. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is one component of the fertile microenvironment which is believed to contribute to myeloma progression and drug resistance, as well as participate in a vicious cycle of osteolysis and tumor growth. RECENT FINDINGS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as instrumental regulators of cellular processes that enable the development and dissemination of cancer...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431250/nuclear-proximity-of-mtr4-to-rna-exosome-restricts-dna-mutational-asymmetry
#2
Junghyun Lim, Pankaj Kumar Giri, David Kazadi, Brice Laffleur, Wanwei Zhang, Veronika Grinstein, Evangelos Pefanis, Lewis M Brown, Erik Ladewig, Ophélie Martin, Yuling Chen, Raul Rabadan, François Boyer, Gerson Rothschild, Michel Cogné, Eric Pinaud, Haiteng Deng, Uttiya Basu
The distribution of sense and antisense strand DNA mutations on transcribed duplex DNA contributes to the development of immune and neural systems along with the progression of cancer. Because developmentally matured B cells undergo biologically programmed strand-specific DNA mutagenesis at focal DNA/RNA hybrid structures, they make a convenient system to investigate strand-specific mutagenesis mechanisms. We demonstrate that the sense and antisense strand DNA mutagenesis at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus and some other regions of the B cell genome depends upon localized RNA processing protein complex formation in the nucleus...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424339/discovery-of-double-stranded-genomic-dna-in-circulating-exosomes
#3
Raghu Kalluri, Valerie S LeBleu
It is becoming increasingly clear that small vesicles released from cells (extracellular vesicles [EVs]) represent a heterogeneous population implicated in cell-to-cell communication. The classifications and nomenclature of EVs are evolving as enrichment strategies and specific characteristics are being unraveled. At present, physical properties of EVs-namely, size, shape, and density-are often used to identify subpopulations of EVs. A distinct group of EVs, termed exosomes, largely defined by their small size (∼40-150 nm) and proposed subcellular origin, has been extensively studied in several aspects of cancer biology...
April 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423620/exosomal-mir-940-maintains-src-mediated-oncogenic-activity-in-cancer-cells-a-possible-role-for-exosomal-disposal-of-tumor-suppressor-mirnas
#4
Mohammed H Rashed, Pinar Kanlikilicer, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Martin Pichler, Recep Bayraktar, Emine Bayraktar, Cristina Ivan, Justyna Filant, Andreia Silva, Burcu Aslan, Merve Denizli, Rahul Mitra, Bulent Ozpolat, George A Calin, Anil K Sood, Mohamed F Abd-Ellah, Gouda K Helal, Gabriel Lopez Berestein
Exosomes have emerged as important mediators of diverse biological functions including tumor suppression, tumor progression, invasion, immune escape and cell-to-cell communication, through the release of molecules such as mRNAs, miRNAs, and proteins. Here, we identified differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs between normal epithelial ovarian cell line and both resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer (OC) cell lines. We found miR-940 as abundant in exosomes from SKOV3-IP1, HeyA8, and HeyA8-MDR cells. The high expression of miR-940 is associated with better survival in patients with ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422319/exosomes-transfer-among-different-species-cells-and-mediating-mirnas-delivery
#5
Yueyuan Zhou, Tian Tian, Yanliang Zhu, Doulathunnisa, Feihu Hu, Yuhua Qi, Bo Sun, Zhongdang Xiao
Exosomes, the natural vehicles of intercellular communication, transfer proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) and mediate many physiological and pathological processes. It is not clear that whether exosomal miRNAs could regulate gene expression across species, though some studies suggest interactions of exosomal miRNAs between cells. In this report, we have isolated exosomes from rat PC12 cells and assessed their internalization by human cancer Hela cells. The internalized exosomes were located in Hela lysosomes...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420618/research-progress-on-liquid-biopsy-in-oncology-and-its-clinical-applications
#6
Wang Chen, Li Yanming, Fang Xiangdong
Liquid biopsy is an emerging and promising detection tool for cancer, with the benefit of being non-invasive and convenient. It analyzes tumor-derived information in the blood or other body fluids including circulating tumour cells (CTCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) and exosomes. Nowadays, with the expansion of liquid biopsy research contents and the development of capture and detection technologies, liquid biopsy is increasingly utilized in clinical applications, promoting the development of tumor precision medicine...
March 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418925/syntenin-promotes-vegf-induced-vegfr2-endocytosis-and-angiogenesis-by-increasing-ephrin-b2-function-in-endothelial-cells
#7
Nara Tae, Suhyun Lee, Okwha Kim, Juhee Park, Sunghun Na, Jeong-Hyung Lee
Syntenin, a tandem PDZ-domain-containing scaffold protein, is involved in the regulation of diverse biological functions, including protein trafficking, exosome biogenesis, and cancer metastasis. Here, we present the first study to explore the significance of syntenin in endothelial cells. Syntenin knockdown in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) impaired vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated proliferation, migration, invasion, vascular permeability, and nitric oxide (NO) production...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415645/peritoneal-carcinomatosis-limits-of-diagnosis-and-the-case-for-liquid-biopsy
#8
REVIEW
James R W McMullen, Matthew Selleck, Nathan R Wall, Maheswari Senthil
Peritoneal Carcinomatosis (PC) is a late stage manifestation of several gastrointestinal malignancies including appendiceal, colorectal, and gastric cancer. In PC, tumors metastasize to and deposit on the peritoneal surface and often leave patients with only palliative treatment options. For colorectal PC, median survival is approximately five months, and palliative systemic therapy is able to extend this to approximately 12 months. However, cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) with a curative intent is possible in some patients with limited tumor burden...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414289/-isolation-and-characterization-of-exosomes-from-blood-plasma-of-breast-cancer-and-colorectal-cancer-patients
#9
S N Tamkovich, N V Yunusova, М N Stakheeva, A K Somov, А Y Frolova, N А Kirushina, S G Afanasyev, А E Grigoryeva, P P Laktionov, I V Kondakova
A simple approach for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma, which allows to obtain highly purified preparations of microvesicles no larger than 100 nm has been proposed. The presence of different subpopulations of exosomes in the blood plasma of healthy donors and cancer patients has been recognized. We found the presence of the universal markers CD9, CD24 and CD81 on exosomes isolated from blood plasma that can be used to their routine typing.
March 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410618/liquid-biopsy-a-step-forward-towards-precision-medicine-in-urologic-malignancies
#10
REVIEW
Ashley Di Meo, Jenni Bartlett, Yufeng Cheng, Maria D Pasic, George M Yousef
There is a growing trend towards exploring the use of a minimally invasive "liquid biopsy" to identify biomarkers in a number of cancers, including urologic malignancies. Multiple aspects can be assessed in circulating cell-free DNA, including cell-free DNA levels, integrity, methylation and mutations. Other prospective liquid biopsy markers include circulating tumor cells, circulating RNAs (miRNA, lncRNAs and mRNAs), cell-free proteins, peptides and exosomes have also emerged as non-invasive cancer biomarkers...
April 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410139/exosomes-based-biomarker-discovery-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-prostate-cancer
#11
Gati Krushna Panigrahi, Gagan Deep
African American men in the United States have higher incidence and mortality rates due to prostate cancer (PCa) compared to other races. In 2016 alone, nearly 30,000 cases of PCa in African American men were diagnosed and 4,450 men died from PCa. The underlying reasons for this health disparity in PCa are complex and include social, economic, and biologic determinants. To reduce or eliminate this health disparity, we must better understand the biology of the disease in African Americans and then develop novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers useful for timely and effective treatment decisions...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407783/exosomal-transfer-of-tumor-associated-macrophage-derived-mir-21-confers-cisplatin-resistance-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#12
Peiming Zheng, Lei Chen, Xiangliang Yuan, Qin Luo, Yi Liu, Guohua Xie, Yanhui Ma, Lisong Shen
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is frequently used to treat advanced gastric cancer (GC). However, the resistance often occurs with the mechanisms being not well understood. Recently, emerging evidence indicates that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in chemoresistance of cancer. As the important mediators in intercellular communications, exosomes secreted by host cells mediate the exchange of genetic materials and proteins to be involved in tumor aggressiveness...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402944/exosome-emerging-biomarker-in-breast-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Yunlu Jia, Yongxia Chen, Qinchuan Wang, Ushani Jayasinghe, Xiao Luo, Qun Wei, Ji Wang, Hanchu Xiong, Cong Chen, Bin Xu, Wenxian Hu, Linbo Wang, Wenhe Zhao, Jichun Zhou
Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles released by a variety of cell types, and are thought to play important roles in intercellular communications. In breast cancer, through horizontal transfer of various bioactive molecules, such as proteins and mRNAs, exosomes are emerging as local and systemic cell-to-cell mediators of oncogenic information and play an important role on cancer progression. This review outlines the current knowledge and concepts concerning the exosomes involvement in breast cancer pathogenesis (including tumor initiation, invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, immune system modulation and tumor microenvironment) and cancer therapy resistance...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402650/comprehensive-analytical-approach-toward-glycomic-characterization-and-profiling-in-urinary-exosomes
#14
Guozhang Zou, John D Benktander, Solomon T Gizaw, Stefan Gaunitz, Milos V Novotny
Exosomes are extracellular nano-sized vesicles with lipid bilayers encapsulating nucleic acids and proteins, both with and without glycosylation. While exosomal nucleic acids and proteins have previously been explored to identify cancer biomarkers with some promising results, little information has been available concerning their glycoconjugate content. Herein, we developed analytical methods to investigate glycosylation of urinary exosomes for future diagnostic and prognostic measurements pertaining to the malignancies of genitourinary tract...
April 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400428/suppression-of-lymphocyte-functions-by-plasma-exosomes-correlates-with-disease-activity-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#15
Sonja Ludwig, Theofanis Floros, Marie-Nicole Theodoraki, Chang-Sook Hong, Edwin K Jackson, Stephan Lang, Theresa L Whiteside
Purpose: Head and neck cancers (HNC) often induce profound immunosuppression which contributes to disease progression and interferes with immune-based therapies. Body fluids of HNC patients are enriched in exosomes potentially engaged in negative regulation of anti-tumor immune responses. The presence and content of exosomes derived from plasma of HNC patients are evaluated for the ability to induce immune dysfunction and influence disease activity. <p>Experimental Design: Exosomes were isolated by size-exclusion chromatography from plasma of 38 HNC patients and 14 healthy donors...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396511/a-database-augmented-exosome-based-mass-spectrometry-approach-exemplarily-identifies-circulating-claudin-3-as-biomarker-in-prostate-cancer
#16
Thomas Stefan Worst, Jost von Hardenberg, Julia Christina Gross, Philipp Erben, Martina Schnoelzer, Ingrid Hausser, Peter Bugert, Maurice Stephan Michel, Michael Boutros
In prostate cancer and other malignancies sensitive and robust biomarkers are lacking or have relevant limitations. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), the only biomarker widely used in prostate cancer, is suffering from low specificity. Exosomes offer new perspectives in the discovery of blood-based biomarkers. Here we present a proof-of principle study for a proteomics-based identification pipeline, implementing existing data sources, to exemplarily identify exosome-based biomarker candidates in prostate cancer...
April 9, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394344/aberrant-low-expression-of-p85%C3%AE-in-stromal-fibroblasts-promotes-breast-cancer-cell-metastasis-through-exosome-mediated-paracrine-wnt10b
#17
Y Chen, C Zeng, Y Zhan, H Wang, X Jiang, W Li
P85α, which acts as a tumour suppressor, is frequently found to be downregulated in various human cancers. However, the role of p85α in the tumour microenvironment is unknown. Here, we report that aberrantly low expression of p85α in breast cancer stroma is clinically relevant to breast cancer disease progression. Stromal fibroblasts can acquire the hallmarks of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as a result of the loss of p85α expression. Paracrine Wnt10b from p85α-deficient fibroblasts can promote cancer progression via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by the canonical Wnt pathway...
April 10, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394318/the-evolving-concept-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-thyroid-cancer-and-other-solid-tumors
#18
Heather Hardin, Ranran Zhang, Holly Helein, Darya Buehler, Zhenying Guo, Ricardo V Lloyd
The cancer stem-like cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that a small population of cells in a cancer has self-renewal and clonal tumor initiation properties. These cells are responsible for tumor initiation, growth, recurrence and for resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. CSCs can be characterized using markers such as SSEA-1, SSEA-4, CD44, CD24, ALDEFLUOR and others. CSCs form spheres when they are cultured in serum-free condition in low attachment plates and can generate tumors when injected into immune-deficient mice...
April 10, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393839/exosome-delivered-egfr-regulates-liver-microenvironment-to-promote-gastric-cancer-liver-metastasis
#19
Haiyang Zhang, Ting Deng, Rui Liu, Ming Bai, Likun Zhou, Xia Wang, Shuang Li, Xinyi Wang, Haiou Yang, Jialu Li, Tao Ning, Dingzhi Huang, Hongli Li, Le Zhang, Guoguang Ying, Yi Ba
The metastatic organotropism has been one of the cancer's greatest mysteries since the 'seed and soil' hypothesis. Although the role of EGFR in cancer cells is well studied, the effects of secreted EGFR transported by exosomes are less understood. Here we show that EGFR in exosomes secreted from gastric cancer cells can be delivered into the liver and is integrated on the plasma membrane of liver stromal cells. The translocated EGFR is proved to effectively activate hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by suppressing miR-26a/b expression...
April 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387650/a-proteomic-analysis-of-the-malignant-mesothelioma-secretome-using-itraq
#20
Jenette Creaney, Ian M Dick, Justine S Leon, Bruce W S Robinson
Backgound/Aim: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and fatal pleural cancer. The cell secretome offers information allowing insight into the pathogenesis of MM while offering the possibility to identify potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. In the present study the secretome protein profile of MM cell lines was compared to normal mesothelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six MM cell lines were compared against three primary mesothelial cell culture preparations using iTRAQ® mass spectrometry...
March 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
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