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Exosome AND cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646161/circulating-exosomal-mir-125a-3p-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-early-stage-colon-cancer
#1
Jing Wang, Feihu Yan, Qi Zhao, Fei Zhan, Ruitao Wang, Liang Wang, Yanqiao Zhang, Xiaoyi Huang
Circulating exosome holds great potentials as biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of human cancers. Previously, we have applied small RNA sequencing to identify aberrantly expressed exosomal miRNAs as candidates for diagnostic markers in colon cancer patients. In this validation cohort, plasma derived exosomal miRNA was isolated from 50 early-stage colon cancer patients and 50 matched healthy volunteers. Real-time qRT-PCR revealed that miR-125a-3p, miR-320c were significantly up-regulated in plasma exosomes of the patients with early stage colon cancer...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643865/characterization-and-biological-function-of-milk-derived-mirnas
#2
Regina Golan-Gerstl, Yaffa Elbaum Shiff, Vardit Lavi-Moshayoff, Daniel Schecter Dena Leshkowitz, Shimon Reif
SCOPE: Breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of infection, immune mediated disorders, obesity and even cancer. Recently it was found that breast milk contains a variety of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the skim and fat layer that can be transferred to infants, and appear to play important roles in those biological functions. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study applied Next Generation Sequencing and quantitative real time PCR analysis to determine the miRNA expression profile of the skim and fat fraction of human, goat, and bovine milk as well as infant formulas...
June 23, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641311/characterisation-of-blood-derived-exosomal-htert-mrna-secretion-in-cancer-patients-a-potential-pan-cancer-marker
#3
Hadar Goldvaser, Anna Gutkin, Einat Beery, Yonatan Edel, Jardena Nordenberg, Ofir Wolach, Ester Rabizadeh, Orit Uziel, Meir Lahav
BACKGROUND: Telomerase (human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)) is considered a hallmark of cancer. The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of the detection of hTERT transcripts in serum as a 'pan-cancer' diagnostic method. METHODS: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA levels were determined in serum and serum-derived exosomes from 133 patients with different malignancies and 45 healthy controls. In four patients hTERT mRNA levels were measured in different clinical stages...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641308/detection-of-phosphatidylserine-positive-exosomes-for-the-diagnosis-of-early-stage-malignancies
#4
Raghava Sharma, Xianming Huang, Rolf A Brekken, Alan J Schroit
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in the detection of tumour exosomes in blood for cancer diagnostics. Most studies have focussed on miRNA and protein signatures that are surrogate markers for specific tumour types. Because tumour cells and tumour-derived exosomes display phosphatidylserine (PS) in their outer membrane leaflet, we developed a highly sensitive ELISA-based system that detects picogram amounts of exosomal phospholipid in plasma as a cancer biomarker. METHODS: This report describes the development of a highly specific and sensitive ELISA for the capture of PS-expressing tumour exosomes in the blood of tumour-bearing mice...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636979/exosomes-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-prostate-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Jun Pan, Meng Ding, Kai Xu, Chunhua Yang, Li-Jun Mao
Exosomes are small vesicular bodies released by a variety of cells. Exosomes contain miRNAs, mRNAs and proteins with the potential to regulate signaling pathways in recipient cells. Exosomes deliver nucleic acids and proteins to mediate the communication between cancer cells and stroma cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the role of exosomes in prostate cancer. The tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance of prostate cancer are associated with the cargos of exosomes such as miRNAs, lncRNAs and proteins...
June 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636562/exosome-encapsulated-micrornas-as-circulating-biomarkers-for-colorectal-cancer
#6
Shushan Yan, Bing Han, Shunyuan Gao, Xiaochen Wang, Zengfang Wang, Fakai Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Donghua Xu, Beicheng Sun
Currently available studies have suggested that a number of exosome-encapsulated microRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as stable biomarkers for cancers. However, little is known about the effect of exosomal miRNAs on colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of study is to identify specific miRNAs in serum exosomes, which may serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CRC. Microarray analyses of miRNAs in serum exosomes from 3 primary CRC patients and 3 healthy controls were performed...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634583/circular-rnas-biogenesis-function-and-role-in-human-diseases
#7
REVIEW
John Greene, Anne-Marie Baird, Lauren Brady, Marvin Lim, Steven G Gray, Raymond McDermott, Stephen P Finn
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are currently classed as non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that, unlike linear RNAs, form covalently closed continuous loops and act as gene regulators in mammals. They were originally thought to represent errors in splicing and considered to be of low abundance, however, there is now an increased appreciation of their important function in gene regulation. circRNAs are differentially generated by backsplicing of exons or from lariat introns. Unlike linear RNA, the 3' and 5' ends normally present in an RNA molecule have been joined together by covalent bonds leading to circularization...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627679/exosomes-new-players-in-cancer-review
#8
Wei Guo, Yibo Gao, Ning Li, Fei Shao, Chunni Wang, Pan Wang, Zhenlin Yang, Renda Li, Jie He
The past decade has witnessed an exponential increase in research on exosomes. For many years considered to be extracellular debris, exosomes are now considered important mediators in intercellular communication. The capability of exosomes to transfer proteins, DNA, mRNA, as well as non-coding RNAs has made them an attractive focus of research into the pathogenesis of different diseases, including cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that tumor cells release a large sum of exosomes, which may not only influence proximal tumor cells and stromal cells in local microenvironment, but also can exert systemic effects when participating in blood circulation...
June 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626001/krs-a-cut-away-from-release-in-exosomes
#9
Catherine Rabouille
Cancer cells often trigger an inflammatory process, which in some cases may be driven by the presence of lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) in the medium. Kim et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605118) now demonstrate that cleavage of the KRS by caspase-8 inside cells triggers its interaction with syntenin and its release in inflammatory exosomes.
June 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623135/serum-long-non-coding-rna-malat-1-protected-by-exosomes-is-up-regulated-and-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-migration-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Rui Zhang, Yuhong Xia, Zhixin Wang, Jie Zheng, Yafei Chen, Xiaoli Li, Yu Wang, Huaikun Ming
Circulating lncRNAs have been defined as a novel biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), MALAT-1 was first identified lncRNA that was related to lung cancer metastasis. However, the relationship between exosomal lncRNAs and the diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC was poorly understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of serum exosomal MALAT-1 as a biomarker in the metastasis of NSCLC. In this study, we firstly isolated the exosomes from healthy subjects and NSCLC patients...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620375/comparative-gene-expression-analysis-of-lymphocytes-treated-with-exosomes-derived-from-ovarian-cancer-and-ovarian-cysts
#11
Yujuan Li, Yang Yang, Aiwei Xiong, Xiaoqin Wu, Jingyan Xie, Suping Han, Shuli Zhao
Cancer cells employ many strategies to evade immune defense and to facilitate tumor growth and angiogenesis. As a novel mode of intercellular communication, cancer-derived exosomes contribute to the recruitment and mediation of lymphocytes within the tumor environment. However, the mechanisms and key molecules mediating the effect of exosomes on lymphocytes are unclear. We treated healthy peripheral blood lymphocytes with exosomes from ovarian cancer and ovarian cysts and screened for differentially expressed genes using the RT(2) Profiler Cancer Inflammation and Immunity Crosstalk PCR Array...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620131/exosomes-containing-differential-expression-of-microrna-and-mrna-in-osteosarcoma-that-can-predict-response-to-chemotherapy
#12
Ji-Feng Xu, Ya-Ping Wang, Shui-Jun Zhang, Yu Chen, Hai-Feng Gu, Xiao-Fan Dou, Bing Xia, Qing Bi, Shun-Wu Fan
A major challenge in osteosarcoma (OS) is the selection of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for individual patients, while the administration of ineffective chemotherapy increases mortality and decreases quality of life in patients. This emphasizes the need to evaluate every patient's probability of responding to each chemotherapeutic agent. We developed a profiling strategy for serum exosomal microRNAs and mRNAs in OS patients with differential chemotherapeutic responses. Twelve miRNAs were up regulated and 18 miRNAs were under regulated significantly in OS patient with poor chemotherapeutic response when compared with those in good chemotherapeutic response (p<0...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619275/differentiation-affects-the-release-of-exosomes-from-colon-cancer-cells-and-their-ability-to-modulate-the-behavior-of-recipient-cells
#13
Donatella Lucchetti, Federica Calapà, Valentina Palmieri, Caterina Fanali, Federica Carbone, Alfredo Papa, Ruggero De Maria, Marco De Spirito, Alessandro Sgambato
Exosomes are involved in intercellular communication. We previously reported that sodium butyrate-induced differentiation of HT29 colon cancer cells is associated with a reduced CD133 expression. Herein, we analyzed the role of exosomes in the differentiation of HT29 cells. Exosomes were prepared using ultracentrifugation. Gene expression levels were evaluated by real-time PCR. The cell proliferation rate was assessed by MTT assay and with the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system, whereas cell motility was assessed using the scratch test and confocal microscopy...
July 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618932/intimate-cross-talk-between-cancer-cells-and-the-tumor-microenvironment-of-b-cell-lymphomas-the-key-role-of-exosomes
#14
REVIEW
Biyu Xu, Ting Wang
B-cell lymphomas are composed of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment, which is conventionally thought to be composed of a mixture of stromal cells, blood vessels, immune cells, and non-cell components, such as extracellular matrix, cytokines, and chemokines. Exosomes, small endocytically derived vesicles that have been proved to be present in a variety of tumor niches and involved in mediating cell signaling networks, are increasingly regarded as important components of tumor microenvironment. In this review, we first focus on the biogenesis, biodistribution, transportation, and other general characteristics of exosomes and then highlight the vital roles of exosomes in lymphomagenesis and disease progression, particularly from the perspective of immune dysfunction, virus infection, and therapeutic resistance mechanisms...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617957/microrna-a-novel-target-of-curcumin-in-cancer-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Hamed Mirzaei, Aria Masoudifar, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Naser Zare, Javid Sadri Nahand, Bahman Rashidi, Emadodin Mehrabian, Mohsen Mohammadi, Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
Curcumin is known as a natural dietary polyphenol which is extracted from Curcuma longa L. It has been shown that curcumin has a variety of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities. Anti-cancer effects of curcumin are due to targeting of a wide range of cellular and molecular pathways involved in cancer pathogenesis including NF-kB, MAPK, PTEN, P53, and microRNAs (miRNA) network. Multiple lines of evidence have indicated that curcumin exerts its therapeutic effects via regulating miRNA expression (e...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611052/caspase-8-controls-the-secretion-of-inflammatory-lysyl-trna-synthetase-in-exosomes-from-cancer-cells
#16
Sang Bum Kim, Hye Rim Kim, Min Chul Park, Seongmin Cho, Peter C Goughnour, Daeyoung Han, Ina Yoon, YounHa Kim, Taehee Kang, Eunjoo Song, Pilhan Kim, Hyosun Choi, Ji Young Mun, Chihong Song, Sangmin Lee, Hyun Suk Jung, Sunghoon Kim
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs), enzymes that normally control protein synthesis, can be secreted and have different activities in the extracellular space, but the mechanism of their secretion is not understood. This study describes the secretion route of the ARS lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) and how this process is regulated by caspase activity, which has been implicated in the unconventional secretion of other proteins. We show that KRS is secreted from colorectal carcinoma cells within the lumen of exosomes that can trigger an inflammatory response...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609367/exosomal-markers-cd63-and-cd9-expression-pattern-using-immunohistochemistry-in-resected-malignant-and-nonmalignant-pancreatic-specimens
#17
Moh'd Khushman, Arun Bhardwaj, Girijesh Kumar Patel, Javier Ariel Laurini, Kelly Roveda, Marcus C Tan, Mary C Patton, Seema Singh, William Taylor, Ajay P Singh
OBJECTIVES: Exosomes are important mediators in intercellular communications and play a role in cancer progression and metastasis. Exosomal membranes are enriched in endosome-specific tetraspanins (CD9 and CD63). Here, we explored the expression of CD63 and CD9 utilizing immunohistochemistry in malignant and nonmalignant cells in 29 resected pancreatic specimens (RPSs) of mixed racial background. METHODS: The pathologic tissues (PTs) and adjacent normal tissues (ANTs) in each RPS were stained for CD63 and CD9...
July 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607588/isolation-and-identification-of-mirnas-in-exosomes-derived-from-serum-of-colon-cancer-patients
#18
Lei Zhao, Jing Yu, Jing Wang, Huihui Li, Juanjuan Che, Bangwei Cao
Objective: To isolate exosomes from the serum of colon cancer patients and identify RNAs in the small vesicles. Methods: ExoQuick-TC™ Exosome Precipitation Solution was used for exosome isolation and the shapes of exosomes were observed under a transmission electron microscope. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the classification of miRNAs encapsulated in exosomes, and the expression levels of miRNA-21,-133a, and -181b in exosomes were detected by RT-PCR. Results: Exosomes isolated from serum of colon cancer patients were circular-or oval-shaped and vary in size with a diameter of 40-100 nm...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607485/exosomes-facilitate-therapeutic-targeting-of-oncogenic-kras-in-pancreatic-cancer
#19
Sushrut Kamerkar, Valerie S LeBleu, Hikaru Sugimoto, Sujuan Yang, Carolina F Ruivo, Sonia A Melo, J Jack Lee, Raghu Kalluri
The mutant form of the GTPase KRAS is a key driver of pancreatic cancer but remains a challenging therapeutic target. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles generated by all cells, and are naturally present in the blood. Here we show that enhanced retention of exosomes, compared to liposomes, in the circulation of mice is likely due to CD47-mediated protection of exosomes from phagocytosis by monocytes and macrophages. Exosomes derived from normal fibroblast-like mesenchymal cells were engineered to carry short interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA specific to oncogenic Kras(G12D), a common mutation in pancreatic cancer...
June 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606918/evaluation-of-tumor-derived-exosomal-mirna-as-potential-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-next-generation-sequencing
#20
Xiance Jin, Yanfan Chen, Hanbin Chen, Shaoran Fei, Didi Chen, Xiaona Cai, Linger Liu, Baochai Lin, Huafang Su, Lihao Zhao, Meng Su, Huanle Pan, Lanxiao Shen, Deyao Xie, Congying Xie
<br />To identify tumor-derived exosomal biomarkers that are able to discriminate between adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as a non-invasive method in the early diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). <br /><br />Experimental Design: <br />Tumor-derived exosomes from the plasma of early stage NSCLC patients were isolated. Exosomal miRNA profiling of 46 stage I NSCLC patients and 42 healthy individuals was performed using miRNA-seq to identify and validate AC- and SCC-specific miRNAs...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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