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Exosome AND cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807885/biogenesis-and-function-of-escrt-dependent-extracellular-vesicles
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Juan, Maximilian Fürthauer
From bacteria to humans, cells secrete a large variety of membrane-bound extracellular vesicles. Only relatively recently has it however started to become clear that the exovesicular transport of proteins and RNAs is important for normal physiology and numerous pathological conditions. Extracellular vesicles can be formed through the release of the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes as so-called exosomes, or through direct, ectosomal, budding from the cell surface. Through their ability to promote the bending of membranes away from the cytoplasm, the components of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) have been implicated in both exo- and ectosomal biogenesis...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807820/the-biology-function-and-clinical-implications-of-exosomes-in-lung-cancer
#2
Li Zhou, Tangfeng Lv, Qun Zhang, Qingqing Zhu, Ping Zhan, Suhua Zhu, Jianya Zhang, Yong Song
Exosomes are 30-100 nm small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted by all types of cells, and can also be found in various body fluids. Increasing evidence implicates that exosomes confer stability and can deliver their cargos such as proteins and nucleic acids to specific cell types, which subsequently serve as important messengers and carriers in lung carcinogenesis. Here, we describe the biogenesis and components of exosomes mainly in lung cancer, we summarize their function in lung carcinogenesis (epithelial mesenchymal transition, oncogenic cell transformation, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune response in tumor microenvironment), and importantly we focus on the clinical potential of exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutics in lung cancer...
August 11, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805111/chemoresistance-in-cancer-cells-exosomes-as-potential-regulators-of-therapeutic-tumor-heterogeneity
#3
Aman Sharma
Drug resistance in cancer cells remains a fundamental challenge. Be it nontargeted or targeted drugs, the presence of intrinsic or acquired cancer cell resistance remains a great obstacle in chemotherapy. Conventionally, a spectrum of cellular mechanisms defines drug resistance including overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins and drug efflux pumps, mutations in target and synergistic activation of prosurvival pathways in tumor cells. In addition to these well-studied routes, exosome-induced chemoresistance is emerging as a novel mechanism...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803894/exosomes-in-cancer-use-them-or-target-them
#4
REVIEW
Nuno Bastos, Carolina F Ruivo, Soraia Silva, Sonia A Melo
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles with a significant role in most processes associated with cancer. On one hand, exosomes role in the different hallmarks of cancer has been widely described, highlighting the urge to understand the potential to target communication mediated by exosomes as a novel therapeutic approach in cancer. On the other hand, exosomes stability in circulation and tumor-targeting capacity shows their applicability in the delivery of anti-cancer molecules. This review will discuss the dual applicability of exosomes in cancer focusing on their usage for therapy improvement, or their targeting to block their supportive role in tumor progression and response to therapy...
August 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801576/disrupting-glutamine-metabolic-pathways-to-sensitize-gemcitabine-resistant-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Ru Chen, Lisa A Lai, Yumi Sullivan, Melissa Wong, Lei Wang, Jonah Riddell, Linda Jung, Venu G Pillarisetty, Teresa A Brentnall, Sheng Pan
Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease with poor prognosis. Gemcitabine has been the first line systemic treatment for pancreatic cancer. However, the rapid development of drug resistance has been a major hurdle in gemcitabine therapy leading to unsatisfactory patient outcomes. With the recent renewed understanding of glutamine metabolism involvement in drug resistance and immuno-response, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of a glutamine analog (6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine) as an adjuvant treatment to sensitize chemoresistant pancreatic cancer cells...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797930/%C3%AE-tocotrienol-induced-disruption-of-lipid-rafts-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-is-associated-with-a-reduction-in-exosome-heregulin-content
#6
Osama A Alawin, Rayan A Ahmed, Venkateshwararao Dronamraju, Karen P Briski, Paul W Sylvester
Overexpression of heregulin, a potent ligand that activates HER3 and HER4 receptors, plays a significant role in the development of chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer patients. Exosomes released from cancer cells are small vesicles originating from the outward budding of lipid rafts that carry various mitogenic proteins that then act locally in an autocrine/paracrine manner to stimulate cancer cell growth. Since the anticancer activity of γ-tocotrienol has been shown to be mediated in part through the disruption of lipid rafts, studies were conducted to determine the effect of γ-tocotrienol on exosomes mitogenic biopotency...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796150/the-role-of-cancer-derived-exosomes-in-tumorigenicity-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#7
REVIEW
Robert H Blackwell, Kimberly E Foreman, Gopal N Gupta
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their basement membrane interaction and acquire a more migratory, mesenchymal phenotype. EMT has been implicated in cancer cell progression, as cells transform and increase motility and invasiveness, induce angiogenesis, and metastasize. Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane-bound vesicles that are formed and excreted by all cell types and released into the extracellular environment. Exosomal contents include DNA, mRNA, miRNA, as well as transmembrane- and membrane-bound proteins derived from their host cell contents...
August 10, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791708/exosomal-dnmt1-mediates-cisplatin-resistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#8
Ya-Lei Cao, Ting Zhuang, Bao-Heng Xing, Na Li, Qin Li
Ovarian cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Owing to late syndromic presentation and lack of efficient early detection, most cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy are still the standard care currently. However, resistance invoked often compromises the clinical value of the latter. Expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was analysed by gene array. Protein was determined by immunoblotting. Exosome was isolated with commercial kit. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK8 method...
August 8, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791656/egfr-as-a-target-for-glioblastoma-treatment-an-unfulfilled-promise
#9
Manfred Westphal, Cecile L Maire, Katrin Lamszus
The receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) is a prime target for cancer therapy across a broad variety of tumor types. As it is a tyrosine kinase, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting signal transduction, as well as monoclonal antibodies against the EGFR, have been investigated as anti-tumor agents. However, despite the long-known enigmatic EGFR gene amplification and protein overexpression in glioblastoma, the most aggressive intrinsic human brain tumor, the potential of EGFR as a target for this tumor type has been unfulfilled...
August 8, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783104/exosomes-and-other-extracellular-vesicles-in-hpv-transmission-and-carcinogenesis
#10
REVIEW
David Guenat, François Hermetet, Jean-Luc Prétet, Christiane Mougin
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes (Exos), microvesicles (MVs) and apoptotic bodies (ABs) are released in biofluids by virtually all living cells. Tumor-derived Exos and MVs are garnering increasing attention because of their ability to participate in cellular communication or transfer of bioactive molecules (mRNAs, microRNAs, DNA and proteins) between neighboring cancerous or normal cells, and to contribute to human cancer progression. Malignant traits can also be transferred from apoptotic cancer cells to phagocytizing cells, either professional or non-professional...
August 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780902/emerging-ms-based-platforms-for-the-characterization-of-tumor-derived-exosomes-isolated-from-human-biofluids-challenges-and-promises-of-mudpit
#11
Emanuele Ferrari, Antonella De Palma, Pierluigi Mauri
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin that are produced and released by several type of cells. These vesicles contain different macromolecules: proteins, mRNA, miRNA, mitochondrial DNA, and lipids. Exosomes play an important role in cell-to-cell communication, also promoting cancer progression. Areas covered: Various proteomic approaches have been applied to study exosomes isolated from different human biofluids in search of possible cancer biomarkers. The results of these studies are reported, and pros and cons of each employed technique are described...
August 7, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780632/hsp90-a-promising-broad-spectrum-antiviral-drug-target
#12
REVIEW
Yiliang Wang, Fujun Jin, Rongze Wang, Feng Li, Yanting Wu, Kaio Kitazato, Yifei Wang
The emergence of antiviral drug-resistant mutants is the most important issue in current antiviral therapy. As obligate parasites, viruses require host factors for efficient replication. An ideal therapeutic target to prevent drug-resistance development is represented by host factors that are crucial for the viral life cycle. Recent studies have indicated that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a crucial host factor that is required by many viruses for multiple phases of their life cycle including viral entry, nuclear import, transcription, and replication...
August 5, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775118/chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cells-are-active-participants-in-microenvironmental-cross-talk
#13
Martijn Ha van Attekum, Eric Eldering, Arnon P Kater
The importance of the tumor microenvironment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is widely accepted. Yet, the understanding of the complex interplay between the various types of bystander cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is incomplete. Whereas numerous studies have indicated that bystander cells provide chronic lymphocytic leukemia-supportive functions, it has also become clear that chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells actively engage in the formation of a supportive tumor microenvironment by engaging in several cross-talk mechanisms...
August 3, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774835/current-and-emerging-biomarkers-in-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-possible-diagnostic-prognostic-and-therapeutic-applications
#14
REVIEW
Ishaq N Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Deema Hussein, Kulvinder S Saini
Recent investments in research associated with the discovery of specific tumor biomarkers important for efficient diagnosis and prognosis of the patients are beginning to bear fruit. Key biomarkers could potentially outweigh traditional radiological or pathological methods by enabling specificity of early detection, when coupled with tumor molecular profiling and clinical associations. Only few biomarkers are approved by regulatory authorities for Central Nervous System Tumors (CNSTs), despite the evaluation of a large number of CNST related markers during clinical trials...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764970/urinary-exosomal-mir-2909-a-novel-pathognomonic-trait-of-prostate-cancer-severity
#15
S Wani, D Kaul, R S Mavuduru, N Kakkar, A Bhatia
The global occurrence of prostate cancer with a range of patient outcome has prompted various investigators to explore novel molecular biomarkers that can precisely detect and track this type of cancer severity. Several studies suggest that micro-RNAs have emerged to act as a new largely unexplored class of biomarkers because of their inherent stability, resilience and recruitment into exosomes present in various human body fluids. With this study, we aim to reveal the nature of urinary-exosomal miR-2909 & miR-615-3p recruitment in patients suffering from either prostate cancer (n=90) or bladder cancer (n=60) as compared to that in either prostate disease-control subjects having benign prostate hyperplasia (n=10) or healthy subjects (n=50)...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762264/chemically-edited-exosomes-with-dual-ligand-purified-by-microfluidic-device-for-active-targeted-drug-delivery-to-tumor-cells
#16
Jie Wang, Wei Li, Leicheng Zhang, Lin Ban, Peng Chen, Wei Du, Xiaojun Feng, Bi-Feng Liu
Exosomes, which are lipid membrane-bound nanovesicles (50-150 nm in diameter), have aroused extensive attention for their potential applications in invasive molecular and stand for a new therapeutic delivery system. However, they are limited by poor targeting ability and a lack of efficient isolation techniques. Here, we present a three-dimensional nanostructured microfluidic chip, in which arrays of micropillars were functionalized with crisscrossed multiwall carbon nanotubes by chemical deposition, to capture exosomes with high efficiency through a combination of a specific recognition molecule (CD63) and the unique topography of the nanomaterials...
August 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756229/role-of-the-extracellular-matrix-located-mac-2-binding-protein-as-an-interactor-of-the-wnt-proteins
#17
Timo Pikkarainen, Tuomas Nurmi, Takako Sasaki, Ulrich Bergmann, Seppo Vainio
The Wnt proteins constitute a conserved family of secreted palmitoleate-containing signaling proteins that play important roles in development and tissue homeostasis. Their hydrophobic nature has raised the question of how the proteins are transported outside the cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that several different mechanisms, including transport by lipoprotein particles and exosomes, may contribute to this process. Here, we expressed epitope-tagged Wnt4 in HEK293 cells, and identified Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2BP) as its binding partner in the serum-free conditioned medium...
July 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754746/tumor-derived-exosomes-modulate-pd-l1-expression-in-monocytes
#18
Franziska Haderk, Ralph Schulz, Murat Iskar, Laura Llaó Cid, Thomas Worst, Karolin V Willmund, Angela Schulz, Uwe Warnken, Jana Seiler, Axel Benner, Michelle Nessling, Thorsten Zenz, Maria Göbel, Jan Dürig, Sven Diederichs, Jérôme Paggetti, Etienne Moussay, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Marc Zapatka, Peter Lichter, Martina Seiffert
In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), monocytes and macrophages are skewed toward protumorigenic phenotypes, including the release of tumor-supportive cytokines and the expression of immunosuppressive molecules such as programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1). To understand the mechanism driving protumorigenic skewing in CLL, we evaluated the role of tumor cell-derived exosomes in the cross-talk with monocytes. We carried out RNA sequencing and proteome analyses of CLL-derived exosomes and identified noncoding Y RNA hY4 as a highly abundant RNA species that is enriched in exosomes from plasma of CLL patients compared with healthy donor samples...
July 28, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753793/micrornas-in-serum-exosomes-as-potential-biomarkers-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#19
Wei Zhang, Maowei Ni, Ying Su, Hua Wang, Shaoxin Zhu, An Zhao, Guorong Li
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes are emerging as clinically useful tools for cancer detection. However, little is known about their diagnostic impact in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether miRNAs in serum exosomes can serve as biomarkers in ccRCC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Serum samples were obtained from 82 patients with ccRCC and 80 healthy volunteers. Exosomes were extracted and purified to selectively capture exosomes positive for tumor-associated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) via a magnetic bead technique...
October 14, 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751445/head-and-neck-carcinoma-immunotherapy-facts-and-hopes
#20
Theresa L Whiteside
Cancer of the head and neck (HNC) is a heterogeneous disease of the upper aerodigestive tract, encompassing distinct histological types, different anatomical sites and HPV+ as well as HPV(neg) cancers. Advanced/recurrent HNCs have poor prognosis with low survival rates. Tumor-mediated inhibition of anti-tumor immune responses and a high mutational burden are common features of HNCs. Both are responsible for the successful escape of these tumors from the host immune system. HNCs evolve numerous mechanisms of evasion from immune destruction...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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