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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523599/differential-effects-of-early-life-nutrient-restriction-in-long-lived-ghr-ko-and-normal-mice
#1
Yimin Fang, Samuel McFadden, Justin Darcy, Cristal M Hill, Joshua A Huber, Steve Verhulst, John J Kopchick, Richard A Miller, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
There is increasing evidence that growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (collectively referred to as somatotropic signaling) during development has a profound influence on aging and longevity. Moreover, the absence of GH action was shown to modify responses of adult mice to calorie restriction (CR) and other antiaging interventions. It was therefore of interest to determine whether GH resistance in GH receptor knockout (GHR-KO) mice would modify the effects of mild pre-weaning CR imposed by increasing the number of pups in a litter (the so-called litter crowding)...
May 18, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521459/cisplatin-regulates-cell-autophagy-in-endometrial-cancer-cells-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signalling-pathway
#2
Qiongyan Lin, Yifeng Wang, Dunjin Chen, Xiujie Sheng, Juan Liu, Hanzhen Xiong
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy encountered in developed countries and the second most common in the developing world. The five-year survival rate of patients with endometrial cancer diagnosed at a late stage is <30%. Therefore, it is critical to develop a suitable chemotherapeutic regimen for late-stage endometrial cancer. Cisplatin (CDDP) is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for endometrial cancer chemotherapy. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of CDDP on endometrial cancer from the perspective of cell autophagy...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515690/brain-renin-angiotensin-system-and-microglial-polarization-implications-for-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#3
REVIEW
Jose L Labandeira-Garcia, Ana I Rodríguez-Perez, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Jannette Rodriguez-Pallares, Jose L Lanciego, Maria J Guerra
Microglia can transform into proinflammatory/classically activated (M1) or anti-inflammatory/alternatively activated (M2) phenotypes following environmental signals related to physiological conditions or brain lesions. An adequate transition from the M1 (proinflammatory) to M2 (immunoregulatory) phenotype is necessary to counteract brain damage. Several factors involved in microglial polarization have already been identified. However, the effects of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on microglial polarization are less known...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515443/development-of-a-whole-organism-platform-for-phenotype-based-analysis-of-igf1r-pi3k-akt-tor-action
#4
Chengdong Liu, Wei Dai, Yan Bai, Changfeng Chi, Yi Xin, Gen He, Kangsen Mai, Cunming Duan
Aberrant regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/insulin (IIS)-PI3K-AKT-TOR signaling pathway is linked to major human diseases, and key components of this pathway are targets for therapeutic intervention. Current assays are molecular target- or cell culture-based platforms. Due to the great in vivo complexities inherited in this pathway, there is an unmet need for whole organism based assays. Here we report the development of a zebrafish transgenic line, Tg(igfbp5a:GFP), which faithfully reports the mitotic action of IGF1R-PI3K-Akt-Tor signaling in epithelial cells in real-time...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515235/insulin-like-growth-factor-signaling-regulates-developmental-trajectory-associated-with-diapause-in-embryos-of-the-annual-killifish-austrofundulus-limnaeus
#5
S Cody Woll, Jason E Podrabsky
Annual killifishes exhibit a number of unique life history characters including the occurrence of embryonic diapause, unique cell movements associated with dispersion and subsequent reaggregation of the embryonic blastomeres, and a short post-embryonic life span. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is known to play a role in the regulation of metabolic dormancy in a number of animals but has not been explored in annual killifishes. The abundance of IGF proteins during development, and the developmental effects of blocking IGF signaling by pharmacological inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R) were explored in embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus Blocking of IGF signaling in embryos that would normally escape entrance into diapause resulted in a phenotype that was remarkably similar to embryos entering diapause...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507717/dynamic-structural-and-thermodynamic-basis-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-kinase-allostery-mediated-by-activation-loop-phosphorylation
#6
Yaozong Li, Kwangho Nam
Despite the importance of kinases' catalytic activity regulation in cell signaling, detailed mechanisms underlying their activity regulation are poorly understood. Herein, using insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor kinase (IGF-1RK) as a model, the mechanisms of kinase regulation by its activation loop (A-loop) phosphorylation were investigated through molecular dynamics (MD) and alchemical free energy simulations. Analyses of the simulation results and free energy landscapes determined for the entire catalytic cycle of the kinase revealed that A-loop phosphorylation affects each step in the IGF-1RK catalytic cycle, including conformational change, substrate binding/product release and catalytic phosphoryl transfer...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507342/effects-of-dietary-methionine-on-breast-muscle-growth-myogenic-gene-expression-and-igf-i-signaling-in-fast-and-slow-growing-broilers
#7
Chao Wen, Xueying Jiang, Liren Ding, Tian Wang, Yanmin Zhou
This study investigated the responses of fast- (FG) and slow- (SG) growing broilers to dietary methionine (Met) status. The broilers were subjected to low (LM, 0.38 and 0.28 g/100 g), adequate (AM, 0.51 and 0.42 g/100 g) and high (HM, 0.65 and 0.52 g/100 g) Met during 1-21 and 22-42 d, respectively. Compared with the LM diets, the AM and HM diets increased body weight gain only in the FG broilers. The HM diets increased breast muscle yield only in the FG broilers, although insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration was increased in both strains of broilers...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507100/the-microrna-machinery-regulates-fasting-induced-changes-in-gene-expression-and-longevity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Akiko Kogure, Masaharu Uno, Takako Ikeda, Eisuke Nishida
Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary restriction regimen that extends the lifespans of Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals by inducing changes in gene expression. However, how IF induces these changes and promotes longevity remains unclear. One proposed mechanism involves gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs (approximately 22 nucleotides) that repress gene expression and whose expression can be altered by fasting. To test this proposition, we examined the role of the miRNA machinery in fasting-induced transcriptional changes and longevity in C...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506595/plumbagin-suppresses-the-migration-and-invasion-of-glioma-cells-via-downregulation-of-mmp-2-9-expression-and-inaction-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in%C3%A2-vitro
#9
Guanghui Chen, Yan Yue, Jun Qin, Xinping Xiao, Qing Ren, Bin Xiao
Plumbagin is a natural naphthoquinone constituent isolated from the roots of medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L., and has demonstrated anti-proliferative and anti-invasion activities in various cancer cells. However, its effect on the migration and invasion of glioma cells has not been elucidated. Therefore, human glioma U87 and U251 cells were treated with plumbagin at 1.0 and 2.0 μM for 24 h, and cell migration and invasion were assessed with scratch wound healing and invasion assays. The results showed that plumbagin significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of U87 and U251 cells, suppressed the activity and expression of MMP-2/-9, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of transcription factors Sp1 in the U87 and U251 cells...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505088/1-4-naphthoquinone-triggers-nematode-lethality-by-inducing-oxidative-stress-and-activating-insulin-igf-signaling-pathway-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Jia Wang, Guangzhi Zeng, Xiaobing Huang, Zhe Wang, Ninghua Tan
Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive pathogens causing enormous economic losses worldwide. With the withdrawal of fumigants, organophosphates and carbamates, pathogenic nematode control is more difficult. Phytochemicals are the plant secondary metabolites and are friendly for men and the environment. For developing new nematocidal candidates, we screened 790 phytochemicals using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and found 10 active compounds, 3 of which were further evaluated for their inhibitory activities against egg hatching of C...
May 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502327/fanconi-anemia-and-laron-syndrome
#11
Inma Castilla-Cortazar, Julieta Rodriguez de Ita, Gabriel Amador Aguirre, Fabiola Castorena-Torres, Jesús Ortiz-Urbina, Mariano García-Magariño, Rocío García de la Garza, Carlos Diaz Olachea, Martha Irma Elizondo Leal
BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a condition characterized by genetic instability and short stature, which is due to growth hormone (GH) deficiency in most cases. However, no apparent relationships have been identified between FA complementation group genes and GH. In this study, we thereby considered an association between FA and Laron syndrome (LS) (insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1] deficiency). METHODS: A 21-year-old female Mexican patient with a genetic diagnosis of FA was referred to our research department for an evaluation of her short stature...
May 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502303/-effect-of-metformin-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-rat-prolactinoma-mmq-cells-and-related-mechanisms
#12
Kai Jin, Lunliang Ruan, Jiujun Pu, Ailing Zhong, Fuchao Wang, Song Tan, Hua Huang, Jiamin Mou, Gang Yang
Objective To investigate the effect of metformin on the cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of rat prolactinoma MMQ cells in vitro and related molecular mechanisms. Methods The MMQ cells were treated with 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mmol/L metformin for 48 hours. CCK-8 assay was used to assess the cell proliferation ability; flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis; Western blotting was performed to detect the expressions of AMPKα1/2, p-AMPKα, mTOR, p-mTOR, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT, p-AKT, P21, CDK4, cyclin D1, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3(c-caspase-3), Bcl-2 and BAX...
May 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498434/a-ligand-based-and-enediyne-energized-bispecific-fusion-protein-targeting-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-shows-potent-antitumor-efficacy-against-esophageal-cancer
#13
Hai-Ying Cao, Xiao-Fang Guo, Xiao-Fei Zhu, Sai-Sai Li, Yong-Su Zhen
Recent studies have revealed that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) are overexpressed in various types of human tumors and are attractive targets for anticancer drugs. In the present study, the expression of EGFR and IGF-1R in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adjacent normal tissues in a tissue microarray was firstly detected by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, their co-overexpression was observed in 48 out of 75 (64%) patients...
April 27, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497311/circulating-tnf-%C3%AE-levels-increased-and-correlated-negatively-with-igf-i-in-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction
#14
Jue Jiang, Xiang Lv, Bing Liang, Hong Jiang
Signaling pathways of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are found to be functionally interrelated in some experimental studies. IGF-I may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). In order to investigate the possible interaction of TNF-α and IGF-I in POCD, the plasma levels of IGF-I and TNF-α were determined in 44 patients under general anesthesia. As compared with non-POCD patients, POCD patients showed increased TNF-α and decreased IGF-I levels in plasma, as well as a significant negative correlation between TNF-α and IGF-I values...
May 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495324/biology-of-the-somatotroph-axis-after-the-pituitary
#15
Ron G Rosenfeld, Vivian Hwa
Normal growth requires that pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) bind to its specific receptor and activate a complex signaling cascade, leaving to production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which, in turn, activates its own receptor (IGF1R). The GH receptor (GHR) is preformed as a dimer and is transported in a nonligand bound state to the cell surface. Binding of GH to the GHR dimer, results in a conformational change of the dimer, activation of the intracellular Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5B...
May 8, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489485/igf-1-mediates-ephrinb1-activation-in-regulating-tertiary-dentin-formation
#16
S Matsumura, A Quispe-Salcedo, C M Schiller, J S Shin, B M Locke, S Yakar, E Shimizu
Eph receptors belong to a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by membrane-spanning ligands called ephrins. Previously, we demonstrated that the ephrinB1-EphB2 interaction regulates odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation from dental pulp cells (DPCs) in vitro. The goal of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms regulated by the EphB2/ephrinB1 system that govern tertiary dentin formation in vitro and in vivo. During tooth development, ephrinB1, and EphB2 were expressed in preodontoblast and odontoblasts at postnatal day 4...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486025/efficacy-and-persistence-of-allogeneic-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-combined-with-hyaluronic-acid-in-osteoarthritis-after-intra-articular-injection-in-a-sheep-model
#17
Chenchen Feng, Xuan Luo, Na He, Huitang Xia, Xiaoteng Lv, Xue Zhang, Dan Li, Fei Wang, Jiaping He, Li Zhang, Xiangming Lin, Liping Lin, Huabin Yin, Jiyin He, Jinwu Wang, Wei Cao, Richard Wang, Guangdong Zhou, Wen Wang
Although a number of studies have reported efficacy of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in treating osteoarthritis (OA), no reliable evidences demonstrate whether allogeneic AD-MSCs can efficiently block OA progression in a large animal model. The current study explored the efficacy and survival of allogeneic AD-MSCs combined with hyaluronic acid (HA) after intra-articular (IA) injection in a sheep OA model, which were conventionally established by anterior cruciate ligament resection and medial meniscectomy...
May 9, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473244/platycodon-grandiflorum-pg-reverses-angiotensin-ii-induced-apoptosis-by-repressing-igf-iir-expression
#18
Yuan-Chuan Lin, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Hsien-Tsung Yao, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chia-Yao Shen, Yu-Lan Yeh, Tsung-Jung Ho, V Vijaya Padma, Yu-Chen Lin, XXXXXXXChih-Yang Huang, Chih-Yang Huang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) is a Chinese medical plant used for decades as a traditional prescription to eliminate phlegm, relieve cough, reduce inflammation and lower blood pressure. PG also has a significant effect on the cardiovascular systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aqueous extract of Platycodon grandiflorum (JACQ.) A. DC. root was screened for inhibiting Ang II-induced IGF-IIR activation and apoptosis pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472630/eukaryotic-initiation-factor-eif6-modulates-the-expression-of-kermit-2-xgipc-in-igf-regulated-eye-development
#19
N De Marco, M Tussellino, R Carotenuto, R Ronca, S Rizzolio, S Biffo, C Campanella
The eukaryotic initiation translation factor eIF6 is a highly conserved, essential protein implicated in translation. eIF6 is regulated in vivo by extracellular signals, such as IGF signaling (for a review see Miluzio et al., 2009). In Xenopus, eif6 over-expression causes a delay in eye development (De Marco et al. 2011). In this study we showed that eif6 co-immunoprecipitates with the insulin-like growth factor receptor (igfr) and may function downstream of igf in eye formation. The relationship between eif6 and gipc2, a protein partner of a variety of molecules including membrane proteins, was investigated...
May 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472361/energy-metabolism-of-the-osteoblast-implications-for-osteoporosis
#20
Wen-Chih Lee, Anyonya R Guntur, Fanxin Long, Clifford J Rosen
Osteoblasts, the bone forming cells of the remodeling unit, are essential for growth and maintenance of the skeleton. Clinical disorders of substrate availability (e.g. diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and aging) cause osteoblast dysfunction ultimately leading to skeletal fragility and osteoporotic fractures. Conversely, anabolic treatments for osteoporosis enhance the work of the osteoblast by altering osteoblast metabolism. Emerging evidence supports glycolysis as the major metabolic pathway to meet ATP demand during osteoblast differentiation...
May 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
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