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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786867/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-antagonists-reduce-prostatic-enlargement-and-inflammation-in-carrageenan-induced-chronic-prostatitis
#1
Petra Popovics, Renzhi Cai, Wei Sha, Ferenc G Rick, Andrew V Schally
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a key role in the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through multiple pathways involving the stimulation of proliferation by cytokines and growth factors as well as the induction of the focal occurrence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We have previously reported that GHRH acts as a prostatic growth factor in experimental BPH and in autoimmune prostatitis models and its blockade with GHRH antagonists offer therapeutic approaches for these conditions...
May 21, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784791/steroid-signaling-mediates-nutritional-regulation-of-juvenile-body-growth-via-igf-binding-protein-in-drosophila
#2
Gang Jun Lee, Gangsik Han, Hyun Myoung Yun, Jin Ju Lim, Sujin Noh, Jaegeun Lee, Seogang Hyun
Nutritional condition during the juvenile growth period considerably affects final adult size. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS)/target of rapamycin (TOR) nutrient-sensing pathway is known to regulate growth and metabolism in response to nutritional conditions. However, there is limited information on how endocrine pathways communicate nutritional information to different metabolic organs to regulate organismal growth. Here, we show that Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2), a Drosophila homolog of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), plays a key role in the nutritional control of organismal growth...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776602/blurring-boundaries-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-as-functional-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#3
Caitrin Crudden, Takashi Shibano, Dawei Song, Naida Suleymanova, Ada Girnita, Leonard Girnita
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) control important biological activities as well as being involved in pathological processes. Due to their supportive nature in many human cancers they have long been considered attractive therapeutic targets. However, lessons learnt from early targeting trials highlight that a simple "active versus inactive" state model with classical kinase-only signaling is overly simplistic and does not describe reality...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774544/functional-molecules-in-mesothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-revealed-by-transcriptome-analyses
#4
Sara Namvar, Adrian S Woolf, Leo A H Zeef, Thomas Wilm, Bettina Wilm, Sarah E Herrick
Peritoneal fibrosis is a common complication of abdominal and pelvic surgery, and can also be triggered by peritoneal dialysis, resulting in treatment failure. In these settings, fibrosis is driven by activated myofibroblasts that are considered to be partly derived by mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT). We hypothesised that if the molecular signature of MMT could be better defined, these insights could be exploited to block this pathological cellular transition. Rat peritoneal mesothelial cells were purified, using an antibody to HBME1, a protein present on mesothelial cell microvilli, and streptavidin nanobead technology...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771404/mmp-2-participates-in-the-sclera-of-guinea-pig-with-form-deprivation-myopia-via-igf-1-stat3-pathway
#5
Y-X Liu, Y Sun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression changes of MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinases-2) mediated by IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factors-1) STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) pathway in the sclera of the form-deprivation myopia guinea pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four three-week-old guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (Control), B, C and D. Guinea pigs in group A were sacrificed after 21 days without any special treatment...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767244/propranolol-induces-hemangioma-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-via-a-p53%C3%A2-bax-mediated-pathway
#6
Tian-Hua Yao, Parekejiang Pataer, Krishna Prasad Regmi, Xi-Wen Gu, Quan-Yan Li, Jing-Ting Du, Su-Meng Ge, Jun-Bo Tu
The use of propranolol for the treatment of infantile hemangioma (IH) has been widely investigated in recent years. However, the underlying therapeutic mechanism of propranolol for the treatment of IH remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of proteins regulated by cellular tumor antigen p53 (p53) in associated apoptosis pathways in IH endothelial cells (HemECs) treated with propranolol. Furthermore, the present study aimed to investigate the exact apoptotic pathway underlying the therapeutic effect of propranolol against IH...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765966/further-clinical-evidence-for-the-effect-of-igf-1-on-hair-growth-and-alopecia
#7
Ralph M Trüeb
Observations on the Laron syndrome originally offered the opportunity to explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency on human hair growth and differentiation. According to its expression in the dermal hair papilla, IGF-1 is likely involved in reciprocal signaling. It has been shown to affect follicular proliferation, tissue remodeling, and the hair growth cycle, as well as follicular differentiation, identifying IGF-1 signaling as an important mitogenic and morphogenetic regulator in hair follicle biology...
April 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764475/a-potential-gliovascular-mechanism-for-microglial-activation-differential-phenotypic-switching-of-microglia-by-endothelium-versus-astrocytes
#8
Changhong Xing, Wenlu Li, Wenjun Deng, MingMing Ning, Eng H Lo
BACKGROUND: Activation of microglia can result in phenotypic and functional diversity. However, the pathways that trigger different states of microglial activation remain to be fully understood. Here, we hypothesized that after injury, astrocytes and endothelium may contribute to a gliovascular switch for microglial activation. METHODS: Astrocytes or cerebral endothelial cells were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation, then conditioned media were transferred to microglia...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763915/serum-from-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-promotes-growth-and-proliferation-via-the-igf-ii-igf-ir-mek-erk-signaling-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#9
Yuanyuan Ji, Zhidong Wang, Haiyan Chen, Lei Zhang, Fei Zhuo, Qingqing Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) plays a central role in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Emerging evidence implicates insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II as a major risk factor for the growth and development of HCC. However, the relationship between HBV infection and IGF-II functions remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Levels of circulating IGF-II and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in healthy donors (HDs) and CHB patients were tested by ELISA...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760827/transcriptome-analysis-of-orbital-adipose-tissue-in-active-thyroid-eye-disease-using-next-generation-rna-sequencing-technology
#10
Bradford W Lee, Virender B Kumar, Pooja Biswas, Audrey C Ko, Ramzi M Alameddine, David B Granet, Radha Ayyagari, Don O Kikkawa, Bobby S Korn
Objective: This study utilized Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to identify differentially expressed transcripts in orbital adipose tissue from patients with active Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) versus healthy controls. Method: This prospective, case-control study enrolled three patients with severe, active thyroid eye disease undergoing orbital decompression, and three healthy controls undergoing routine eyelid surgery with removal of orbital fat. RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on freshly obtained orbital adipose tissue from study patients to analyze the transcriptome...
2018: Open Ophthalmology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758178/lin28a-regulates-neurogliogenesis-in-mammalian-retina-through-the-igf-signaling
#11
Xiaohuan Xia, Pooja Teotia, Iqbal Ahmad
In the developing central nervous system (CNS) the majority of neurons are born before the generation of glia. Emerging evidence implicates heterochronic gene, Lin28 in the temporal switch between two distinct lineages. However, the respective contributions of Lin28a and Lin28b in neurogliogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we have examined the relative involvement of Lin28a and Lin28b in mammalian retina, a simple and accessible CNS model where neurogliogenic decision largely occurs postnatally. Examination of Lin28a/b involvement during late histogenesis by the perturbation of function approaches revealed that while Lin28b did not influence differentiation in general Lin28a facilitated and antagonized the generation of neurons and glia, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756571/the-mechanism-of-dietary-protein-modulation-of-bone-metabolism-via-alterations-in-members-of-the-gh-igf-axis
#12
Chen Lv, Songcai Liu, Jichao Xia, Lei Xu, Yunyun Cheng, Wenyue Li, Yu Zhang, Gang Wang, Wenzhen Wei, Hongyu Shi, Shan Huang, Nan Wang, Linlin Hao
Dietary protein intake as a critical regulatory factor of bone metabolism is a vital element to regulate nutritional status of mammals. Under the action of protease, dietary protein is digested into peptides and free amino acids (FAAs). Then, the metabolites are absorbed by enterocytes and metabolized in various organs of mammals. The dietary protein intake regulates bone metabolism generally via two aspects, dietary itself and signaling transduction. At the dietary level, different kinds of amino acids (AAs) of dietary protein may affect various protein metabolism of bone by regulating proteasome depending on proteolysis and protein synthesis...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748515/growth-hormone-receptor-mutations-related-to-individual-dwarfism
#13
REVIEW
Shudai Lin, Congjun Li, Charles Li, Xiquan Zhang
Growth hormone (GH) promotes body growth by binding with two GH receptors (GHRs) at the cell surface. GHRs interact with Janus kinase, signal transducers, and transcription activators to stimulate metabolic effects and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) synthesis. However, process dysfunctions in the GH⁻GHR⁻IGF-1 axis cause animal dwarfism. If, during the GH process, GHR is not successfully recognized and/or bound, or GHR fails to transmit the GH signal to IGF-1, the GH dysfunction occurs. The goal of this review was to focus on the GHR mutations that lead to failures in the GH⁻GHR⁻IGF-1 signal transaction process in the dwarf phenotype...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747815/gangliosides-in-diabetic-wound-healing
#14
Duncan Hieu M Dam, Amy S Paller
An organized series of complicated biological and molecular phenomena is required for normal skin wound healing. These processes depend on normal cellular responses to cytokines, growth factors, and other mediators, such as clotting factors, prostaglandins, free radicals, and nitric oxide. In diabetic ulcers, impaired responses to these molecules lead to abnormalities in vascularization, innervation, matrix reconstruction, and reepithelialization of wounds. keratinocyte migration and proliferation on an extracellular matrix is critical in reepithelialization, but the response to growth factors is blunted in diabetes, including the insulin/IGF-1signaling axis...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743626/role-of-igf-1r-in-ameliorating-apoptosis-of-gne-deficient-cells
#15
Reema Singh, Priyanka Chaudhary, Ranjana Arya
Sialic acids (SAs) are nine carbon acidic amino sugars, found at the outermost termini of glycoconjugates performing various physiological and pathological functions. SA synthesis is regulated by UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE) that catalyzes rate limiting steps. Mutations in GNE result in rare genetic disorders, GNE myopathy and Sialuria. Recent studies indicate an alternate role of GNE in cell apoptosis and adhesion, besides SA biosynthesis. In the present study, using a HEK cell-based model for GNE myopathy, the role of Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor (IGF-1R) as cell survival receptor protein was studied to counter the apoptotic effect of non-functional GNE...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740932/antagonizing-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-facilitates-m1-to-m2-shift-of-microglia-by-enhancing-autophagy-via-the-lkb1-ampk-signaling-pathway
#16
Juan Ji, Teng-Fei Xue, Xu-Dong Guo, Jin Yang, Ruo-Bing Guo, Juan Wang, Ji-Ye Huang, Xiao-Jie Zhao, Xiu-Lan Sun
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a dual role in various brain diseases due to distinct microglial phenotypes, including deleterious M1 and neuroprotective M2. There is growing evidence that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Here, we observed that antagonizing PPARγ promoted LPS-stimulated changes in polarization from the M1 to the M2 phenotype in primary microglia. PPARγ antagonist T0070907 increased the expression of M2 markers, including CD206, IL-4, IGF-1, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, G-CSF, and GM-CSF, and reduced the expression of M1 markers, such as CD86, Cox-2, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and CCL2, thereby inhibiting NFκB-IKKβ activation...
May 8, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739805/igf-1-the-jekyll-hyde-of-the-aging-brain
#17
Sriram Gubbi, Gabriela Farias Quipildor, Nir Barzilai, Derek M Huffman, Sofiya Milman
The IGF-1 signaling pathway has emerged as a major regulator of the aging process, from rodents to humans. However, given the pleiotropic actions of IGF-1, its role in the aging brain remains complex and controversial. While IGF-1 is clearly essential for normal development of the central nervous system, conflicting evidence has emerged from preclinical and human studies regarding its relationship to cognitive function, as well as cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. This review delves into the current state of the evidence examining the role of IGF-1 in the aging brain, encompassing preclinical and clinical studies...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731967/anti-cachectic-effect-of-antrodia-cinnamomea-extract-in-lung-tumor-bearing-mice-under-chemotherapy
#18
Meng-Chuan Chen, Wen-Lin Hsu, Tz-Chong Chou
Skeletal muscle atrophy, the most characteristic feature of cancer cachexia, often occurs in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) a widely used edible medical fungus, exhibits hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatment with the ethonolic extract of AC ameliorates cachexia symptoms, especially muscle wasting, in lung tumor-bearing mice treated with chemotherapy. Our results revealed that gemcitabine and cisplatin-induced severe body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy in the mice with cancer were greatly attenuated after AC extract administration...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731870/igf-1-induced-mmp-11-expression-promotes-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-gastric-cancer-cells-through-the-jak1-stat3-signaling-pathway
#19
Chao Su, Wenchang Wang, Cunchuan Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the association between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11) expression in gastric cancer (GC) and the underlying mechanisms in SGC-7901 cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of IGF-1 and MMP-11 was significantly upregulated in GC tissues compared with normal gastric tissue. Furthermore, IGF-1 significantly and dose-dependently promoted MMP-11. Western blotting revealed that the addition of IGF-1 to SGC-7901 cells led to an evident enhancement in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), IGF-1R and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) phosphorylation at 20 and 40 min...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730709/lysine-supplement-benefits-the-growth-performance-protein-synthesis-and-muscle-development-of-megalobrama-amblycephala-fed-diets-with-fish-meal-replaced-by-rice-protein-concentrate
#20
Wan-Cun Cai, Wen-Bin Liu, Guang-Zhen Jiang, Kai-Zhou Wang, Cun-Xin Sun, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to investigate the effects of lysine supplement on the growth performance of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fed diets with fish meal (FM) replaced by rice protein concentrate (RPC) with the potential mechanisms characterized. Fish were fed three diets, including the FM diet (containing FM), the RPC diet (FM replaced by RPC), and the MRPC diet (the RPC diet supplemented with lysine) for 8 weeks. Weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, and nitrogen and energy utilization of fish fed the FM diet were all significantly higher than those of the RPC treatment, but they showed no statistical difference with those of the MRPC group...
May 5, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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