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Qi-Lei Chen, Lin Zhu, Yi-Na Tang, Hiu-Yee Kwan, Zhong-Zhen Zhao, Hu-Biao Chen, Tao Yi
Herbal healthcare products are used worldwide as relatively safe and effective alternatives to allopathic drugs. Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz.(SL), S. medusa Maxim. (SM) and S. involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.Bip. (SI) are three sources of the renowned "snow lotus" Chinese Materia Medica for treating inflammatory diseases. The three species have different therapeutic effects, among which SL has been proved to be the most potent, but they are frequently confused on the market and in the academic community. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was developed and used to analyze 49 herbal samples for species analysis and overall quality evaluation...
October 20, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Qiuhong Xue, Caihong Li, Jia Chen, Hongmei Guo, Dongqing Li, Xianglei Wu
CONTEXT: The audiological features and cochlear morphology of individuals with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) are well characterized. However, the molecular processes in the cochlea are not well understood. AIMS: To explore the role of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) response in the guinea pig model of cochlear damage induced by exposure to intense noise. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A pilot case-control study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-eight guinea pigs were divided into four equal groups...
September 2016: Noise & Health
Derek D Jones, Brian T Gaudette, Joel R Wilmore, Irene Chernova, Alexandra Bortnick, Brendan M Weiss, David Allman
Little is known about the role of mTOR signaling in plasma cell differentiation and function. Furthermore, for reasons not understood, mTOR inhibition reverses antibody-associated disease in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we have demonstrated that induced B lineage-specific deletion of the gene encoding RAPTOR, an essential signaling adaptor for rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), abrogated the generation of antibody-secreting plasma cells in mice. Acute treatment with rapamycin recapitulated the effects of RAPTOR deficiency, and both strategies led to the ablation of newly formed plasma cells in the spleen and bone marrow while also obliterating preexisting germinal centers...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Susana Alberich, Sara Barbeito, Itxaso González-Ortega, Amaia Ugarte, Patricia Vega, Sonia Ruiz de Azúa, Purificación López, Iñaki Zorrilla, Ana González-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness that impairs functioning and affects the quality of life of patients. The onset of this illness usually occurs at an early age, and the risk of relapse remains high for decades. Thus, due to the great clinical relevance of identifying long-term predictors of functioning in bipolar disorder, Strauss and Carpenter developed a scale composed of items known to have prognostic value. METHODS: To determine the clinical usefulness of the four-item Strauss-Carpenter scale in bipolar disorder, a 1-year prospective follow-up study was carried out...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Athanasios G Papavassiliou, Hippokratis Kiaris
Pancreatic dysfunction during diabetes is linked to the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on pancreatic beta (β) cells. Our laboratory recently discovered that p21 protects from diabetes by modifying the outcome of ER stress response. In the present study, we explored the antidiabetic activity of ciclopirox (CPX), an iron chelator and recently described activator of p21 expression. The effects of CPX in beta cell survival and function were assessed in cultured islets in vitro as well as in diabetic mice in vivo...
October 19, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Cody S Shirriff, John J Heikkila
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can result in the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded protein in the ER lumen, which can trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR) resulting in the activation of various genes including immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP; also known as glucose-regulated protein 78 or HSPA5). BiP, an ER heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family member, binds to unfolded protein, inhibits their aggregation and re-folds them in an ATP-dependent manner. While cadmium, an environmental contaminant, was shown to induce the accumulation of HSP70 in vertebrate cells, less information is available regarding the effect of this metal on BiP accumulation or function...
October 13, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Amy M Lange, Ekaterina S Altynova, Giang N Nguyen, Denise E Sabatino
Factor VIII (FVIII) is a large glycoprotein that is challenging to express both in vitro and in vivo. Several studies suggest that high levels of FVIII expression can lead to cellular stress. After gene transfer, transgene expression is restricted to a subset of cells and the increased FVIII load per cell may impact activation of the unfolded protein response. We sought to determine whether increased FVIII expression in mice after adeno-associated viral liver gene transfer would affect the unfolded protein response and/or immune response to the transgene...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Patricia Fronek, Melissa B Kendall
PURPOSE: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of Professional Boundaries for Health Professionals (PBHP) training program on the knowledge, comfort, experience, and ethical decision-making of multidisciplinary practitioners facing client-practitioner boundary dilemmas. METHODS: In all, 36 rehabilitation practitioners from an Australian state-wide spinal cord injuries service were assigned to experimental and control groups. The Boundaries in Practice (BIP) Scale measured outcomes at four points: pre, post, 3 months, and 1 year...
October 14, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Jason Gavin, Fran Quilty, Ferenc Majer, Georgina Gilsenan, Anne Marie Byrne, Aideen Long, Gabor Radics, John F Gilmer
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a cytoprotective ER stress inhibitor and chemical chaperone. It has therapeutic potential in a wide array of diseases but a specific macromolecular target or molecular mechanism of action remains obscure. This Letter describes an effective new synthetic approach to taurine conjugation of bile acids which we used to prepare 3α-dansyl TUDCA (4) as a probe for TUDCA actions. As a model of ER stress we used the hepatocarcinoma cell line HUH7 and stimulation with either deoxycholic acid (DCA, 200μM) or tunicamycin (5μg/ml) and measured levels of Bip/GRP78, ATF4, CHOP and XBP1s/XBP1u...
June 23, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Chengjian Mao, Mara Livezey, Ji Eun Kim, David J Shapiro
Outgrowth of metastases expressing ERα mutations Y537S and D538G is common after endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive breast cancer. The effect of replacing wild type ERα in breast cancer cells with these mutations was unclear. We used the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system and homology directed repair to isolate and characterize 14 T47D cell lines in which ERαY537S or ERαD538G replace one or both wild-type ERα genes. In 2-dimensional, and in quantitative anchorage-independent 3-dimensional cell culture, ERαY537S and ERαD538G cells exhibited estrogen-independent growth...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Genevieve Beauvais, Nicole M Bode, Jaime L Watson, Hsiang Wen, Kevin A Glenn, Hiroyuki Kawano, N Charles Harata, Michelle E Ehrlich, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre
: Dystonia type 1 (DYT1) is a dominantly inherited neurological disease caused by mutations in TOR1A, the gene encoding the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein torsinA. Previous work mostly completed in cell-based systems suggests that mutant torsinA alters protein processing in the secretory pathway. We hypothesized that inducing ER stress in the mammalian brain in vivo would trigger or exacerbate mutant torsinA-induced dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, we crossed DYT1 knock-in with p58(IPK)-null mice...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Victoria A Ferrer-Perez, Esperanza Bosch-Fiol
Intimate partner violence against women is a social and women's health concern. Much effort has gone into providing services and support for victims of this violence. By contrast, intervention programs focusing on the batterers themselves have received far less attention. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs (BIPs) implemented in Spain as provided by research published in peer-reviewed journals and scientific reports...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Petr Vodicka, Kathryn Chase, Maria Iuliano, Adelaide Tousley, Dana T Valentine, Ellen Sapp, Kimberly B Kegel-Gleason, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Neil Aronin, Marian DiFiglia
BACKGROUND: Mutant huntingtin (mHTT) is encoded by the Huntington's disease (HD) gene and its accumulation in the brain contributes to HD pathogenesis. Reducing mHTT levels through activation of the autophagosome-lysosomal pathway may have therapeutic benefit. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) regulates lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. OBJECTIVE: To examine if increasing TFEB protein levels in HD mouse striatum induces autophagy and influences mHTT levels. METHODS: We introduced cDNA encoding TFEB with an HA tag (TFEB-HA) under the control of neuron specific synapsin 1 promoter into the striatum of 3 month old HDQ175/Q7 mice using adeno-associated virus AAV2/9...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Huntington's Disease
Fei Sun, Bing Xu, Yi Zhang, Shengyun Dai, Xinyuan Shi, Yanjiang Qiao
The dissolution is one of the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of oral solid dosage forms because it relates to the absorption of drug. In this paper, the influence of raw materials, granules and process parameters on the dissolution of paracetamol tablet was analyzed using latent variable modeling methods. The variability in raw materials and granules was understood based on the principle component analysis (PCA), respectively. A multi-block partial least squares (MBPLS) model was used to determine the critical factors affecting the dissolution...
September 30, 2016: Bioengineered
Masahiro Ono, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Ayane Kitada, Kenji Matsumura, Masafumi Ihara, Hideo Saji
Neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in addition to the deposition of β-amyloid plaques. Since the deposition of tau aggregates is closely associated with the severity of AD, the in vivo detection of tau aggregates may be useful as a biomarker for the diagnosis and progression of AD. In this study, we designed and synthesized a new series of radioiodinated benzoimidazopyridine (BIP) derivatives, and evaluated their utility as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging agents targeting tau aggregates in AD brains...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chen Wang, Feng Zhang, Yu Cao, Mingming Zhang, Aixiu Wang, Mingcui Xu, Min Su, Ming Zhang, Yuzheng Zhuge
The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a vital role in the progression of liver fibrosis, and the induction of HSCs apoptosis may attenuate or reverse fibrogenesis. The therapeutic effects of etoposide(VP-16), a widely used anticancer agent, on HSCs apoptosis and liver fibrosis resolution are still unclear. Here, we report that VP-16 reduced the proliferation of LX-2 cells and led to significantly high levels of apoptosis, as indicated by Annexin V staining and the proteolytic cleavage of the executioner caspase-3 and PARP...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yosuke Arima, Hiroaki Shiraishi, Atsushi Saito, Kanji Yoshimoto, Akira Namera, Ryosuke Makita, Kazuhiro Murata, Kazunori Imaizumi, Masataka Nagao
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds such as sarin are toxic agents that irreversibly inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. A recent study showed that OP compounds also have multiple toxicity mechanisms, and another suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction contributes to OP toxicity. However, the signaling pathway and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We examined whether the sarin-like OP agent bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), which exhibits toxicity similar to that of sarin, induced ER stress in human astrocytoma CCF-STTG1 cells...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Kai Liao, Jing Yan, Songlin Li, Tianjiao Wang, Wei Xu, Kangsen Mai, Qinghui Ai
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a mechanism to cope with perturbed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions or accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER in eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, the UPR also participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes, such as nutrient sensing, lipid synthesis, and inflammatory response. In this study, four UPR-related genes (GRP78/BiP, ATF6α, XBP1 and CHO) were isolated characterized from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), and their expression in response to dietary lipid sources (various fatty acids) such as fish oil (FO), palmic acid (PA), olive oil (OO), sunflower oil (SO), and perilla oil (PO), were examined following feeding...
September 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Juan Chen, Xue-Feng Hou, Gang Wang, Qing-Xiang Zhong, Ying Liu, Hui-Hui Qiu, Nan Yang, Jun-Fei Gu, Chun-Fei Wang, Li Zhang, Jie Song, Lu-Qi Huang, Xiao-Bin Jia, Ming-Hua Zhang, Liang Feng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Multiple lines of evidences have suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related inflammatory responses play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Moutan Cortex (MC), the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been used clinically for treating inflammatory diseases in China. The findings from our previous research suggested that terpene glycoside (TG) component of MC possessed favorable anti-inflammatory properties in curing DN...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yuan Lu, Jian-Ya Xu, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Xia Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In recent years, asthma has increased dramatically in prevalence with a considerable economic burden all over the world. Long-term remission should be regarded as the promising and meaningful therapeutic goal in asthma management. However, the precise definition criteria and rational therapies for asthma remission have not been well-established. In academia, there is a consensus that even in those who develop asymptomatic remission of asthma, persistent airway inflammation is ubiquitous...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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