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Black garlic

Min Li, Yi-Xi Yan, Qing-Tao Yu, Yong Deng, Ding-Tao Wu, Ying Wang, Ya-Zhong Ge, Shao-Ping Li, Jing Zhao
Garlic has a long history to be used for medicine and food purposes. Black garlic, the fermented product of fresh garlic, is considered with better biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, and is developed as an increasingly popular functional food. Polysaccharides are the major components of fresh and black garlic, and immunomodulatory activity is one major pharmacological effect of polysaccharides. Therefore, chemical characteristics and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from fresh and black garlic are investigated and compared in vitro for the 1st time, in order to reveal their molecular and pharmacological differences...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Ok-Ju Kang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of melanoidins formed from black garlic (BG) after different thermal processing steps. The melanoidins formed from BG during thermal processing were produced in large amounts, and the initial (280 nm), intermediate (360 nm), and final stage product (420 nm) had similar tendencies. Compounds like degraded proteins, peptides, and phenolic acids were present in the melanoidins during thermal processing. All the melanoidin samples showed different absorptions in the UV-visible spectra, although these had similar shapes...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Ok-Ju Kang
This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of black garlic (BG) after different thermal processing steps. Compared with fresh garlic (FG), the moisture content and pH in BG decreased significantly, while the ash content and browning intensity increased during thermal processing. The total mineral and the free sugar contents were significantly higher than that of the BG2 and BG4 samples, respectively. The free sugar content increased by 16-fold in the BG cloves compared with that of FG, while the amino acid content increased during the first stage of thermal processing, and subsequently decreased...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Jun Ho Kim, Su Hyun Yu, Yun Jeong Cho, Jeong Hoon Pan, Hyung Taek Cho, Jeong Ho Kim, Hyejin Bong, Yeojin Lee, Moon Han Chang, Ye Jin Jeong, Garam Choi, Young Jun Kim
S-Allylcysteine (SAC), produced in large amounts during the aging process of garlic via enzymatic hydrolysis, is known as a key compound responsible for the multiple pharmacological activities of aged black garlic. This study investigated the effects of enzyme- and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-assisted extraction on the content of the bioactive compounds, including SAC, in black garlic juice (BGJ) and evaluated the antidiabetic effects of SAC-enriched BGJ in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. The aging process increased the contents of SAC, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids in garlic juice...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ping Zou
Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Beata Olas
Diet and nutrition have an important influence on the prophylaxis and progression of cardiovascular disease; one example is the inhibition of blood platelet functions by specific components of fruits and vegetables. Garlic, onion, ginger, dark chocolate and polyunsaturated fatty acids all reduce blood platelet aggregation. A number of fruits contain a range of cardioprotective antioxidants and vitamins, together with a large number of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, which may possess both antioxidant properties and anti-platelet activity...
October 25, 2016: Platelets
Dong-Gyu Kim, Min Jung Kang, Seong Su Hong, Yun-Hyeok Choi, Jung Hye Shin
The antiinflammatory effects of functionally active compounds isolated from aged black garlic (AGE-1 and AGE-2) were investigated using a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response model. To examine the potential antiinflammatory properties of AGE-1 and AGE-2, cell viability as well as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine [interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-α, and IL-1β] levels were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting...
January 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Jie Zheng, Yue Zhou, Ya Li, Dong-Ping Xu, Sha Li, Hua-Bin Li
Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin...
August 12, 2016: Nutrients
Yasushi Nakasone, Norimasa Sato, Takayuki Azuma, Keiji Hasumi
Several previous studies have provided evidence that suggests the beneficial effects of garlic and black vinegar on human health, including benefits to immune function. The preliminary study indicated that the intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food, created from aged garlic pickled in the mash of black vinegar, enhanced the release of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the saliva. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the food in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial...
July 2016: Biomedical Reports
Heng Yuan, Linjuan Sun, Min Chen, Jun Wang
Black garlic is produced through thermal processing and is used as a healthy food throughout the world. Compared with fresh garlic, there are obvious changes in the color, taste, and biological functions of black garlic. To analyze and explain these changes, the contents of water-soluble sugars, fructan, and the key intermediate compounds (Heyns and Amadori) of the Maillard reaction in fresh raw garlic and black garlic were investigated, which were important to control and to evaluate the quality of black garlic...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science
A Kirubakaran, M Moorthy, R Chitra, G Prabakar
AIM: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder...
May 2016: Veterinary World
Robin Heinen, Rieta Gols, Jeffrey A Harvey
In multivoltine insects that oviposit and develop on short-lived plants, different herbivore generations across a growing season often exploit different plant species. Here, we compare the development time, pupal mass, and survival of two closely related oligophagous herbivore species on two species of brassicaceous plants that grow in different habitats and which exhibit little overlap in temporal growth phenology. In central Europe, the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi L., is bivoltine, whereas the small cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae L...
April 22, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Yi Yeong Jeong, Ji Hyeon Ryu, Jung-Hye Shin, Min Jung Kang, Jae Ran Kang, Jaehee Han, Dawon Kang
Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG) has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE) with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG) extract (FRGE). In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively...
March 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yue Zhou, Ya Li, Tong Zhou, Jie Zheng, Sha Li, Hua-Bin Li
Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs...
March 10, 2016: Nutrients
M Angeles Toledano-Medina, Jesús Pérez-Aparicio, Rafael Moreno-Rojas, Tania Merinas-Amo
Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution...
May 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Jong-Min Park, Ho-Jae Lee, Jun Hwan Yoo, Weon Jin Ko, Joo Young Cho, Ki Baik Hahm
"War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer...
December 2015: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
David Newnham
Everyone loves my French beans with black mustard, garlic and chilli flakes. But I should warn you: some of those flakes are not chilli. They are flakes of non-stick coating.
November 25, 2015: Nursing Standard
Tatsuo Watanabe, Yuko Terada
There are several thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels including capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Food components activating TRPV1 inhibit body fat deposition through sympathetic nerve stimulation. TRPA1 is another pungency sensor for pungent compounds and is mainly coexpressed with TRPV1 in sensory nerve endings. Therefore, TRPA1 activation is expected to have an anti-obesity effect similar to TRPV1 activation. We have searched for agonists for TRPV1 and TRPA1 in vitro from Asian spices by the use of TRPV1- and TRPA1-expressing cells...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Pius S Fasinu, Bill J Gurley, Larry A Walker
For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In this review, the bases for potential interaction of medicinal herbs with specific antiretroviral drugs are presented, and several botanicals are discussed for which clinically relevant interactions in humans are established...
2015: Current Drug Metabolism
Sepideh Pakpour, John Klironomos
Disruption of mycorrhizal fungi that form symbioses with local native plants is a strategy used by some invasive exotic plants for competing within their resident communities. Example invasive plants include Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and Brassica nigra (black mustard), both non-mycorrhizal plants in the Family Brassicaceae. Although there is clear evidence for mycorrhizal degradation, it is not known if such an effect is widespread across the naturalized range. In this study, we tested the ability of black mustard to degrade the local mycorrhizal symbiosis and supress the growth of native flora from across a variety of locations where black mustard has invaded...
September 2015: Royal Society Open Science
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