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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909789/factors-influencing-aversive-learning-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#1
J L Liu, H L Chen, X Y Chen, R K Cui, A Guerrero, X N Zeng
Parameters such as the intensity of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, the inter-trial interval, and starvation time can influence learning. In this study, the parameters that govern aversive learning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, a serious pest of fruits and vegetables, were examined. Male flies were trained to associate the attractive odorant methyl eugenol, a male lure, with a food punishment, sodium chloride solution, and the conditioned suppression of the proboscis-extension response was investigated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906156/biomimetic-sniffing-improves-the-detection-performance-of-a-3d-printed-nose-of-a-dog-and-a-commercial-trace-vapor-detector
#2
Matthew E Staymates, William A MacCrehan, Jessica L Staymates, Roderick R Kunz, Thomas Mendum, Ta-Hsuan Ong, Geoffrey Geurtsen, Greg J Gillen, Brent A Craven
Unlike current chemical trace detection technology, dogs actively sniff to acquire an odor sample. Flow visualization experiments with an anatomically-similar 3D printed dog's nose revealed the external aerodynamics during canine sniffing, where ventral-laterally expired air jets entrain odorant-laden air toward the nose, thereby extending the "aerodynamic reach" for inspiration of otherwise inaccessible odors. Chemical sampling and detection experiments quantified two modes of operation with the artificial nose-active sniffing and continuous inspiration-and demonstrated an increase in odorant detection by a factor of up to 18 for active sniffing...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905542/defining-an-olfactory-receptor-function-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#3
William H Aisenberg, Jessie Huang, Wanqu Zhu, Premraj Rajkumar, Randy Cruz, Lakshmi Santhanam, Niranjana Natarajan, Hwan Mee Yong, Breann De Santiago, Jung Jin Oh, A-Rum Yoon, Reynold A Panettieri, Oliver Homann, John K Sullivan, Stephen B Liggett, Jennifer L Pluznick, Steven S An
Pathways that control, or can be exploited to alter, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and cellular remodeling that occur in asthma are not well defined. Here we report the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), as well as the canonical olfaction machinery (Golf and AC3) in the smooth muscle of human bronchi. In primary cultures of isolated human ASM, we identified mRNA expression for multiple ORs. Strikingly, OR51E2 was the most highly enriched OR transcript mapped to the human olfactome in lung-resident cells...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905515/neonicotinoid-induced-impairment-of-odour-coding-in-the-honeybee
#4
Mara Andrione, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides is considered one of the possible causes of honeybee (Apis mellifera) population decline. At sublethal doses, these chemicals have been shown to negatively affect a number of behaviours, including performance of olfactory learning and memory, due to their interference with acetylcholine signalling in the mushroom bodies. Here we provide evidence that neonicotinoids can affect odour coding upstream of the mushroom bodies, in the first odour processing centres of the honeybee brain, i...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904077/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-thiazolidine-derivatives-of-cysteine-for-suppressing-eumelanin-production
#5
Yusuke Amino, Yoshinobu Takino, Megumi Kaneko, Fumie Ookura, Mai Yamamoto, Tatsuki Kashiwagi, Keiji Iwasaki
In the pathway of melanin biosynthesis, cysteine (Cys) is utilized for the synthesis of pheomelanin. Accordingly, Cys is considered to suppress the formation of brown-black eumelanin. Although attempts have been made to utilize Cys and its derivatives as skin-whitening agents, their instability and odor hinders their application as a cosmetic agent. Herein, N-acetyl-2-methylthiazolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid ethyl ester (AcCP2Et) was proposed as a candidate for a stable and prolonged-release derivative of Cys to inhibit dopachrome formation after its degradation in melanocytes...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902696/interglomerular-connectivity-within-the-canonical-and-gc-d-necklace-olfactory-subsystems
#6
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB), but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem-formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs) encircling the caudal MOB-is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901414/cognitive-deficits-and-inflammatory-response-resulting-from-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-are-exacerbated-by-repeated-pre-exposure-to-an-innate-stress-stimulus
#7
Michaël Ogier, Amor Belmeguenai, Thomas Lieutaud, Béatrice Georges, Sandrine Bouvard, Emilie Carré, Frédéric Canini, Laurent Bezin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in both military and civilian populations, and often results in neurobehavioral sequelae that impair quality of life in both patients and their family. Although individuals who are chronically exposed to stress are more likely to experience TBI, it is still unknown whether pre-injury stress influences the outcome after TBI. The present study tested whether behavioral and cognitive long-term outcome after TBI in rats is affected by prior exposure to an innate stress stimulus...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898937/an-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-freshcase-technology-to-extend-the-storage-life-of-whole-muscle-pork-and-ground-pork-sausage
#8
X Yang, D R Woerner, K R McCullough, J D Hasty, I Geornaras, G C Smith, J N Sofos, K E Belk
The objective of this study was to identify the maximum time of refrigerated storage before aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria grew to a level indicative of spoilage (7 log cfu/g) or other indicators of spoilage were observed for whole-muscle pork and ground pork sausage packaged using FreshCase technology. Pork chops and pork sausage were packaged using conventional vacuum packaging without nitrite in film (Control) or using FreshCase technology and were compared with respect to microbial counts, pH, instrumental color measurements, lipid oxidation level, and sensory properties...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898933/an-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-freshcase-technology-to-extend-the-storage-life-of-whole-muscle-beef-and-ground-beef
#9
X Yang, D R Woerner, J D Hasty, K R McCullough, I Geornaras, J N Sofos, K E Belk
The objective of this study was to identify the maximum time of refrigerated storage before aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria (APB) grew to a level indicative of spoilage (7 log cfu/g) or other indicators of spoilage were observed for whole muscle beef and ground beef packaged using FreshCase technology. Storage life for beef steaks stored in FreshCase packages at 4°C was 36 d, with ground beef stored in FreshCase packages at 4°C lasting 10 d. Additionally, greater ( < 0.05) a* (redness) values were detected in FreshCase packaged samples of both beef steaks and ground beef over storage time...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898775/sodium-tetraborate-decahydrate-treatment-reduces-hydrogen-sulfide-and-the-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-population-of-swine-manure
#10
Melvin T Yokoyama, Cheryl Spence, Susan M Hengemuehle, Terence R Whitehead, Robert von Bernuth, Michael Cotta
Emission of odorous and toxic gases from stored livestock manure is well documented and poses a serious health risk to farmers and livestock. Hydrogen sulfide emissions have been sharply rising with increasingly intensive livestock production and are of particular concern because of the acute toxicity of this gas. Numerous strategies, technologies, and chemical treatments have been used to control hydrogen sulfide emissions, but none have worked particularly well because they are neither cost-effective nor environmentally sustainable, or they are too toxic for animals...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896313/effects-of-paternal-predation-risk-and-rearing-environment-on-maternal-investment-and-development-of-defensive-responses-in-the-offspring
#11
Austin C Korgan, Elizabeth O'Leary, Jessica Bauer, Aidan Fortier, Ian C G Weaver, Tara S Perrot
Detecting past experiences with predators of a potential mate informs a female about prevailing ecological threats, in addition to stress-induced phenotypes that may be disseminated to offspring. We examined whether prior exposure of a male rat to a predator (cat) odor influences the attraction of a female toward a male, subsequent mother-infant interactions and the development of defensive (emotional) responses in the offspring. Females displayed less interest in males that had experienced predator odor. Mothers that reared young in larger, seminaturalistic housing provided more licking and grooming and active arched back-nursing behavior toward their offspring compared with dams housed in standard housing, although some effects interacted with paternal experience...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896310/preservation-of-essential-odor-guided-behaviors-and-odor-based-reversal-learning-after-targeting-adult-brain-serotonin-synthesis
#12
Kaitlin S Carlson, Meredith S Whitney, Marie A Gadziola, Evan S Deneris, Daniel W Wesson
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896309/olfactory-stimulus-control-and-the-behavioral-pharmacology-of-remembering
#13
Mark Galizio
Behavior analytic approaches and techniques have much to offer to the study of remembering. There is currently great interest in the development of animal models of human memory processes in order to enhance understanding of the neurobiology of memory and treatment of dementia and related disorders. Because rodent models are so important in contemporary neuroscience and genetics, development of procedures to study various forms of memory in rodents is a point of emphasis. The sense of smell plays an important role in rodent behavior and use of olfactory stimuli has permitted demonstrations of complex forms of stimulus control that have also served as baselines for studying drug effects on remembering...
November 2016: Behav Anal (Wash D C)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895050/social-signals-and-aversive-learning-in-honey-bee-drones-and-workers
#14
Arian Avalos, Eddie Pérez, Lianna Vallejo, María E Pérez, Charles I Abramson, Tugrul Giray
The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must tradeoff between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA)...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892490/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-an-olfactory-receptor-gene-family-in-green-plant-bug-apolygus-lucorum-meyer-d%C3%A3-r
#15
Xing-Kui An, Liang Sun, Hang-Wei Liu, Dan-Feng Liu, Yu-Xiao Ding, Le-Mei Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Olfactory receptors are believed to play a central role in insects host-seeking, mating, and ovipositing. On the basis of male and female antennal transcriptome of adult Apolygus lucorum, a total of 110 candidate A. lucorum odorant receptors (AlucOR) were identified in this study including five previously annotated AlucORs. All the sequences were validated by cloning and sequencing. Tissue expression profiles analysis by RT-PCR indicated most AlucORs were antennal highly expressed genes. The qPCR measurements further revealed 40 AlucORs were significantly higher in the antennae...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891688/possible-role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-trigeminal-modulation-of-glomerular-microcircuits-of-the-rodent-olfactory-bulb
#16
Federica Genovese, Hanke Gwendolyn Bauersachs, Ines Gräßer, Janina Kupke, Laila Magin, Philipp Daiber, Julika Nakajima, Frank Möhrlen, Karl Messlinger, Stephan Frings
Chemosensation in the mammalian nose comprises detection of odorants, irritants and pheromones. While the traditional view assigned one distinct sub-system to each stimulus type, recent research has produced a more complex picture. Odorants are not only detected by olfactory sensory neurons but also by the trigeminal system. Irritants, in turn, may have a distinct odor, and some pheromones are detected by the olfactory epithelium. Moreover, it is well established that irritants change odor perception and vice versa...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890451/sniffing-the-diagnosis-olfactory-testing-in-neurodegenerative-parkinsonism
#17
F Krismer, B Pinter, C Mueller, P Mahlknecht, M Nocker, E Reiter, A Djamshidian-Tehrani, S M Boesch, G K Wenning, C Scherfler, W Poewe, K Seppi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic utility of olfactory testing in patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonism. METHODS: The Sniffin' Sticks test battery for assessment of odor identification, discrimination, and threshold was applied to patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) as well as healthy controls (HC). Two different cohorts were analyzed: A PD/healthy control that included PD patients and HC as well as a PD/diseased control cohort for which patients PD, MSA and PSP were recruited...
November 21, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890412/spatial-distributions-of-%C3%AE-cyclocitral-and-%C3%AE-ionone-in-the-sediment-and-overlying-water-of-the-west-shore-of-taihu-lake
#18
Xiansheng Liu, Chenfei Shi, Xiaoguang Xu, Xiaojun Li, Yuan Xu, Heyong Huang, Yanping Zhao, Yiwen Zhou, Huichao Shen, Chong Chen, Guoxiang Wang
After large-scale outbreaks of algal blooms in eutrophic water, considerable amounts of algae residue accumulate in near-shore zones before fermenting rapidly and becoming malodorous. Taste and odor pollution caused by secondary metabolites from cyanobacterial blooms has become a serious and widespread environmental problem. Two typical odorous compounds, β-cyclocitral and β-ionone, have gained increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, the spatial distributions of β-cyclocitral and β-ionone in the sediments and overlying water off the west shore of Taihu Lake were investigated...
November 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889143/use-of-natural-antimicrobials-to-improve-the-quality-characteristics-of-fresh-phyllo-a-dough-based-wheat-product-shelf-life-assessment
#19
Maria I Tsiraki, Layal Karam, Mohamad G Abiad, Hany M Yehia, Ioannis N Savvaidis
This study explores the effects of chitosan and natamycin on the quality of fresh "Phyllo" - a dough-based wheat product, by monitoring the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters. Four different lots of phyllo samples stored under aerobic packaging conditions, in the absence or presence of the aforementioned antimicrobials, were prepared and stored at 4 °C. Microbiological data suggested that, the combination of chitosan and natamycin resulted in significant reductions (1-3 log cfu/g) of the microbial species examined (mesophilic total viable counts; TVC), yeasts/molds, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms) by day 10...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888648/identification-and-characterization-of-the-distinct-expression-profiles-of-candidate-chemosensory-membrane-proteins-in-the-antennal-transcriptome-of-adelphocoris-lineolatus-goeze
#20
Y Xiao, L Sun, X-Y Ma, K Dong, H-W Liu, Q Wang, Y-Y Guo, Z-W Liu, Y-J Zhang
Chemosensory membrane proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and sensory neurone membrane proteins (SNMPs), are supposed to be crucial macromolecules in the insect olfactory signal transduction pathway. The alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is highly attracted to high-nitrogen or flowering plants and destroys many important agricultural crops. We assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. lineolatus using Illumina sequencing technology and identified a total of 108 transcripts encoding chemosensory membrane proteins (88 ORs, 12 IRs, four GRs and four SNMPs), amongst which 90 candidates appeared to be full length...
November 26, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
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