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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644383/use-of-ultrasonication-technology-for-the-increased-production-of-plant-secondary-metabolites
#1
REVIEW
Md Mohidul Hasan, Tufail Bashir, Hanhong Bae
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) provide taste, color, odor, and resistance to plants, and they are also used to treat cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Synthesis of PSMs in plants is stimulated in response to different forms of external stress. Use of ultrasonication (US) to clean or decontaminate fruits and vegetables leads to physical stress that finally results in the accumulation of PSMs. US can stimulate accumulation of taxol, ginsenoside saponins, shikonin, and resveratrol, e.g., up to 319-fold increase of resveratrol synthesis has been observed in grape due to US...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641388/recognition-of-the-component-odors-in-mixtures
#2
Marion E Frank, Dane B Fletcher, Thomas P Hettinger
Natural olfactory stimuli are volatile-chemical mixtures in which relative perceptual saliencies determine which odor-components are identified. Odor identification also depends on rapid selective adaptation, as shown for 4 odor stimuli in an earlier experimental simulation of natural conditions. Adapt-test pairs of mixtures of water-soluble, distinct odor stimuli with chemical features in common were studied. Identification decreased for adapted components but increased for unadapted mixture-suppressed components, showing compound identities were retained, not degraded to individual molecular features...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639694/rancidity-development-of-refrigerated-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-fillets-comparative-effects-of-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-effects-of-lycopene
#3
Ali Ehsani, Mohammad Sedigh Jasour, Naser Agh, Mohammad Hashemi, Mahdi Khodadadi
BACKGROUND: The problem of lipid oxidation in fish during storage is well known and it is related to both temperature and storage time. Antioxidants could have a main role in limiting deteriorative effects of lipid oxidation in fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplement against postmortem addition of lycopene on deterioration of trout fillets during storage at 4±1°C for 12 days. RESULTS: At the end of feeding trial, no significant differences were observed among fatty acid composition of different dietary groups...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639032/case-study-microbial-ecology-and-forensics-of-chinese-drywall-elemental-sulfur-disproportionation-as-primary-generator-of-hydrogen-sulfide
#4
Francisco A Tomei Torres
Drywall manufactured in China released foul odors attributed to volatile sulfur compounds. These included hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and sulfur dioxide. Given that calcium sulfate is the main component of drywall, one would suspect bacterial reduction of sulfate to sulfide as the primary culprit. However, when the forensics, i.e., the microbial and chemical signatures left in the drywall, are studied, the evidence suggests that, rather than dissimilatory sulfate reduction, disproportionation of elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide and sulfate was actually the primary cause of the malodors...
June 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639025/characteristics-of-volatile-compound-emission-and-odor-pollution-from-municipal-solid-waste-treating-disposal-facilities-of-a-city-in-eastern-china
#5
Hanwen Guo, Zhenhan Duan, Yan Zhao, Yanjun Liu, Muhammad Farooq Mustafa, Wenjing Lu, Hongtao Wang
Transfer station, incineration plant, and landfill site made up the major parts of municipal solid waste disposal system of S city in Eastern China. Characteristics of volatile compounds (VCs) and odor pollution of each facility were investigated from a systematic perspective. Also major index related to odor pollution, i.e., species and concentration of VCs, olfactory odor concentration, and theoretic odor concentration, was quantified. Oxygenated compounds and hydrocarbons were the most abundant VCs in the three facilities...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638852/olfactory-dysfunction-in-patients-with-primary-progressive-ms
#6
Felix A Schmidt, Matthew B Maas, Rohat Geran, Charlotte Schmidt, Hagen Kunte, Klemens Ruprecht, Friedemann Paul, Önder Göktas, Lutz Harms
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that olfactory function is more impaired in patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) than that in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). METHODS: Standardized olfactory testing was performed in 32 patients with PPMS, 32 patients with RRMS, and 32 healthy controls (HCs). Patients with olfactory dysfunction due to an alternative primary etiology were excluded. The validated olfactory testing method yielded individual scores for olfactory threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification, along with a composite Threshold Discrimination Identification (TDI) score...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638084/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-chemosensory-receptor-genes-in-an-aphid-endoparasitoid-aphidius-gifuensis
#7
Zhi-Wei Kang, Hong-Gang Tian, Fang-Hua Liu, Xiang Liu, Xiang-Feng Jing, Tong-Xian Liu
Olfaction and gustation play critical roles during the host-location search process of insects. Several chemosensory receptor genes are thought to be involved in providing specificity to the olfactory sensory neuron responses. The aphid endoparasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis, has been used as a biological control agent against a variety of aphid species; this parasitoid is able to detect its target host(s) effectively during the parasitic process. To understand the mechanism of host detection in A. gifuensis, we assembled specific antennal transcriptomes of each sex through next generation sequencing technology to identify the major chemosensory receptor genes...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637694/dendritic-eph-organizes-dendrodendritic-segregation-in-discrete-olfactory-map-formation-in-drosophila
#8
Marie Anzo, Sayaka Sekine, Shirin Makihara, Kinhong Chao, Masayuki Miura, Takahiro Chihara
Proper function of the neural network results from the precise connections between axons and dendrites of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons, respectively. In the Drosophila olfactory system, the dendrites of projection neurons (PNs) stereotypically target one of ∼50 glomeruli in the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory center in the brain, and form synapses with the axons of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Here, we show that Eph and Ephrin, the well-known axon guidance molecules, instruct the dendrodendritic segregation during the discrete olfactory map formation...
May 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633463/the-body-odor-disgust-scale-bods-development-and-validation-of-a-novel-olfactory-disgust-assessment
#9
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin Hawley, Marie Gustafsson Sendén, Ingrid Ekström, Mats J Olsson, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632334/functional-analysis-of-female-biased-odorant-binding-protein-6-for-volatile-and-nonvolatile-host-compounds-in-adelphocoris-lineolatus-goeze
#10
L Sun, Q Wang, S Yang, Q Wang, Z Zhang, A Khashaveh, Y-J Zhang, Y-Y Guo
The polyphagous mirid bug Adelphocoris lineolatus relies heavily on olfactory cues to track suitable host plants. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular basis of its olfactory detection could contribute to the development of effective pest management strategies. In the present study, we report the expression profile of the odorant binding protein gene A. lineolatus odorant binding protein 6 (AlinOBP6). Quantitative real-time PCR experiments suggest that AlinOBP6 is female adult antennae-biased. Cellular immunolocalization analyses show that AlinOBP6 is highly expressed in the lymph of both multiporous sensilla basiconica and uniporous sensilla chaetica...
June 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631315/a-two-year-study-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-concentrations-in-drivers-part-2-physiological-signs-on-drug-recognition-expert-dre-and-non-dre-examinations
#11
Kari Declues, Shelli Perez, Ariana Figueroa
Whole blood samples were examined for ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) over 2 years in drivers suspected of driving under the influence. Part one of the study examined the link between [THC] and performance on field sobriety tests. This portion examined objective signs, eye examinations and physiological indicators; and their relationship to the presence of THC. Several objective signs were excellent indicators of the presence of THC: red eyes (94%), droopy eyelids (85.6%), affected speech (87.6%), tongue coating (96...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629219/thermally-induced-generation-of-desirable-aroma-active-compounds-from-the-glucosinolate-sinigrin
#12
Eva Ortner, Michael Granvogl
Glucosinolates are the most abundant secondary sulfur-containing plant metabolites in the plant family of Brassicaceae. These phytochemicals are well-known for their enzymatic degradation induced by the enzyme myrosinase resulting in pungent odor impressions derived from their respective degradation products. However, up to now, only little attention has been paid to non-enzymatic thermal degradation and the release of additional aroma-active compounds. Thermal treatment is particularly important in the processing of Brassica vegetables, and, thereby, glucosinolates as precursors can act as a natural source of odorants...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629153/compositional-characteristics-and-in-vitro-evaluations-of-antioxidant-and-neuroprotective-properties-of-crude-extracts-of-fucoidan-prepared-from-compressional-puffing-pretreated-sargassum-crassifolium
#13
Wen-Ning Yang, Po-Wei Chen, Chun-Yung Huang
Fucoidan, a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide with diverse biological functions, is mainly recovered from brown algae. In this study, we utilized a compressional-puffing process (CPP) to pretreat Sargassum crassifolium (SC) and extracted fucoidans from SC by warm water. Three fucoidan extracts (SC1: puffing at 0 kg/cm²; SC2: puffing at 1.7 kg/cm²; and SC3: puffing at 6.3 kg/cm²) were obtained, and their composition, and antioxidant and neuroprotective activities were examined. The results suggest that CPP decreased the bulk density of algal samples, expanded the algal cellular structures, and eliminated the unpleasant algal odor...
June 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628298/selective-electrocatalytic-degradation-of-odorous-mercaptans-derived-from-s-au-bond-recognition-on-a-dendritic-gold-boron-doped-diamond-composite-electrode
#14
Shouning Chai, Yujing Wang, Ya-Nan Zhang, Meichuan Liu, Yanbin Wang, Guohua Zhao
To improve selectivity of electrocatalytic degrading to toxic, odorous thiophenol in wastewater, the fractal-structured dendritic Au/BDD (boron doped diamond) anode with molecular recognition is fabricated through facile replacement method. The characterizations of SEM and TEM show that the gold dendrites compose of single crystalline and have high population of the Au (111) facet. The distinctive structure endows the electrode with advantages of low resistivity, high active surface area, and prominent electrocatalytic activity...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626946/do-changes-in-gene-expression-contribute-to-sexual-isolation-and-reinforcement-in-the-house-mouse
#15
Etienne Loire, Sergio Tusso, Pierre Caminade, Dany Severac, Pierre Boursot, Guila Ganem, Carole M Smadja
Expression divergence, rather than sequence divergence, has been shown to be important in speciation, particularly in the early stages of divergence of traits involved in reproductive isolation. In the two European subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, earlier studies have demonstrated olfactory-based assortative mate preference in populations close to their hybrid zone. It has been suggested that this behaviour evolved following the recent secondary contact between the two taxa (~3,000 years ago) in response to selection against hybridisation...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623371/chemosensory-sensitivity-reflects-reproductive-status-in-the-ant-harpegnathos-saltator
#16
Majid Ghaninia, Kevin Haight, Shelley L Berger, Danny Reinberg, Laurence J Zwiebel, Anandasankar Ray, Jürgen Liebig
Insects communicate with pheromones using sensitive antennal sensilla. Although trace amounts of pheromones can be detected by many insects, context-dependent increased costs of high sensitivity might lead to plasticity in sensillum responsiveness. We have functionally characterized basiconic sensilla of the ant Harpegnathos saltator for responses to general odors in comparison to cuticular hydrocarbons which can act as fertility signals emitted by the principal reproductive(s) of a colony to inhibit reproduction by worker colony members...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622973/maternal-programming-of-sex-specific-responses-to-predator-odor-stress-in-adult-rats
#17
Sophie St-Cyr, Sameera Abuaish, Shathveekan Sivanathan, Patrick O McGowan
Prenatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term adaptations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. This study tested the long-lasting effect of prenatal exposure to predator odor, an ethologically relevant and psychogenic stressor, in the second half of pregnancy. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anxiety-like behaviors in commonly used laboratory tasks assessing novelty-induced anxiety, increased defensive behavior in males and increased ACTH stress reactivity in females in response to predator odor...
June 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620194/prognostic-value-of-olfactory-nerve-damage-measured-with-thallium-based-olfactory-imaging-in-patients-with-idiopathic-olfactory-dysfunction
#18
Hideaki Shiga, Junichi Taki, Koichi Okuda, Naoto Watanabe, Hisao Tonami, Hideaki Nakagawa, Seigo Kinuya, Takaki Miwa
Idiopathic olfactory disorder is resistant to treatment, and the recovery time is long. This study investigated the prognostic value of the migration of nasally administered thallium-201 to the olfactory bulb (thallium migration to the OB), a measure of olfactory nerve damage, in patients with idiopathic olfactory disorders. Twenty-four patients with idiopathic olfactory disorders were enrolled in the study (7 women and 17 men; aged 23-73 years). We retrospectively analyzed potential prognostic markers in subjects who underwent thallium-based olfactory imaging with the nasal administration of thallium-201 before conventional treatment with the Japanese herbal medicine tokishakuyakusan and compared those data with the prognosis...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620079/starvation-promotes-odor-feeding-time-associations-in-flies
#19
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
Starvation causes a motivational state that facilitates diverse behaviors such as feeding, walking, and search. Starved Drosophila can form odor/feeding-time associations but the role of starvation in encoding of "time" is poorly understood. Here we show that the extent of starvation is correlated with the fly's ability to establish odor/feeding-time memories. Prolonged starvation promotes odor/feeding-time associations after just a single cycle of reciprocal training. We also show that starvation is required for acquisition but is dispensable for retrieval of odor/feeding-time memory...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620074/regulatory-bc1-rna-in-cognitive-control
#20
Anna Iacoangeli, Aderemi Dosunmu, Taesun Eom, Dimitre G Stefanov, Henri Tiedge
Dendritic regulatory BC1 RNA is a non-protein-coding (npc) RNA that operates in the translational control of gene expression. The absence of BC1 RNA in BC1 knockout (KO) animals causes translational dysregulation that entails neuronal phenotypic alterations including prolonged epileptiform discharges, audiogenic seizure activity in vivo, and excessive cortical oscillations in the γ frequency band. Here we asked whether BC1 RNA control is also required for higher brain functions such as learning, memory, or cognition...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
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