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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528090/key-odor-and-physicochemical-characteristics-of-raw-and-roasted-jicaro-seeds-crescentia-alata-k-h-b
#1
Carla Vaneza Corrales, Marc Lebrun, Fabrice Vaillant, Marie Noelle Madec, Sylvie Lortal, Ana Mercedes Pérez, Geneviève Fliedel
Jicaro seeds (Crescentia alata) are widely consumed in Central America, primarily as a popular tasty and nutritious beverage called "horchata". Seeds are roasted to develop a specific aroma through a process that has never been explored. Volatile compounds, extracted from raw and roasted jicaro seeds (140°C for 140s) by SAFE (Solvent Assisted Flavor Evaporation), were analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-seven volatile compounds were isolated, among which, ethyl-2-methylbutyrate was designated by olfactometry as providing the characteristic jicaro note (0...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527808/short-communication-effect-of-whey-protein-addition-and-transglutaminase-treatment-on-the-physical-and-sensory-properties-of-reduced-fat-ice-cream
#2
Erfan Danesh, Mostafa Goudarzi, Hossein Jooyandeh
The effects of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment, alone and in combination, on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream were investigated. Adding whey protein with or without enzyme treatment decreased melting rate, overrun, and hardness of the reduced-fat ice cream; however, the enzyme-treated sample had a higher melting rate and overrun and softer texture. Whey protein-fortified samples showed higher melting resistance, but lower overrun and firmer texture compared with the enzyme-treated sample without added whey protein...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526847/odorant-binding-proteins-expression-patterns-in-recently-diverged-species-of-anastrepha-fruit-flies
#3
Emeline Boni Campanini, Carlos Congrains, Felipe Rafael Torres, Reinaldo Alves de Brito
We studied two species of closely related South American fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus and Anastrepha obliqua which, despite being able to interbreed, still show some ecological and reproductive differences. Because part of these differences, such as host and mate preferences, may be related to olfactory perception, we focused our investigation on the differential expression of Odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene family, which participate in initial steps of the olfactory signal transduction cascade. We investigated patterns of expression of eight OBP genes by qPCR in male and female head tissues of both species...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525982/blood-meal-induced-regulation-of-the-chemosensory-gene-repertoire-in-the-southern-house-mosquito
#4
Tanvi Taparia, Rickard Ignell, Sharon Rose Hill
BACKGROUND: The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is one of the most prevalent vectors of lymphatic filariasis and flavivirus-induced encephalitis. Its vectorial capacity is directly affected by its reproductive feeding behaviors, such as host seeking, blood feeding, resting, and egg laying. In mosquitoes, these gonotrophic behaviors are odor-mediated and regulated following blood feeding. Immediately after a blood meal, female mosquitoes show reduced olfactory responsiveness and flight activity, as they enter a resting state...
May 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525709/sensory-and-behavioral-responses-of-a-model-fish-to-oil-sands-process-affected-water-with-and-without-treatment
#5
Megan Reichert, Brian Blunt, Tia Gabruch, Tanja Zerulla, Allison Ralph, Mohamed Gamal El-Din, Bruce R Sutherland, Keith Tierney
If oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is to be returned to the environment, a desire is that it not adversely affect aquatic life. We investigated whether a relevant model fish (rainbow trout; Oncorhynchus mykiss) could detect OSPW using its olfactory sense (smell), and whether exposure to it would result in behavioural changes. We also investigated whether ozonation of OSPW, which lowers the concentration of organic compounds attributed with toxicity (naphthenic acids), would ameliorate any observed adverse effects...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525560/activity-dependent-gene-expression-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#6
Qiang Wang, William B Titlow, Declan A McClintock, Arnold J Stromberg, Timothy S McClintock
Activity-dependent processes are important to olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in several ways, such as cell survival and the specificity of axonal convergence. The identification of activity-dependent mRNAs has contributed to our understanding of OSN axon convergence, but has revealed surprisingly little about other processes. Published studies of activity-dependent mRNAs in olfactory mucosae overlap poorly, but by combining these agreements with meta-analysis of existing data we identify 443 mRNAs that respond to methods that alter OSN activity...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523393/flavored-anesthetic-masks-for-inhalational-induction-in-children
#7
Aakriti Gupta, Preethy Joseph Mathew, Neerja Bhardwaj
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of masking the odor of inhalational agents using fruit flavors on the anxiety behavior and compliance of children for inhalational induction. METHODS: A prospective randomized double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted on 60 unpremedicated children in the age group of 4-12 y. Thirty children received anesthetic masks smeared with a flavor of child's choice while the other 30 children were induced using masks without flavor...
May 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522094/continuous-positive-air-pressure-improves-orthonasal-olfactory-function-of-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#8
Ute Walliczek-Dworschak, Werner Cassel, Luisa Mittendorf, Robert Pellegrino, Ulrich Koehler, Christian Güldner, Philipp Otto Georg Dworschak, Olaf Hildebrandt, Hanna Daniel, Thomas Günzel, Afshin Teymoortash, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) might be affected by olfactory impairment. However, more evidence is needed on the effect that OSA has on the chemical senses (olfaction and gustatory) of these patients, and whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment might help to reverse possible impairment. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 44 OSA patients (17 female and 27 male, mean age 54 ± 9...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516769/identification-of-rotundone-as-a-potent-odor-active-compound-of-several-kinds-of-fruits
#9
Akira Nakanishi, Yusuke Fukushima, Norio Miyazawa, Keisuke Yoshikawa, Tomoko Maeda, Yoshiko Kurobayashi
An investigation of the aromas of grapefruit, orange, apple, and mango revealed the presence of an odor-active compound that gave off a strong woody odor when assessed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. We isolated the compound from a high-boiling fraction of an orange essential oil, and subsequent nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the isolated compound identified it as rotundone. Mass spectra and retention indices obtained from aroma concentrates of grapefruit, apple, and mango were identical to those of rotundone, which was therefore determined to be the common woody compound in these fruits...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515683/a-population-of-projection-neurons-that-inhibits-the-lateral-horn-but-excites-the-antennal-lobe-through-chemical-synapses-in-drosophila
#10
Kazumichi Shimizu, Mark Stopfer
In the insect olfactory system, odor information is transferred from the antennal lobe (AL) to higher brain areas by projection neurons (PNs) in multiple AL tracts (ALTs). In several species, one of the ALTs, the mediolateral ALT (mlALT), contains some GABAergic PNs; in the Drosophila brain, the great majority of ventral PNs (vPNs) are GABAergic and project through this tract to the lateral horn (LH). Most excitatory PNs (ePNs), project through the medial ALT (mALT) to the mushroom body (MB) and the LH. Recent studies have shown that GABAergic vPNs play inhibitory roles at their axon terminals in the LH...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512400/exposure-to-hedione-increases-reciprocity-in-humans
#11
Sebastian Berger, Hanns Hatt, Axel Ockenfels
Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED) as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1) expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512302/olfactory-threshold-and-odor-discrimination-ability-in-children-evaluation-of-a-modified-sniffin-sticks-test
#12
Janine Gellrich, Carolin Stetzler, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Thomas Hummel, Valentin A Schriever
The clinical diagnostics of olfactory dysfunction in children turns out to be challenging due to low attention span, insufficient linguistic development and lack of odor experiences. Several smell tests have been developed for adults. Most of these examinations take a relatively long time and require a high level of concentration. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate an odor discrimination and olfactory threshold test using the frequently used "Sniffin' Sticks" in children and adolescents in a simplified two-alternative-forced-choice version (2AFC) and compare it to the original three-alternative-forced-choice test (3AFC)...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511547/smell-and-taste-impairment-after-total-laryngectomy
#13
Giuseppe Riva, Matteo Sensini, Andrea Corvino, Giancarlo Pecorari, Massimiliano Garzaro
OBJECTIVE: Aim of this observational study is the evaluation of olfactory and gustatory impairments in laryngectomized long-term survivors compared to control subjects. Correlation between smell and taste alterations, age, and previous adjuvant treatments in laryngectomees was investigated. METHODS: Fifty control subjects and 50 patients who underwent total laryngectomy for advanced laryngeal carcinoma were evaluated. All subjects underwent symptoms evaluation, oropharyngeal exam, endoscopic fiberoptic nasal examination, and Taste Strips and Sniffin' Sticks tests...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511293/enterobacter-aerogenes-zdy01-attenuates-choline-induced-trimethylamine-n-oxide-levels-via-remodeling-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#14
Liang Qiu, Dong Yang, Xueying Tao, Jun Yu, Hua Xiong, Hua Wei
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is transformed from trimethylamine (TMA) through hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases, can promote atherosclerosis. TMA is produced from dietary carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and choline via the gut microbes. Previous works have shown that some small molecules, such as allicin, resveratrol, and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, are used to reduce circulating TMAO levels. However, the use of bacteria as an effective therapy to reduce TMAO levels has not been reported. In the present study, 82 isolates were screened from healthy Chinese fecal samples on a basal salt medium supplemented with TMA as sole carbon source...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508200/individual-variability-of-human-olfactory-sensitivity-to-volatile-steroids-environmental-and-genetic-factors
#15
V V Voznessenskaya, M A Klyuchnikova
The sensitivity to androstenone and possible factors, determining the sensitivity were investigated for the large sample of inhabitants of central Russia (n = 860). Specific anosmia was detected in 48.8% of subjects. Women were more sensitive to androstenone than men. The proportion of men, but not women perceiving the smell of androstenone as a strong one in the concentration used decreased with age. Smoking, blood group, or ethnicity had no significant effect on the expression of specific anosmia and the perception of androstenone odor intensity...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505612/behavioral-performance-and-neural-systems-are-robust-to-sensory-injury-in-workers-of-the-ant-pheidole-dentata
#16
Hannah K Waxman, Mario L Muscedere, James F A Traniello
Miniaturized nervous systems have been thought to limit behavioral ability, and animals with miniaturized brains may be less flexible when challenged by injuries resulting in sensory deficits that impact the development, maintenance, and plasticity of small-scale neural networks. We experimentally examined how injuries to sensory structures critical for olfactory ability affect behavioral performance in workers of the ant Pheidole dentata, which have minute brains (0.01 mm3) and primarily rely on the perception and processing of chemical signals and cues to direct their social behavior...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504452/effect-of-co2-concentration-on-mosquito-collection-rate-using-odor-baited-suction-traps
#17
Lee McPhatter, Alec C Gerry
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) has been used for decades to enhance capture of host-seeking mosquitoes when released in association with traps commonly used by mosquito and vector control agencies. However, there is little published work evaluating the effect of altering CO2 release rates relative to the number of mosquitoes captured in these traps. This study investigated how varying CO2 concentration altered the mosquito collection rate at a freshwater wetlands in southern California. Host-seeking mosquitoes were captured in CDC-style traps baited with one of six CO2 release rates ranging from 0-1,495 ml/min from gas cylinders...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504437/seasonal-variation-of-tsetse-fly-species-abundance-and-prevalence-of-trypanosomes-in-the-maasai-steppe-tanzania
#18
Happiness J Nnko, Anibariki Ngonyoka, Linda Salekwa, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson, Paul S Gwakisa, Isabella M Cattadori
Tsetse flies, the vectors of trypanosomiasis, represent a threat to public health and economy in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite these concerns, information on temporal and spatial dynamics of tsetse and trypanosomes remain limited and may be a reason that control strategies are less effective. The current study assessed the temporal variation of the relative abundance of tsetse fly species and trypanosome prevalence in relation to climate in the Maasai Steppe of Tanzania in 2014-2015. Tsetse flies were captured using odor-baited Epsilon traps deployed in ten sites selected through random subsampling of the major vegetation types in the area...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503499/the-prevalence-of-osmophobia-in-migranous-and-episodic-tension-type-headaches
#19
Ahmad Chitsaz, Abbas Ghorbani, Masoumeh Dashti, Mohsen Khosravi, Mohammadreza Kianmehr
BACKGROUND: Migraines are a neurological disease, of which the most common symptom is an intense and disabling episodic headache. Many persons experience sensory hyper excitability manifested by photophobia, phonophobia and osmophobia. This study was planned to investigate the prevalence of osmophobia in migranous and episodic tension type headache (ETTH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to all patients to evaluate the eventual presence of osmophobia during a headache attack and different characteristics of osmophobia were determined...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502772/representations-of-novelty-and-familiarity-in-a-mushroom-body-compartment
#20
Daisuke Hattori, Yoshinori Aso, Kurtis J Swartz, Gerald M Rubin, L F Abbott, Richard Axel
Animals exhibit a behavioral response to novel sensory stimuli about which they have no prior knowledge. We have examined the neural and behavioral correlates of novelty and familiarity in the olfactory system of Drosophila. Novel odors elicit strong activity in output neurons (MBONs) of the α'3 compartment of the mushroom body that is rapidly suppressed upon repeated exposure to the same odor. This transition in neural activity upon familiarization requires odor-evoked activity in the dopaminergic neuron innervating this compartment...
May 18, 2017: Cell
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