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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773848/identification-and-tissue-distribution-of-chemosensory-protein-and-odorant-binding-protein-genes-in-tropidothorax-elegans-distant-hemiptera-lygaeidae
#1
Yue-Qin Song, Hui-Zhong Sun, Jun Du
Tropidothorax elegans Distant (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) is an insect pest that inflicts damage to vegetables and flowering plants across China. The olfactory system regulates insect behavior, such as feeding, mating, oviposition and predator avoidance. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and the chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are two groups of small soluble proteins that initiate olfactory signal transduction in insects. In this study, we generated antennal transcriptomes of male and female T. elegans, and identified 19 putative OBP (14 classic OBPs and five plus-C OBPs) and seven CSP genes...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772257/conspecific-odor-exposure-predominantly-activates-non-kisspeptin-cells-in-the-medial-nucleus-of-the-amygdala
#2
Leandro Bueno Lima, Fernanda Tais Haubenthal, Marina Augusto Silveira, Tabata Mariz Bohlen, Martin Metzger, Jose Donato, Renata Frazao
A small neuronal subpopulation in the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA), expressing the Kiss1 gene, is now considered an important mediator that integrates socio-sexual behavior and odor information in order to modulate the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) axis. Previous studies demonstrated that exogenous kisspeptin administration or selective activation of Kiss1-expressing neurons in the MeA modulates the onset of puberty, LH secretion and sexual behavior. These functions are supported by the known MeA neuronal connections...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769664/parallel-odor-processing-by-mitral-and-middle-tufted-cells-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#3
Francesco Cavarretta, Shawn D Burton, Kei M Igarashi, Gordon M Shepherd, Michael L Hines, Michele Migliore
The olfactory bulb (OB) transforms sensory input into spatially and temporally organized patterns of activity in principal mitral (MC) and middle tufted (mTC) cells. Thus far, the mechanisms underlying odor representations in the OB have been mainly investigated in MCs. However, experimental findings suggest that MC and mTC may encode parallel and complementary odor representations. We have analyzed the functional roles of these pathways by using a morphologically and physiologically realistic three-dimensional model to explore the MC and mTC microcircuits in the glomerular layer and deeper plexiform layer...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769575/characterization-of-antennal-chemosensilla-and-associated-odorant-binding-as-well-as-chemosensory-proteins-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-microplitis-mediator-hymenoptera-braconidae
#4
Shan-Ning Wang, Shuang Shan, Jing-Tao Liu, Rui-Jun Li, Zi-Yun Lu, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo, Adel Khashaveh, Yong-Jun Zhang
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) expressed in antennal chemosensilla are believed to be important in insect chemoreception. In the current study, we fully described the morphological characteristics of the antennal sensilla in parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator and analyzed the expression patterns of OBPs and CSPs within the antennae. In M. mediator, eight types of sensilla were observed on the antennae. Sensilla basiconica type 2 and s. placodea with wall pores may be involved in olfactory perception, whereas s...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768036/greater-reductions-in-fat-preferences-in-calhm1-than-cd36-knockout-mice
#5
Anthony Sclafani, Karen Ackroff
Several studies indicate an important role of gustation in intake and preference for dietary fat. The present study compared fat preference deficits produced by deletion of CD36, a putative fatty acid taste receptor, and CALHM1, an ion channel responsible for release of the ATP neurotransmitter used by taste cells. Naïve CD36 knockout (KO) mice displayed reduced preferences for soybean oil emulsions (Intralipid) at low concentrations (0.1-1%) compared to wildtype (WT) mice in 24 h/day two-bottle tests. CALHM1 KO mice displayed even greater Intralipid preference deficits compared to WT and CD36 KO mice...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767685/smelling-anxiety-chemosignals-impairs-clinical-performance-of-dental-students
#6
Preet Bano Singh, Alix Young, Synnøve Lind, Marie Cathinka Leegaard, Alessandra Capuozzo, Valentina Parma
Despite the fact that human body odors can transfer anxiety-related signals, the impact of such signals in real-life situations is scant. In this study, the effects of anxiety chemosignals on the performance of dental students operating on simulation units, wearing t-shirts imbued with human sweat and masked with eugenol were tested. Twenty-four 4th year dental students (17F) donated their body odors in two sessions (Anxiety and Rest). Twenty-four normosmic, sex- and age-matched test subjects who were3rd year dental students performed three dental procedures while smelling masked anxiety body odors, masked rest body odors or masker alone...
May 15, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767353/influences-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-temporal-lobe-resection-on-olfaction
#7
Richard L Doty, Isabelle Tourbier, Jessica K Neff, Jonathan Silas, Bruce Turetsky, Paul Moberg, Taehoon Kim, John Pluta, Jaqueline French, Ashwini D Sharan, Michael J Sperling, Natasha Mirza, Anthony Risser, Gordon Baltuch, John A Detre
Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and resection (TLR) impact olfactory eloquent brain structures, their influences on olfaction remain enigmatic. We sought to more definitively assess the influences of TLE and TLR on olfaction using three well-validated olfactory tests and measuring  the tests' associations with the volume of numerous temporal lobe brain structures. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and an odor detection threshold test were administered to 71 TLE patients and 71 age- and sex-matched controls; 69 TLE patients and controls received an odor discrimination/memory test...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764970/reinforcement-signaling-of-punishment-versus-relief-in-fruit-flies
#8
Christian König, Afshin Khalili, Mathangi Ganesan, Amrita P Nishu, Alejandra P Garza, Thomas Niewalda, Bertram Gerber, Yoshinori Aso, Ayse Yarali
Painful events establish opponent memories: cues that precede pain are remembered negatively, whereas cues that follow pain, thus coinciding with relief are recalled positively. How do individual reinforcement-signaling neurons contribute to this "timing-dependent valence-reversal?" We addressed this question using an optogenetic approach in the fruit fly. Two types of fly dopaminergic neuron, each comprising just one paired cell, indeed established learned avoidance of odors that preceded their photostimulation during training, and learned approach to odors that followed the photostimulation...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763790/the-language-of-smell-connecting-linguistic-and-psychophysical-properties-of-odor-descriptors
#9
Georgios Iatropoulos, Pawel Herman, Anders Lansner, Jussi Karlgren, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
The olfactory sense is a particularly challenging domain for cognitive science investigations of perception, memory, and language. Although many studies show that odors often are difficult to describe verbally, little is known about the associations between olfactory percepts and the words that describe them. Quantitative models of how odor experiences are described in natural language are therefore needed to understand how odors are perceived and communicated. In this study, we develop a computational method to characterize the olfaction-related semantic content of words in a large text corpus of internet sites in English...
May 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762867/shaping-memory-consolidation-via-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep
#10
REVIEW
Nicola Cellini, Alessandra Capuozzo
Recent studies have shown that the reactivation of specific memories during sleep can be modulated using external stimulation. Specifically, it has been reported that matching a sensory stimulus (e.g., odor or sound cue) with target information (e.g., pairs of words, pictures, and motor sequences) during wakefulness, and then presenting the cue alone during sleep, facilitates memory of the target information. Thus, presenting learned cues while asleep may reactivate related declarative, procedural, and emotional material, and facilitate the neurophysiological processes underpinning memory consolidation in humans...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762693/influence-of-feeding-thermally-peroxidized-soybean-oil-to-finishing-barrows-on-processing-characteristics-and-shelf-life-of-commercially-manufactured-bacon
#11
M F Overholt, J E Lowell, G D Kim, D D Boler, B J Kerr, A C Dilger
Objectives were to evaluate effects of feeding soybean oil (SO) with varying levels of peroxidation on fresh belly characteristics, processing yields, and shelf life of commercially manufactured bacon stored under food-service style conditions. Fifty-six barrows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets containing 10% fresh SO (22.5°C) or thermally processed SO (45°C for 288 h, 90°C for 72 h, or 180°C for 6 h), each infused with air at a rate of 15L/min. Individually housed pigs were provided ad libitum access to feed for 81 d...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760390/olfactory-bulb-acetylcholine-release-dishabituates-odor-responses-and-reinstates-odor-investigation
#12
M Cameron Ogg, Jordan M Ross, Mounir Bendahmane, Max L Fletcher
Habituation and dishabituation modulate the neural resources and behavioral significance allocated to incoming stimuli across the sensory systems. We characterize these processes in the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) and uncover a role for OB acetylcholine (ACh) in physiological and behavioral olfactory dishabituation. We use calcium imaging in both awake and anesthetized mice to determine the time course and magnitude of OB glomerular habituation during a prolonged odor presentation. In addition, we develop a novel behavioral investigation paradigm to determine how prolonged odor input affects odor salience...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760095/volatile-biomarkers-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-malaria-infection-in-humans
#13
Consuelo M De Moraes, Caroline Wanjiku, Nina M Stanczyk, Hannier Pulido, James W Sims, Heike S Betz, Andrew F Read, Baldwyn Torto, Mark C Mescher
Malaria remains among the world's deadliest diseases, and control efforts depend critically on the availability of effective diagnostic tools, particularly for the identification of asymptomatic infections, which play a key role in disease persistence and may account for most instances of transmission but often evade detection by current screening methods. Research on humans and in animal models has shown that infection by malaria parasites elicits changes in host odors that influence vector attraction, suggesting that such changes might yield robust biomarkers of infection status...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757187/sewer-catchment-effects-on-wastewater-and-biosolids-odour-management
#14
Ruth Fisher, Ari Shammay, Juan Pablo Alvarez-Gaitan, Richard M Stuetz
The composition of wastewater in sewer catchments is known to affect the performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, there is limited knowledge as to how catchment characteristics, such as types of catchment industries, impact odour emissions from downstream sludge processing and biosolids management. Odorous emissions from biosolids processing at WWTPs can represent a significant community impact when the local population is exposed to odours. The main odorants emitted from biosolids are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), however, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in emissions may also be perceptable after the removal of VSCs in odour abatement systems...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756210/assessment-of-main-factor-of-sensory-quality-defects-in-chicken-seasoning-during-storage
#15
Huai-Xiang Tian, Ya-Jing Zhang, Chen Chen, Lan Qin, Li-Zhong Xiao, Yu-Gang Fei, Hai-Yan Yu
BACKGROUND: Chicken seasoning is a widely consumed palatable seasoning made by chicken meat. Quality especially the sensory quality may determine the consumer choice of food. For the same bag of chicken seasoning will be stored to use by the consumers over a long period of time, estimation of its sensory quality is particularly important. However, the sensory quality defects of chicken seasoning during storage remains unknown. This study evaluated flavor changes in chicken seasoning during storage using sensory evaluation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
May 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755639/pilot-experiment-the-effect-of-added-flavorants-on-the-taste-and-pleasantness-of-mixtures-of-glycerol-and-propylene-glycol
#16
Pradnya D Rao, Husile Nanding, Andrew A Strasser, Paul M Wise
Introduction: The US Food and Drug Administration banned most "sweet" flavorants for use in cigarettes due to the concern that sweet flavors appeal to young, beginning smokers. However, many of the same flavors, including fruity and confection-associated aromas (e.g. vanilla) are still used in e-cigarettes. Sweet flavors may have a number of effects, including enhancement of the taste of other ingredients. The current work focused on the impact of model flavorants on the taste of a mixture of propylene glycol and vegetable glycerine, solvents used in most e-cigarettes and related products...
April 2018: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755391/odor-learning-and-its-experience-dependent-modulation-in-the-south-american-native-bumblebee-bombus-atratus-hymenoptera-apidae
#17
Florencia Palottini, María C Estravis Barcala, Walter M Farina
Learning about olfactory stimuli is essential in bumblebees' life since it is involved in orientation, recognition of nest sites, foraging efficiency and food yield for the colony as a whole. To evaluate associative learning abilities in bees under controlled environmental conditions, the proboscis extension response (PER) assay is a well-established method used in honey bees, stingless bees and successfully adapted to bumblebees of the genus Bombus . However, studies on the learning capacity of Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), one of the most abundant native species in South America, are non-existent...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755329/assessment-of-appetitive-behavior-in-honey-bee-dance-followers
#18
Mariel A Moauro, M Sol Balbuena, Walter M Farina
Honey bees transfer different informational components of the discovered feeding source to their nestmates during the waggle dance. To decode the multicomponent information of this complex behavior, dance followers have to attend to the most relevant signal elements while filtering out less relevant ones. To achieve that, dance followers should present improved abilities to acquire information compared with those bees not engaged in this behavior. Through proboscis extension response assays, sensory and cognitive abilities were tested in follower and non-follower bees...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751047/identification-of-novel-bioinspired-synthetic-mosquito-repellents-by-combined-ligand-based-screening-and-obp-structure-based-molecular-docking
#19
Trias Thireou, Georgia Kythreoti, Katerina E Tsitsanou, Konstantinos Koussis, Christina E Drakou, Julie Kinnersley, Thomas Kröber, Patrick M Guerin, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Kostas Iatrou, Elias Eliopoulos, Spyros E Zographos
In this work we report a fast and efficient virtual screening protocol for discovery of novel bioinspired synthetic mosquito repellents with lower volatility and, in all likelihood, increased protection time as compared with their plant-derived parental compounds. Our screening protocol comprises two filtering steps. The first filter is based on the shape and chemical similarity to known plant-derived repellents, whereas the second filter is based on the predicted similarity of the ligand's binding mode to the Anopheles gambiae odorant binding protein (AgamOBP1) relative to that of DEET and Icaridin to the same OBP...
May 8, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750366/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-maternal-choline-supplementation-in-heavy-drinking-pregnant-women-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Marjanne Senekal, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Steven H Zeisel, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Choline, an essential nutrient, serves as a methyl-group donor for DNA methylation and is a constituent of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a precursor to major components of cell membranes. Findings from animal studies suggest that choline supplementation during pregnancy may mitigate adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurocognitive function. We conducted a randomized, double-blind exploratory trial to examine feasibility and acceptability of a choline supplementation intervention during pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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