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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352640/recent-advancements-in-bioremediation-of-dye-current-status-and-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Kumar Vikrant, Balendu Shekhar Giri, Nadeem Raza, Kangkan Roy, Ki-Hyun Kim, Birendra Nath Rai, Ram Sharan Singh
The rampant industrialization and unchecked growth of modern textile production facilities coupled with the lack of proper treatment facilities have proliferated the discharge of effluents enriched with toxic, baleful, and carcinogenic pollutants including dyes, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, odorants, and other hazardous materials. Therefore, the development of cost-effective and efficient control measures against such pollution is imperative to safeguard ecosystems and natural resources. In this regard, recent advances in biotechnology and microbiology have propelled bioremediation as a prospective alternative to traditional treatment methods...
January 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351552/in-situ-recording-of-ionic-currents-in-projection-neurons-and-kenyon-cells-in-the-olfactory-pathway-of-the-honeybee
#2
Jan Kropf, Wolfgang Rössler
The honeybee olfactory pathway comprises an intriguing pattern of convergence and divergence: ~60.000 olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) convey olfactory information on ~900 projection neurons (PN) in the antennal lobe (AL). To transmit this information reliably, PNs employ relatively high spiking frequencies with complex patterns. PNs project via a dual olfactory pathway to the mushroom bodies (MB). This pathway comprises the medial (m-ALT) and the lateral antennal lobe tract (l-ALT). PNs from both tracts transmit information from a wide range of similar odors, but with distinct differences in coding properties...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350294/biocatalysis-of-aromatic-benzyl-propionate-ester-by-different-immobilized-lipases
#3
Amanda Gomes Almeida Sá, Alessandra Cristina de Meneses, Lindomar Alberto Lerin, Pedro Henrique Hermes de Araújo, Cláudia Sayer, Débora de Oliveira
Benzyl propionate is an aromatic ester that possesses a fruity odor and is usually found in nature in the composition of some fruits such as plums and melons. This work aimed for the benzyl propionate synthesis by esterification using a new immobilized enzyme preparation with low-cost material from Candida antarctica (NS 88011) and three commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme TL-IM and Lipozyme RM-IM). Novozym 435 had the best performance even when the solvent tert-butanol was absent of the reaction medium...
January 19, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349576/prep1-deficiency-affects-olfactory-perception-and-feeding-behavior-by-impairing-bdnf-trkb-mediated-neurotrophic-signaling
#4
Serena Ricci, Davide Viggiano, Ilaria Cimmino, Giuseppe Perruolo, Serena Cabaro, Antonietta Liotti, Francesca Fiory, Rosa Spinelli, Angelina Di Carlo, Francesco Beguinot, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Oriente
Prep1 is a homeodomain transcription factor which has an important role in hindbrain development. Prep1 expression is also kept in adult mouse brain and in particular within the olfactory bulbs. Moreover, many Prep1 neurons co-localize with Calbindin-positive periglomerular interneurons in olfactory glomerular layer. However, Prep1 function in this brain region is still unknown. In this study, we show that Prep1 hypomorphic heterozygous (Prep1 i/+ ) mice express low levels of protein and feature a 30% reduction of olfactory bulb area, compared to WT mice...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348834/activity-strengths-of-cortical-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-are-correlated-with-transgenerational-inheritance-of-learning-ability
#5
Yulong Liu, Rongjing Ge, Xin Zhao, Rui Guo, Li Huang, Shidi Zhao, Sudong Guan, Wei Lu, Shan Cui, Shirlene Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
The capabilities of learning and memory in parents are presumably transmitted to their offsprings, in which genetic codes and epigenetic regulations are thought as molecular bases. As neural plasticity occurs during memory formation as cellular mechanism, we aim to examine the correlation of activity strengths at cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons to the transgenerational inheritance of learning ability. In a mouse model of associative learning, paired whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion, whose onset appeared fast (high learning efficiency, HLE) or slow (low learning efficiency, LLE)...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346747/sensorimotor-integration-for-decision-making-how-the-worm-steers
#6
Harris S Kaplan, Manuel Zimmer
Animals' movements actively shape their perception and subsequent decision making. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2018) show how C. elegans nematodes steer toward an odorant: a dedicated interneuron class integrates oscillatory olfactory signals, generated by head swings, with corollary discharge motor signals.
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346627/severe-and-protracted-sleep-disruptions-in-mouse-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Increasing evidences suggest that the predator threat model is a valid animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, sleep has never been examined in this model. Since sleep disturbances, including insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, are severe and protracted symptoms of PTSD, we hypothesized that mice exposed to predator odor trauma (POT) will display contextual fear conditioning along with severe and protracted sleep disruptions.Adult male C57BL/6J mice, instrumented with wire electrodes [to record hippocampal field potentials (LFP) and nuchal muscle (EMG) activity], were exposed to contextual conditioning using soiled cat litter as unconditional stimulus (US)...
January 13, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346328/comparison-of-svm-rf-and-elm-on-an-electronic-nose-for-the-intelligent-evaluation-of-paraffin-samples
#8
Hong Men, Songlin Fu, Jialin Yang, Meiqi Cheng, Yan Shi, Jingjing Liu
Paraffin odor intensity is an important quality indicator when a paraffin inspection is performed. Currently, paraffin odor level assessment is mainly dependent on an artificial sensory evaluation. In this paper, we developed a paraffin odor analysis system to classify and grade four kinds of paraffin samples. The original feature set was optimized using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS). Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) were applied to three different feature data sets for classification and level assessment of paraffin...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346285/characterization-of-odors-of-wood-by-gas-chromatography-olfactometry-with-removal-of-extractives-as-attempt-to-control-indoor-air-quality
#9
Ru Liu, Chen Wang, Anmin Huang, Bin Lv
Indoor air quality problems are usually revealed by occupants' complaints. In this study, the odors of two types of hardwood species, namely, Cathy poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were selected and extracted with ethanol-toluene for removal of extractives in an attempt to eliminate the odors. The odorous components of neat and extracted woods were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). The results showed that about 33 kinds of key volatile compounds (peak area above 0...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346088/intense-olfactory-stimulation-blocks-seizures-in-an-experimental-model-of-epilepsy
#10
Polianna Delfino-Pereira, Poliana Bertti-Dutra, Eduardo Henrique de Lima Umeoka, José Antônio Cortes de Oliveira, Victor Rodrigues Santos, Artur Fernandes, Simone Saldanha Marroni, Flávio Del Vecchio, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco
There are reports of patients whose epileptic seizures are prevented by means of olfactory stimulation. Similar findings were described in animal models of epilepsy, such as the electrical kindling of amygdala, where olfactory stimulation with toluene (TOL) suppressed seizures in most rats, even when the stimuli were 20% above the threshold to evoke seizures in already kindled animals. The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is a model of tonic-clonic seizures induced by acute acoustic stimulation, although it also expresses limbic seizures when repeated acoustic stimulation occurs - a process known as audiogenic kindling (AK)...
January 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345616/inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-in-cholinergic-projection-neurons-fully-rescues-aging-associated-olfactory-circuit-degeneration-in-drosophila
#11
Ashiq Hussain, Atefeh Pooryasin, Mo Zhang, Laura F Loschek, Marco La Fortezza, Anja B Friedrich, Catherine-Marie Blais, Habibe K Üçpunar, Vicente A Yépez, Martin Lehmann, Nicolas Gompel, Julien Gagneur, Stephan J Sigrist, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow
Loss of the sense of smell is among the first signs of natural aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Cellular and molecular mechanisms promoting this smell loss are not understood. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster also loses olfaction before vision with age. Within the olfactory circuit, cholinergic projection neurons show a reduced odor response accompanied by a defect in axonal integrity and reduction in synaptic marker proteins. Using behavioral functional screening, we pinpoint that expression of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen scavenger SOD2 in cholinergic projection neurons is necessary and sufficient to prevent smell degeneration in aging flies...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344949/flavour-active-compounds-in-thermally-treated-yeast-extracts
#12
Aygul Alim, Huanlu Song, Ye Liu, Tingting Zou, Yu Zhang, Songpei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Aroma-active compounds and non-volatile substances determine the characteristic aroma and taste of yeast extracts (YE). With thermal reaction, the characteristic aroma and taste of YE are studied rarely, and the relationship between aroma-active compounds and non-volatile compounds is not so clear yet. RESULTS: The non-volatile compounds identified by HPLC and LC-MS/MS were reduced following by rise in temperature except some amino acids. Peptides undergo degradation...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342183/identification-of-volatiles-released-by-diapausing-brown-marmorated-stink-bug-halyomorpha-halys-hemiptera-pentatomidae
#13
Laura J Nixon, William R Morrison, Kevin B Rice, Eckehard G Brockerhoff, Tracy C Leskey, Filadelfo Guzman, Ashot Khrimian, Stephen Goldson, Michael Rostás
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an agricultural and urban pest that has become widely established as an invasive species of major concern in the USA and across Europe. This species forms large aggregations when entering diapause, and it is often these aggregations that are found by officials conducting inspections of internationally shipped freight. Identifying the presence of diapausing aggregations of H. halys using their emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be a potential means for detecting and intercepting them during international freight inspections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341884/acute-stress-persistently-alters-locus-coeruleus-function-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#14
Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew D Flamini, Daniel J Chandler
Stress is a physiological state characterized by altered neuroendocrine signaling, behavioral arousal, and anxiety. Chronic or traumatic stress may predispose individuals for multiple somatic and psychiatric illnesses. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a major node in the stress response that integrates input from multiple stress responsive neural circuits and releases norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system to promote vigilance and anxiety. Many mood disorders associated with prior stress are characterized by chronically altered noradrenergic signaling, yet the long-term impact of an acute stressor on LC function is not clear...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341791/population-level-evidence-for-seasonality-of-the-human-microbiome
#15
Christina Korownyk, Fangwei Liu, Scott Garrison
The objective of this study is to determine whether human body odors undergo seasonal modulation. We utilized google trends search volume from the United States of America from January 1, 2010 to June 24, 2017 for a number of predetermined body odors. Regression modeling of time series data was completed. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of the variability in Internet searches for each unpleasant odor (about the mean) that is explained by a seasonal model. We determined that the seasonal (sinusoidal) model provided a significantly better fit than the null model (best straight line fit) for all searches relating to human body odors (P <...
January 17, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341111/variation-and-drivers-of-airflow-patterns-associated-with-olfactory-concealment-and-habitat-selection
#16
Dillon T Fogarty, R Dwayne Elmore, Samuel D Fuhlendorf, Scott R Loss
Many terrestrial predators rely on olfaction to detect prey; therefore, prey should select habitat to reduce detectability of their odor cues. One way prey can potentially conceal their odor is by selecting locations with high turbulence and/or updrafts, conditions that disperse odor plumes and make odor sources difficult to locate. However, it is unclear how these conditions vary among vegetation cover types and which vegetative features drive them. We assessed variation and drivers of variables hypothesized to influence olfactory concealment (turbulence intensity and airflow slope) and experimentally evaluated whether these variables indeed influence predator detection of simulated prey...
January 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339313/the-human-body-odor-compound-androstadienone-increases-neural-interference-coupled-to-higher-behavioral-costs-during-an-emotional-stroop-task
#17
Jonas Hornung, Lydia Kogler, Michael Erb, Jessica Freiherr, Birgit Derntl
The androgen derivative androstadienone (AND) is a substance found in human sweat and thus may act as human chemosignal. With the current experiment, we aimed to explore in which way AND affects interference processing during an emotional Stroop task which used human faces as target and emotional words as distractor stimuli. This was complemented by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to unravel the neural mechanism of AND-action. Based on previous accounts we expected AND to increase neural activation in areas commonly implicated in evaluation of emotional face processing and to change neural activation in brain regions linked to interference processing...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338206/application-of-ptr-ms-and-33s-isotope-labelling-for-monitoring-sulfur-processes-in-livestock-waste
#18
Frederik Rask Dalby, Michael Jørgen Hansen, Anders Feilberg
Reduced sulfur compounds emitted from livestock production cause odor nuisance for local residents. The microbial processes responsible for this are not well described in swine manure and a method for monitoring the biological processes is necessary to develop strategic abatement technologies. In this study, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry and isotope labelled sulfate was combined and applied to elucidate the sulfur processes in swine manure with high time resolution. We successfully monitored reduction of isotope 33S labelled sulfate into corresponding 33S hydrogen sulfide and that some of the 33S hydrogen sulfide was further methylated into 33S methanethiol...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336293/using-the-nasoseptal-flap-for-reconstruction-after-endoscopic-debridement-of-radionecrosis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#19
Gwanghui Ryu, Yoon Kyoung So, Min Young Seo, Woori Park, Hyo Yeol Kim, Hun-Jong Dhong, Seung-Kyu Chung, Sang Duk Hong
BACKGROUND: Radionecrosis is a complication of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) that is difficult to treat. Endoscopic debridement is the first-line treatment for radionecrosis. After debridement, however, either bone or the internal carotid artery is exposed and requires mucosal coverage. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of a nasoseptal flap (NSF) after endoscopic debridement of radionecrosis in the reconstruction of nasopharyngeal or skull base defects...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333792/reduced-suprathreshold-odor-identification-in-patients-with-pseudotumor-cerebri-a-non-randomized-prospective-study
#20
Gad Dotan, Eyal Cohen, Ainat Klein, Anat Kesler
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that olfaction is impaired in patients with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC). OBJECTIVES: To measure suprathreshold olfactory function by using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assessing its usefulness for routine clinical use. METHODS: Forty PTC patients underwent USPIT olfactory testing. RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of 40 (73%) PTC patients (36 women, 4 men; mean age 34 years) had reduced suprathreshold smell sensation according to UPSIT scores: 19 (47%) had mild microsmia, 9 (23%) had moderate microsmia, and one (3%) was classified as having severe microsmia...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
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