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Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Wei Zhang, Arun Wanchoo, Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza, Yuxian Xia, Nemat O Keyhani
Insects interact with the surrounding environment via chemoreception, and in social insects such as ants, chemoreception functions to mediate diverse behaviors including food acquisition, self/non-self recognition, and intraspecific communication. The invasive red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has spread worldwide, displaying a remarkable environmental adaptability. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are chemical compound carriers, involved in diverse physiological processes including odor detection and chemical transport...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Magdalena Kotlicka-Antczak, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Michał S Karbownik, Tomasz Pawełczyk, Dominik Strzelecki, Natalia Żurner, Małgorzata Urban-Kowalczyk
OBJECTIVE: Existing knowledge of the relationship between olfactory identification (OI) ability and clinical risk of psychosis is inconsistent. To address this inconsistency, the aim of the present study was to identify the relationship between OI ability, with regard to the hedonic attributes of odors, and the risk of transition to psychosis in individuals with an ARMS. METHODS: A group of 81 individuals meeting the ARMS criteria according to the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State were at baseline administered with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test...
October 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Delia Elena Urcan, Simone Giacosa, Fabrizio Torchio, Susana Río Segade, Stefano Raimondi, Marta Bertolino, Vincenzo Gerbi, Nastasia Pop, Luca Rolle
The impact of postharvest dehydration on the volatile composition of Malvasia moscata grapes and fortified wines produced from them was assessed. The ripeness effect of fresh grapes on volatile compounds of dehydrated grapes was evaluated for the first time in this study. Fresh grape berries were densimetrically sorted, and more represented density classes were selected. Dehydration of riper berries (20.5 °Brix) led to volatile profiles richer in terpenes, particularly linalool and geraniol. The effect of dehydration rate on the volatile composition of dehydrated grapes and fortified wines was also evaluated...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jörn Lötsch, Thomas Hummel, Alfred Ultsch
The human sense of smell is often analyzed as being composed of three main components comprising olfactory threshold, odor discrimination and the ability to identify odors. A relevant distinction of the three components and their differential changes in distinct disorders remains a research focus. The present data-driven analysis aimed at establishing a cluster structure in the pattern of olfactory subtest results. Therefore, unsupervised machine-learning was applied onto olfactory subtest results acquired in 10,714 subjects with nine different olfactory pathologies...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wenjing Wu, Zhiqiang Li, Shijun Zhang, Yunling Ke, Yahui Hou
BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. METHODS: To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0...
2016: PeerJ
Zhongzhen Wu, Jintian Lin, He Zhang, Xinnian Zeng
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most destructive pests throughout tropical and subtropical regions in Asia. This insect displays remarkable changes during different developmental phases in olfactory behavior between sexually immature and mated adults. The olfactory behavioral changes provide clues to examine physiological and molecular bases of olfactory perception in this insect. We comparatively analyzed behavioral and neuronal responses of B. dorsalis adults to attractant semiochemicals, and the expression profiles of antenna chemosensory genes...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Tomohiro Hirano, Kenichi Sakurai, Shigeru Fujisaki, Keita Adachi, Shuhei Suzuki, Yuki Masuo, Saki Nagashima, Yukiko Hara, Katsuhisa Enomoto, Ryouichi Tomita, Kenji Gonda
Locallyadvanced breast cancer lesions often compromise the patient's qualityof life(QOL). Mohs paste is a histopathological fixative containing zinc chloride as the main ingredient. It has been applied to perform chemosurgeryon skin tumors. In recent years, this paste has reportedlybeen veryeffective for controlling various symptoms of skin metastases in inoperable advanced cancer, such as pungent odor and hemorrhage, in the field of palliative care. We evaluated the clinical significance of immunosuppressive acidic protein(IAP)and C-reactive protein(CRP)in the serum of patients with locallyadvanced breast cancer duringMohs paste treatment...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Cristina M Crava, Sukania Ramasamy, Lino Ometto, Gianfranco Anfora, Omar Rota-Stabelli
Chemosensory perception allows insects to interact with the environment by perceiving odorant or tastant molecules; genes encoding chemoreceptors are the molecular interface between the environment and the insect, and play a central role in mediating its chemosensory behavior. Here we explore how the evolution of these genes in the emerging pest Drosophila suzukii correlates with the peculiar ecology of this species. We annotated approximately 130 genes coding for gustatory receptors (GRs) and divergent ionotropic receptors (dIRs) in D...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Taous Saraoui, Josiane Cornet, Emilie Guillouet, Marie France Pilet, Frédérique Chevalier, Jean-Jacques Joffraud, Françoise Leroi
Tropical shrimp is of considerable economic importance in the world but is highly perishable due to microbial and chemical degradation. Biopreservation is a food preservation technology based on the addition of "positive" bacteria able to kill or prevent the growth of undesirable microorganisms. Two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been selected for a biopreservation strategy: Lactococcus piscium CNCM I-4031, for its ability to prevent the sensory deterioration of seafood and Carnobacterium divergens V41, which inhibits growth of Listeria monocytogenes...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Hideyuki Matsumoto, Ju Tian, Naoshige Uchida, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Dopamine is thought to regulate learning from appetitive and aversive events. Here we examined how optogenetically-identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area of mice respond to aversive events in different conditions. In low reward contexts, most dopamine neurons were exclusively inhibited by aversive events, and expectation reduced dopamine neurons' responses to reward and punishment. When a single odor predicted both reward and punishment, dopamine neurons' responses to that odor reflected the integrated value of both outcomes...
October 19, 2016: ELife
Daniel A Nidzgorski, Sarah E Hobbie
Many urban waterways suffer from excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), feeding algal blooms, which cause lower water clarity and oxygen levels, bad odor and taste, and the loss of desirable species. Nutrient movement from land to water is likely to be influenced by urban vegetation, but there are few empirical studies addressing this. In this study, we examined whether or not urban trees can reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater, an important nutrient export pathway that has received less attention than stormwater...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Stefan Dippel, Martin Kollmann, Georg Oberhofer, Alice Montino, Carolin Knoll, Milosz Krala, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Sergius Frank, Robert Kumpf, Joachim Schachtner, Ernst A Wimmer
BACKGROUND: The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is an emerging insect model organism representing the largest insect order, Coleoptera, which encompasses several serious agricultural and forest pests. Despite the ecological and economic importance of beetles, most insect olfaction studies have so far focused on dipteran, lepidopteran, or hymenopteran systems. RESULTS: Here, we present the first detailed morphological description of a coleopteran olfactory pathway in combination with genome-wide expression analysis of the relevant gene families involved in chemoreception...
October 17, 2016: BMC Biology
Sang Pil Hong, Eun Joo Lee, Young Ho Kim, Dong Uk Ahn
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermentation temperature on the volatile composition in Kimchi. Kimchi was fermented at 2 temperature conditions (4 and 20 °C). Volatile compounds of Kimchi samples were analyzed during the fermentation periods using the dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The optimum ripening time for the Kimchi fermented at 4 °C was 35 d, and that of 20 °C was 2 d. The pH at the optimum ripening time was 4.97 and 4.41, and the titratable acidity was 0...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Ulla Forsgren-Brusk, Birgitta Yhlen, Marie Blomqvist, Peter Larsson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pragmatic laboratory method to provide a technique for developing incontinence products better able to reduce malodor when used in the clinical setting. METHODS: Bacterial growth and bacterially formed ammonia in disposable absorbent incontinence products was measured by adding synthetic urine inoculated with bacteria to test samples cut from the crotch area of the product. The inhibitory effect's of low pH (4...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Neloy Kumar Chakroborty, Randolf Menzel, Marco Schubert
Ca(2+) imaging techniques were applied to investigate the neuronal behavior of projection neurons in the honeybee antennal lobe to examine the effects of long lasting adaptation on odorant coding. Responses to 8 test odorants were measured before, during and after an odor adaptation phase. Bees were exposed to the adapting odor for 30 minutes. Test odorant responses were only recorded from a sub-population of accessible glomeruli on the antennal lobe surface. Projection neurons, the output neurons of the antennal lobes, are projecting through the lateral, mediolateral and medial antennal lobe tract to higher centers of the olfactory pathway...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mark Galizio, Brooke April, Melissa Deal, Andrew Hawkey, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Katherine Bruce
The Odor Span Task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure that permits the study of behavior under the control of multiple stimuli. Rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli and selection of new stimuli is reinforced. Successful performance thus requires remembering which stimuli have previously been presented during a given session. This procedure has been frequently used in neurobiological studies as a rodent model of working memory; however, only a few studies have examined the effects of drugs on performance in this task...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Mahua Chatterjee, Fernando Perez de Los Cobos Pallares, Alex Loebel, Michael Lukas, Veronica Egger
During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs), occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs) mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol and variations thereof...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Özgür Kasımay Çakır, Nurfitnat Ellek, Nabila Salehin, Rabia Hamamcı, Hülya Keleş, Damla Gökçeoğlu Kayalı, Dilek Akakın, Meral Yüksel, Dilek Özbeyli
INTRODUCTION: Caffeine is an adrenergic antagonist that enhances neuronal activity. Psychological stress depresses cognitive function. AIM: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic low dose caffeine on anxiety-like behavior and cognitive functions of acute or chronic psychological stressed rats. MATERIAL-METHOD: Acute or chronic caffeine (3mg/kg) was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250g, n=42) before acute (cat odor) and chronic variable psychological stress (restraint overcrowding stress, elevated plus maze, cat odor, forced swimming) induction...
October 13, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
D P Devanand
Several recently developed biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive, expensive, and difficult to obtain in most clinical settings. Olfactory identification test performance represents a noninvasive, inexpensive biomarker of AD that may have predictive accuracy comparable with neuroimaging measures and biomarkers assessed in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurofibrillary tangles in the olfactory bulb are among the earliest pathologic features of AD and are also seen in the projection pathways from the olfactory bulb to secondary olfactory brain regions, including the piriform and medial temporal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and other limbic regions...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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