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Nanomolecular imaging

Martin Hruska, Nathan Henderson, Sylvain J Le Marchand, Haani Jafri, Matthew B Dalva
Experience results in long-lasting changes in dendritic spine size, yet how the molecular architecture of the synapse responds to plasticity remains poorly understood. Here a combined approach of multicolor stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) and confocal imaging in rat and mouse demonstrates that structural plasticity is linked to the addition of unitary synaptic nanomodules to spines. Spine synapses in vivo and in vitro contain discrete and aligned subdiffraction modules of pre- and postsynaptic proteins whose number scales linearly with spine size...
May 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Desirée Salas, Antoine Le Gall, Jean-Bernard Fiche, Alessandro Valeri, Yonggang Ke, Patrick Bron, Gaetan Bellot, Marcelo Nollmann
Superresolution light microscopy allows the imaging of labeled supramolecular assemblies at a resolution surpassing the classical diffraction limit. A serious limitation of the superresolution approach is sample heterogeneity and the stochastic character of the labeling procedure. To increase the reproducibility and the resolution of the superresolution results, we apply multivariate statistical analysis methods and 3D reconstruction approaches originally developed for cryogenic electron microscopy of single particles...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alexandru Mihai Nicolae, Niranjan Venugopal, Ananth Ravi
The treatment of localized prostate cancer is expected to become a significant problem in the next decade as an increasingly aging population becomes prone to developing the disease. Recent research into the biological nature of prostate cancer has shown that large localized doses of radiation to the cancer offer excellent long-term disease control. Brachytherapy, a form of localized radiation therapy, has been shown to be one of the most effective methods for delivering high radiation doses to the cancer; however, recent evidence suggests that increasing the localized radiation dose without bound may cause unacceptable increases in long-term side effects...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Lalit N Goswami, Lixin Ma, Peter J Kueffer, Satish S Jalisatgi, M Frederick Hawthorne
An icosahedral closo-B₁₂²⁻ scaffold based nano-sized assembly capable of carrying a high payload of Gd³⁺-chelates in a sterically crowded configuration is developed by employing the azide-alkyne click reaction. The twelve copies of DO3A-t-Bu-ester ligands were covalently attached to an icosahedral closo-B₁₂²⁻ core via suitable linkers through click reaction. This nanomolecular structure supporting a high payload of Gd³⁺-chelate is a new member of the closomer MRI contrast agents that we are currently developing in our laboratory...
2013: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aeju Lee, Sung-Jae Choi, Kyeongsoon Park, Jong Woong Park, Kwangmeyung Kim, Kuiwon Choi, Soo-Young Yoon, Inchan Youn
The activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) correlates with the expression of proteases. Among several proteases, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is one of the biological markers used to diagnose RA. The active form of MMP-3 is a key enzyme involved in RA-associated destruction of cartilage and bone. Thus, detection of active MMP-3 in serum or in vivo is very important for early diagnosis of RA. In this study, a soluble MMP-3 probe was prepared to monitor RA progression by detecting expression of active MMP-3 in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice in vivo in both serum and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs)...
June 19, 2013: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Lalit N Goswami, Lixin Ma, Shatadru Chakravarty, Quanyu Cai, Satish S Jalisatgi, M Frederick Hawthorne
An icosahedral closo-B(12)(2-) scaffold supports 12 copies of Gd(3+)-chelate held in close proximity with each other by suitable linkers which employ azide-alkyne click chemistry. This design is the first member of a new class of polyfunctional MRI contrast agents carrying a high payload of Gd(3+)-chelate in a sterically constrained configuration. The resulting contrast agent shows higher relaxivity values at high magnetic fields. MRI contrast agents currently in use are not as effective in this regard, presumably due to a lack of steric constraint of gadolinium centers and lower water exchange rates...
February 18, 2013: Inorganic Chemistry
Gerald L DeNardo, Arutselvan Natarajan, Saphon Hok, Gary Mirick, Sally J DeNardo, Michele Corzett, Vladimir Sysko, Joerg Lehmann, Laurel Beckett, Rod Balhorn
To mimic the molecular specificity and cell selectivity of monoclonal antibody (mAb) binding while decreasing size, nanomolecules (selective high-affinity ligands; SHALs), based on in silico modeling, have been created to bind to human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR10), a signaling receptor protein upregulated on the malignant B-lymphocytes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. SHALs were synthesized with a biotin or DOTA chelate (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid), using a solid-phase lysine-polyethyleneglycol backbone to link sets of ligands shown previously to bind to HLA-DR10...
December 2008: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Jacques S Abramowicz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to review the technical aspects and clinical applications of contrast media (microbubbles and nanomolecular agents) in obstetric and gynecologic ultrasonographic imaging. METHODS: With the use of a computerized database (MEDLINE) and several Web-based search engines (Google Scholar and Copernic), relevant articles on ultrasonographic contrast media were reviewed. References cited in these articles and not obtained via the search engines were also reviewed...
April 2005: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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