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Transverse patterning

Eui-Hyang Seong, Sung-Hwan Choi, Hee-Jin Kim, Hyung-Seog Yu, Young-Chel Park, Kee-Joon Lee
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution and displacement of various craniofacial structures after nonsurgical rapid palatal expansion (RPE) with conventional (C-RPE), bone-borne (B-RPE), and miniscrew-assisted (MARPE) expanders for young adults using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA). Methods: Conventional, bone-borne, and miniscrew-assisted palatal expanders were designed to simulate expansion in a 3D FE model created from a 20-year-old human dry skull...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
Danka Grčević, Marina Sironi, Sonia Valentino, Livija Deban, Hrvoje Cvija, Antonio Inforzato, Nataša Kovačić, Vedran Katavić, Tomislav Kelava, Ivo Kalajzić, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator acting as a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and playing an essential role in innate immunity and matrix remodeling. Inflammatory mediators also contribute to skeletal homeostasis, operating at multiple levels in physiological and pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate the role of PTX3 in physiological skeletal remodeling and bone healing. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry of distal femur showed that PTX3 gene-targeted female and male mice ( ptx3-/- ) had lower trabecular bone volume than their wild-type ( ptx3+/+ ) littermates (BV/TV by μCT: 3...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ronald L Cappelletti, Terrence Jach, John Vinson
It has been shown that single-particle wave functions, of both photons and electrons, can be created with a phase vortex, i.e., an intrinsic orbital angular momentum (OAM). A recent experiment has claimed similar success using neutrons [C. W. Clark et al., Nature, 525, 504 (2015)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature15265]. We show that their results are insufficient to unambiguously demonstrate OAM, and they can be fully explained as phase contrast interference patterns. Furthermore, given the small transverse coherence length of the neutrons in the original experiment, the probability that any neutron was placed in an OAM state is vanishingly small...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
James Hope, Frederique Vanholsbeeck, A J McDaid
In neural interfaces for peripheral nerve a trade-off exists between the level of invasiveness and the selectivity of neural recordings. In this study, we implement electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in a nerve cuff with the aim to investigate the achievable level of selectivity.
 Approach: Established modelling approaches in neural-EIT are expanded on to be used, for the first time, on myelinated fibres which are abundant in mammalian peripheral nerves and transmit motor commands. The model is then used to evaluate the viability of using EIT with a nerve cuff to record neural activity in peripheral nerves...
March 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
L M Cavole, L G Cardoso, M S Almeida, M Haimovici
Uncertainty regarding the age determination of the Brazilian codling Urophycis brasiliensis has hampered its stock assessment. Transverse sections of otoliths displayed up to seven (in males) and 12 (in females) alternate opaque and translucent bands that could not be conclusively validated as annuli, resulting in unrealistically high ages of first maturity (A50 ) (A50male  = 4·5 years and A50female  = 6 years). Therefore, growth was described by the von Bertalanffy (VB) model using an alternative approach that combined microstructure data (daily growth increments) and a fixed asymptotic total length (L∞ )...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Wakoto Matsuda, Takahiro Sonomura, Satoru Honma, Sachi Ohno, Tetsuya Goto, Shuichi Hirai, Masahiro Itoh, Yoshiko Honda, Hiroki Fujieda, Jun Udagawa, Shingo Takano, Fumino Fujiyama, Shuichi Ueda
The anatomical variations of the confluence of sinuses were examined, focusing on the continuity of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and the transverse sinuses (TSs). In the 142 specimens studied, there were 72 symmetric cases (50.7%) and 70 asymmetric cases (49.3%). The symmetric group (no dominant type) was categorized into 34 cases of bifurcation (23.9%) and 38 cases of confluence (26.8%). The asymmetric group was categorized into 54 cases of the right-dominant type (38.0%) and 16 cases of the left-dominant type (11...
March 12, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Jakob M Goldmann, Vladimir B Seplyarskiy, Wendy S W Wong, Thierry Vilboux, Pieter B Neerincx, Dale L Bodian, Benjamin D Solomon, Joris A Veltman, John F Deeken, Christian Gilissen, John E Niederhuber
Clustering of mutations has been observed in cancer genomes as well as for germline de novo mutations (DNMs). We identified 1,796 clustered DNMs (cDNMs) within whole-genome-sequencing data from 1,291 parent-offspring trios to investigate their patterns and infer a mutational mechanism. We found that the number of clusters on the maternal allele was positively correlated with maternal age and that these clusters consisted of more individual mutations with larger intermutational distances than those of paternal clusters...
March 5, 2018: Nature Genetics
Myung Hee Chung, Bo Mi Gil, Soon Seog Kwon, Hae-Il Park, Sun Wha Song, Na Young Jung, Won Jong Yoo
OBJECTIVES: To determine what computed tomographic (CT) dimensions can predict obstructive lung disease on routine chest CT scans by comparing morphological and densitometric CT findings with pulmonary function test (PFT) in normal subjects and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients (n = 646; 260 females and 386 males; mean age 54.9 years, ranged 20-90 years) who received chest CT scans with densitometry during a 3-month period were retrospectively analyzed in single center...
March 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Shabnam ShahAli, Amir Massoud Arab, Esmaeil Ebrahimi, Shiva ShahAli, Nahid Rahmani, Hossein Negahban, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Andia Bahmani
PURPOSE: The present study investigated group differences between the thickness changes of the transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles, during performance of the isometric supine chest raise and the supine double leg-straight leg raise tests in women with and without low back pain (LBP). METHOD: Twenty women with LBP and 20 women without LBP participated in this case-control study. The thickness of the right TrA, IO, and EO muscles was measured using B-mode ultrasound (US) at rest, immediately at the beginning of performing the tests and when participants in both groups self-reported fatigue...
February 26, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
E Lucas, T Whyte, J Liu, W Tetzlaff, P A Cripton
Little is known about the internal mechanics of the in vivo spinal cord during injury. The objective of this study was to develop a method of tracking internal and surface deformation of in vivo rat spinal cord during compression using radiography. Since neural tissue is radio-translucent, radio-opaque markers were injected into the spinal cord. Two tantalum beads (260 µm) were injected into the cord (dorsal and ventral) at C5 of nine anesthetized rats. Four beads were glued to the lateral surface of the cord, caudal and cranial to the injection site...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jasvir S Bahl, Maximillian J Nelson, Mark Taylor, Lucian B Solomon, John B Arnold, Dominic Thewlis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in walking gait biomechanics after total hip arthroplasty (THA) for osteoarthritis (OA) compared to the pre-operative gait status, and to compare the recovery of gait following THA with healthy individuals. METHODS: Systematic review with meta-analysis of studies investigating changes in gait biomechanics after THA compared to (1) preoperative levels and (2) healthy individuals. Data were pooled at commonly reported time points and standardised mean differences (SMDs) were calculated in meta-analyses for spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters...
February 20, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Yujiro Sakamoto
The tongue is a dense muscular organ, in which the muscles are arranged in a confusing pattern. The intrinsic muscles were gross anatomically investigated in 25 cadavers to clarify their configuration. The superior longitudinal muscle (SLm) ran beneath the dorsal mucosa and was divided into bundles by the other muscles passing through it to the dorsum. The external bundle of the styloglossus, with the palatoglossus, coursed externally to the hyoglossus. Their fibers spread beneath the SLm or attached to the apex and the inferior longitudinal muscle (ILm) ascended from the root and joined them...
February 22, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Gerard Carmona, Jurdan Mendiguchía, Xavier Alomar, Josep M Padullés, David Serrano, Lexa Nescolarde, Gil Rodas, Roser Cussó, Ramón Balius, Joan A Cadefau
Purpose: To investigate the extent and evolution of hamstring muscle damage caused by an intensive bout of eccentric leg curls (ELCs) by (1) assessing the time course and association of different indirect markers of muscle damage such as changes in the force-generating capacity (FGC), functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), and serum muscle enzyme levels and (2) analyzing differences in the degree of hamstring muscle damage between and within subjects (limb-to-limb comparison). Methods: Thirteen male participants performed six sets of 10 repetitions of an ELC with each leg...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zhi-Jun Zhao, Minpyo Lee, Hyeokjung Kang, SoonHyoung Hwang, Sohee Jeon, Namkyoo Park, Sanghu Park, Jun-Ho Jeong
In this study, 8 inch-wafer scale flexible polarization-dependent color filters with Ag-TiO2 composite nanowires have been fabricated using nanoimprint and E-beam evaporation. The filters change their color via a simple rotation of the polarizer. In addition, the color of the filter can be controlled by altering the thickness of the Ag and TiO2 nanowires deposited on the polymer patterns. Polarization-dependent color filters were realized by selective inhibition of the transmission spectra using plasmonic resonance at the insulator/metal/insulator nanostructure interface, which occurs at particular wavelengths for the transverse magnetic polarizations...
February 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yen-Heng Lin, Chung-Wei Lee, Yu-Fen Wang, Chi-Ju Lu, Ya-Fang Chen, Hon-Man Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Engorged medullary vein (EMV) in patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) suggests venous congestion. The aim of this study is to investigate its prevalence, pattern, and correlation with clinical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT angiography (CTA) raw data of DAVF were used for multiplanar reconstruction and then analyzed for the presence and pattern of EMV, which is defined as a dilated vein in the cerebral white matter...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Bin Wang, Ting Li, Yan Niu, Jie Xiang, Junjie Cheng, Bo Liu, Hui Zhang, Tianyi Yan, Susumu Kanazawa, Jinglong Wu
Category-selective brain areas exhibit varying levels of neural activity to ipsilaterally presented stimuli. However, in face- and house-selective areas, the neural responses evoked by ipsilateral stimuli in the peripheral visual field remain unclear. In this study, we displayed face and house images using a wide-view visual presentation system while performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The face-selective areas (fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA)) exhibited intense neural responses to ipsilaterally presented images, whereas the house-selective areas (parahippocampal place area (PPA) and transverse occipital sulcus (TOS)) exhibited substantially smaller and even negative neural responses to the ipsilaterally presented images...
2018: PloS One
C G Chee, K S Park, J W Lee, H W Ahn, E Lee, Y Kang, H S Kang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis is a well-documented spinal manifestation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, however, other forms of nontumorous myelopathy can also manifest as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Our aim was to evaluate the MR imaging features of aquaporin-4 antibody-positive longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, which is strongly associated with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated cervicomedullary junction involvement, cord expansion ratios, bright spotty lesions, the number of involved segments, skipped lesions, enhancement patterns, and axial distribution patterns using spinal MR imaging of 41 patients with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis who underwent aquaporin-4 antibody testing...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Jillian S Davis, Susan H Williams
Broad similarities in the timing of jaw adductor activity driving jaw movements across distantly related and morphologically disparate species have led to the hypothesis that mammalian masticatory motor patterns are conserved. However, some quantitative analyses also suggest that masticatory motor patterns have evolved in concert with dietary and/or morphological specialization. Here, we assess this relationship in two closely related carnivoran species with divergent diets and morphology: carnivorous ferrets and frugivorous kinkajous...
February 14, 2018: Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology
S Takahara, S Y Lee, T Iwakura, K Oe, T Fukui, E Okumachi, T Waki, M Arakura, Y Sakai, K Nishida, R Kuroda, T Niikura
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to impair fracture healing. Increasing evidence suggests that some microRNA (miRNA) is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications. We hypothesized that the functions of miRNA and changes to their patterns of expression may be implicated in the pathogenesis of impaired fracture healing in DM. METHODS: Closed transverse fractures were created in the femurs of 116 rats, with half assigned to the DM group and half assigned to the control group...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Kevin Dusling, Mark Mace, Raju Venugopalan
Qualitative features of multiparticle correlations in light-heavy ion (p+A) collisions at RHIC and LHC are reproduced in a simple initial state model of partons in the projectile coherently scattering off localized domains of color charge in the heavy nuclear target. These include (i) the ordering of the magnitudes of the azimuthal angle nth Fourier harmonics of two-particle correlations v_{n}{2}, (ii) the energy and transverse momentum dependence of the four-particle Fourier harmonic v_{2}{4}, and (iii) the energy dependence of four-particle symmetric cumulants measuring correlations between different Fourier harmonics...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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