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Transverse patterning

Janie L Astephen Wilson, William D Stanish, Cheryl L Hubley-Kozey
There is an established discordance between the structural joint damage and clinical symptoms of knee osteoarthritis; however, there has been little investigation into the differences in joint level biomechanics and muscle activation patterns during gait between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals with the same radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. The objective of this study was to examine three-dimensional knee joint biomechanics and muscle activation differences during gait between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals with radiographic knee osteoarthritis...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Chai Kobkitsuksakul, Pakorn Jiarakongmun, Ekachat Chanthanaphak, Sirintara Pongpech
PURPOSE: The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinüs with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages...
October 21, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
A L Adams, F Xue, J Q Chantra, R M Dell, S M Ott, S Silverman, J C Giaconi, C Critchlow
: Using the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Task Force case definition for atypical femoral fractures, sensitivity and specificity of radiographic fracture characteristics were calculated. Fracture pattern was the most sensitive and specific characteristic. This suggests that some characteristics should be weighted more heavily when identifying these fractures. INTRODUCTION: To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of each radiographic criterion in the 2013 ASBMR atypical femoral fracture (AFF) case definition for distinguishing AFF from other subtrochanteric/diaphyseal fractures (non-AFF) among women enrolled in a large integrated health care organization...
October 21, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Kishan A Manani, Kim Christensen, Nicholas S Peters
Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4-5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF...
October 2016: Physical Review. E
S S Liu, J R Deng, D S Wang, X Gong, Y H Zhou, X M Gao
Objective: Nasopharynx is an important compartment of the upper airway. It is closely associated with the characteristic craniofacial skeletal pattern related to sleep breathing. The present study aimed to investigate the growth pattern of the nasopharynx during rapid puberty growth period. Methods: Thirty non-snoring children (aged 8 to 11 years old) were selected by means of questionnaires and clinical examination. Periodic yearly follow up using MRI, lateral cephalogram, and polysomnograph (PSG) was done in these children...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Mitsuhiro Nishida, Takeo Nagura, Nobuyuki Fujita, Naobumi Hosogane, Takashi Tsuji, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Kota Watanabe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural, lateral curvature with rotation of the spine that develops around puberty. The influence of this spinal deformity on three-dimensional trunk movements during gait has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spinal curve pattern (single thoracic curve vs. single lumbar curve) on trunk kinematics during gait. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with a single thoracic curve (Lenke type 1) and 17 patients with a single lumbar curve (Lenke type 5) were included in this study...
October 11, 2016: Gait & Posture
Teresa E Flaxman, Tine Alkjær, Erik B Simonsen, Michael R Krogsgaard, Daniel L Benoit
INTRODUCTION: Knee muscles are commonly labelled as flexors or extensors and aptly stabilize the knee against sagittal plane loads. However, how these muscles stabilize the knee against adduction-abduction and rotational loads remains unclear. Our study sought to: (1) classify muscle roles as they relate to joint stability by quantifying the relationship between individual muscle activation patterns and internal net joint moments in all three loading planes, and (2) determine if these roles change with increasing force levels...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Rustum Karanjia, Alfredo A Sadun, Angelos A Konstas
Severe visual loss may occur in patients with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Transverse sinus stenosis is 1 cause of PTC syndrome. Although the role of transverse sinus stenosis in the pathogenesis of the disease remains controversial, recent case series of transverse sinus stenting have reported very high rates of symptom response and resolution of papilledema with improvement or at least stabilization of the visual fields and visual acuity (Ahmed et al., 2011)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Karen Stanic, Natalia Saldivia, Benjamín Förstera, Marcela Torrejón, Hernán Montecinos, Teresa Caprile
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are pivotal for central nervous system (CNS) development, facilitating cell migration, axonal growth, myelination, dendritic spine formation, and synaptic plasticity, among other processes. During axon guidance, the ECM not only acts as a permissive or non-permissive substrate for navigating axons, but also modulates the effects of classical guidance cues, such as netrin or Eph/ephrin family members. Despite being highly important, little is known about the expression of ECM molecules during CNS development...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Dong Yeon Lee, Sang Gyo Seo, Eo Jin Kim, Sung Ju Kim, Kyoung Min Lee, In Ho Choi
BACKGROUND: Multi-segment Foot Models (MFM) have increased in use for both clinical and research applications; however, little is known about the gender differences of inter-segmental motions within the foot and ankle during gait. The objectives of this study were to analyze the gender differences of inter-segmental foot motion during gait in healthy young adults using a MFM with a 15-marker set. METHODS: One hundred healthy adults (50 males, 50 females) between 20 and 35 years of age who had normal function and no radiographic abnormality, were evaluated...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Gary Razinskas, Deirdre Kilbane, Pascal Melchior, Peter Geisler, Enno Krauss, Stefan Mathias, Bert Hecht, Martin Aeschlimann
The design of noble-metal plasmonic devices and nanocircuitry requires a fundamental understanding and control of the interference of plasmonic modes. Here we report the first visualization of the propagation and interference of guided modes in a showcase plasmonic nanocircuit using normal-incidence nonlinear two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). We demonstrate that in contrast to the commonly used grazing-incidence illumination scheme, normal-incidence PEEM provides a direct image of the structure's near-field intensity distribution due to the absence of beating patterns and despite the transverse character of the plasmonic modes...
October 10, 2016: Nano Letters
Xuhong Qu, Zhijian Liu, Yunlong Wang, Yi Fang, Mingyuan Du, Hong He
OBJECTIVE: To identify dentofacial anatomic traits associated with lower incisor cancellous bone thickness (LICBT) and then to assess their separate contributions and their combined contributions to the variation in LICBT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive sample of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data taken in a university hospital within the same setting was retrospectively reviewed. Within the sample, CBCT data of 252 eligible subjects were reconstructed and measured for LICBT, facial traits, and mandibular symphyseal traits...
October 10, 2016: Angle Orthodontist
Molly M Rathbun, Jennifer A McElhoe, Walther Parson, Mitchell M Holland
Resolution of mitochondrial (mt) DNA heteroplasmy is now possible when applying a massively parallel sequencing (MPS) approach, including minor components down to 1%. However, reporting thresholds and interpretation criteria will need to be established for calling heteroplasmic variants that address a number of important topics, one of which is DNA damage. We assessed the impact of increasing amounts of DNA damage on the interpretation of minor component sequence variants in the mtDNA control region, including low-level mixed sites...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Ieva Masliukaite, Julie M Hagen, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Sjoerd Repping, Fulco van der Veen, Madelon van Wely, Ans M M van Pelt
OBJECTIVE: To collect published data on spermatogonial quantity in the testes of healthy children and calculate the reference values of spermatogonial quantities throughout prepuberty. DESIGN: Systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE focusing on the number of spermatogonia per transverse tubular cross section (S/T) and spermatogonial density per cubic centimeter (cm(3)) of testicular volume (S/V) throughout prepuberty. SETTING: None...
October 4, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Mélanie A Frelat, Michael Coquerelle, Erik Trinkaus
OBJECTIVES: Whereas variation of modern human adult body size and shape has been widely studied in the context of ecogeographical clines, little is known about the differential growth patterns of transverse and longitudinal dimensions among human populations. Our study explored the ontogenetic variation of those body proportions in modern humans. METHODS: We compared results from four different approaches to study cross-sectional skeletal samples of Africans (n = 43), Amerindians (n = 69) and Europeans (n = 40) from 0 to 14 years of age...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Jie Yang, Markus Guehr, Theodore Vecchione, Matthew S Robinson, Renkai Li, Nick Hartmann, Xiaozhe Shen, Ryan Coffee, Jeff Corbett, Alan Fry, Kelly Gaffney, Tais Gorkhover, Carsten Hast, Keith Jobe, Igor Makasyuk, Alexander Reid, Joseph Robinson, Sharon Vetter, Fenglin Wang, Stephen Weathersby, Charles Yoneda, Xijie Wang, Martin Centurion
We present results on ultrafast gas electron diffraction (UGED) experiments with femtosecond resolution using the MeV electron gun at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. UGED is a promising method to investigate molecular dynamics in the gas phase because electron pulses can probe the structure with a high spatial resolution. Until recently, however, it was not possible for UGED to reach the relevant timescale for the motion of the nuclei during a molecular reaction. Using MeV electron pulses has allowed us to overcome the main challenges in reaching femtosecond resolution, namely delivering short electron pulses on a gas target, overcoming the effect of velocity mismatch between pump laser pulses and the probe electron pulses, and maintaining a low timing jitter...
September 20, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Pascale Aussillous, Zhenhai Zou, Élisabeth Guazzelli, Le Yan, Matthieu Wyart
Erosion shapes our landscape and occurs when a sufficient shear stress is exerted by a fluid on a sedimented layer. What controls erosion at a microscopic level remains debated, especially near the threshold forcing where it stops. Here we study, experimentally, the collective dynamics of the moving particles, using a setup where the system spontaneously evolves toward the erosion onset. We find that the spatial organization of the erosion flux is heterogeneous in space and occurs along channels of local flux σ whose distribution displays scaling near threshold and follows [Formula: see text], where J is the mean erosion flux...
October 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Menyoung Lee, John R Wallbank, Patrick Gallagher, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Vladimir I Fal'ko, David Goldhaber-Gordon
Rational design of long-period artificial lattices yields effects unavailable in simple solids. The moiré pattern in highly aligned graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures is a lateral superlattice with high electron mobility and an unusual electronic dispersion whose miniband edges and saddle points can be reached by electrostatic gating. We investigated the dynamics of electrons in moiré minibands by measuring ballistic transport between adjacent local contacts in a magnetic field, known as the transverse electron focusing effect...
September 30, 2016: Science
Yuanlei Yue, Shanshan Ke, Wei Zhou, Jin Chang
Understanding information coding is important for resolving the functions of visual neural circuits. The motion vision system is a classic model for studying information coding as it contains a concise and complete information-processing circuit. In Drosophila, the axon terminals of motion-detection neurons (T4 and T5) project to the lobula plate, which comprises four regions that respond to the four cardinal directions of motion. The lobula plate thus represents a topographic map on a transverse plane. This enables us to study the coding of diagonal motion by investigating its response pattern...
2016: PloS One
Eleni Parcha, Elias Bitsanis, Demetrios J Halazonetis
OBJECTIVE: To assess shape covariation of the palate and craniofacial complex (CFC) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs and corresponding maxillary casts of 100 children (8-10 years) and 100 adolescents (15-20 years) were digitized. Exclusion criteria were previous orthodontic treatment, craniofacial syndromes, mouth breathing, finger sucking, crossbite, tooth agenesis, and tooth impaction. Palatal shape was described with 239 surface and curve semilandmarks and craniofacial shape with 10 fixed landmarks and 117 curve semilandmarks...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Orthodontics
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