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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644666/frictional-resistance-within-the-wake-of-frictional-rupture-fronts
#1
Ilya Svetlizky, Elsa Bayart, Gil Cohen, Jay Fineberg
Frictional resistance to slip, τ, is determined by the real area of contact, A, and the shear strength of the contacts forming the frictional interface. We perform simultaneous high-speed local measurements of τ and A at the tail of propagating rupture fronts. Rate dependence is investigated over 2 orders of magnitude of local slip velocities which reach up to ∼1  m/s. A critical slip velocity is observed that signifies a transition in the frictional behavior: enhanced velocity weakening of A and τ...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642015/convergent-and-unidirectional-evolution-of-extremely-long-aedeagi-in-the-largest-feather-mite-genus-proctophyllodes-acari-proctophyllodidae-evidence-from-comparative-molecular-and-morphological-phylogenetics
#2
Pavel B Klimov, Sergey V Mironov, Barry M OConnor
Proctophyllodid feather mites (400+ species) are permanent (full-time) symbionts commonly occurring on passerine birds. Phenotypic evolution of these mites appears to be greatly influenced by characters related to reproduction (>87.5% of a total of 32 taxonomically important discrete characters) and male genitalic characters (21.9%). Because sexual selection could the major evolutionary driver in this system, we test the theoretical expectation that genitalic or sexually dimorphic characters should evolve more rapidly and divergently then other characters...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637916/model-based-analysis-of-an-outbreak-of-bubonic-plague-in-cairo-in-1801
#3
Xavier Didelot, Lilith K Whittles, Ian Hall
Bubonic plague has caused three deadly pandemics in human history: from the mid-sixth to mid-eighth century, from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-eighteenth century and from the end of the nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century. Between the second and the third pandemics, plague was causing sporadic outbreaks in only a few countries in the Middle East, including Egypt. Little is known about this historical phase of plague, even though it represents the temporal, geographical and phylogenetic transition between the second and third pandemics...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630912/a-nearly-water-saturated-mantle-transition-zone-inferred-from-mineral-viscosity
#4
Hongzhan Fei, Daisuke Yamazaki, Moe Sakurai, Nobuyoshi Miyajima, Hiroaki Ohfuji, Tomoo Katsura, Takafumi Yamamoto
An open question for solid-earth scientists is the amount of water in Earth's interior. The uppermost mantle and lower mantle contain little water because their dominant minerals, olivine and bridgmanite, have limited water storage capacity. In contrast, the mantle transition zone (MTZ) at a depth of 410 to 660 km is considered to be a potential water reservoir because its dominant minerals, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, can contain large amounts of water [up to 3 weight % (wt %)]. However, the actual amount of water in the MTZ is unknown...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627180/nano-ce2o2s-with-highly-enriched-oxygen-deficient-ce3-sites-supported-by-n-and-s-dual-doped-carbon-as-an-active-oxygen-supply-catalyst-for-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#5
Liu Yang, Zhuang Cai, Liang Hao, Zipeng Xing, Ying Dai, Xin Xu, Siyu Pan, Yaqiang Duan, Jinlong Zou
Design of rare-earth-metal oxide/oxysulfide catalysts with high activity and durability for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is still a grand challenge at present. In this study, Ce-species (Ce2O2S/CeO2)/N, S dual-doped carbon (Ce-species/NSC) catalysts with promising oxygen storage/release capacity are prepared at different temperatures (800-1000 oC) to enhance the ORR efficiency. Mechanisms for the effects of temperature on crystalline phase transition between CeO2 and Ce2O2S and structure evolution of Ce-species/NSCs are inferred to better understand their catalytic activity...
June 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626432/visible-social-interactions-do-not-support-the-development-of-false-belief-understanding-in-the-absence-of-linguistic-input-evidence-from-deaf-adult-homesigners
#6
Deanna L Gagne, Marie Coppola
Congenitally deaf individuals exhibit enhanced visuospatial abilities relative to normally hearing individuals. An early example is the increased sensitivity of deaf signers to stimuli in the visual periphery (Neville and Lawson, 1987a). While these enhancements are robust and extend across a number of visual and spatial skills, they seem not to extend to other domains which could potentially build on these enhancements. For example, congenitally deaf children, in the absence of adequate language exposure and acquisition, do not develop typical social cognition skills as measured by traditional Theory of Mind tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623333/relation-between-the-co-o-bond-lengths-and-the-spin-state-of-co-in-layered-cobaltates-a-high-pressure-study
#7
Yi-Ying Chin, Hong-Ji Lin, Zhiwei Hu, Chang-Yang Kuo, Daria Mikhailova, Jenn-Min Lee, Shu-Chih Haw, Shin-An Chen, Walter Schnelle, Hirofumi Ishii, Nozomu Hiraoka, Yen-Fa Liao, Ku-Ding Tsuei, Arata Tanaka, Liu Hao Tjeng, Chien-Te Chen, Jin-Ming Chen
The pressure-response of the Co-O bond lengths and the spin state of Co ions in a hybrid 3d-5d solid-state oxide Sr2Co0.5Ir0.5O4 with a layered K2NiF4-type structure was studied by using hard X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies. The Co-K and the Ir-L 3 X-ray absorption spectra demonstrate that the Ir(5+) and the Co(3+) valence states at ambient conditions are not affected by pressure. The Co Kβ emission spectra, on the other hand, revealed a gradual spin state transition of Co(3+) ions from a high-spin (S = 2) state at ambient pressure to a complete low-spin state (S = 0) at 40 GPa without crossing the intermediate spin state (S = 1)...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612081/betting-on-transitivity-in-probabilistic-causal-chains
#8
Dennis Hebbelmann, Momme von Sydow
Causal reasoning is crucial to people's decision making in probabilistic environments. It may rely directly on data about covariation between variables (correspondence) or on inferences based on reasonable constraints if larger causal models are constructed based on local relations (coherence). For causal chains an often assumed constraint is transitivity. For probabilistic causal relations, mismatches between such transitive inferences and direct empirical evidence may lead to distortions of empirical evidence...
June 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611810/evolutionary-analysis-of-mikc-c-type-mads-box-genes-in-gymnosperms-and-angiosperms
#9
Fei Chen, Xingtan Zhang, Xing Liu, Liangsheng Zhang
MIKC(c)-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that control floral organ morphogenesis and flowering time in flowering plants. Here, in order to determine when the subfamilies of MIKC(c) originated and their early evolutionary trajectory, we sampled and analyzed the genomes and large-scale transcriptomes representing all the orders of gymnosperms and basal angiosperms. Through phylogenetic inference, the MIKC(c)-type MADS-box genes were subdivided into 14 monophyletic clades. Among them, the gymnosperm orthologs of AGL6, SEP, AP1, GMADS, SOC1, AGL32, AP3/PI, SVP, AGL15, ANR1, and AG were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594840/phylogeography-on-the-rocks-the-contribution-of-current-and-historical-factors-in-shaping-the-genetic-structure-of-chthamalus-montagui-crustacea-cirripedia
#10
Federica G Pannacciulli, Ferruccio Maltagliati, Christian de Guttry, Yair Achituv
The model marine broadcast-spawner barnacle Chthamalus montagui was investigated to understand its genetic structure and quantify levels of population divergence, and to make inference on historical demography in terms of time of divergence and changes in population size. We collected specimens from rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic Ocean (4 locations), Mediterranean Sea (8) and Black Sea (1). The 312 sequences 537 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I allowed to detect 130 haplotypes. High within-location genetic variability was recorded, with haplotype diversity ranging between h = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590074/evolutionary-bottlenecks-in-brackish-water-habitats-drive-the-colonization-of-fresh-water-by-stingrays
#11
Kim Nadine Kirchhoff, Torsten Hauffe, Björn Stelbrink, Christian Albrecht, Thomas Wilke
Species richness in freshwater bony fishes depends on two main processes: the transition into and the diversification within freshwater habitats. In contrast to bony fishes, only few cartilaginous fishes, mostly stingrays (Myliobatoidei), were able to colonize fresh water. Respective transition processes have been mainly assessed from a physiological and morphological perspective, indicating that the freshwater lifestyle is strongly limited by the ability to perform osmoregulatory adaptations. However, the transition history and the effect of physiological constraints on the diversification in stingrays remain poorly understood...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559355/assessing-human-weaning-practices-with-calcium-isotopes-in-tooth-enamel
#12
Théo Tacail, Béatrice Thivichon-Prince, Jeremy E Martin, Cyril Charles, Laurent Viriot, Vincent Balter
Weaning practices differ among great apes and likely diverged during the course of human evolution, but behavioral inference from the fossil record is hampered by a lack of unambiguous biomarkers. Here, we show that early-life dietary transitions are recorded in human deciduous tooth enamel as marked variations in Ca isotope ratios (δ(44/42)Ca). Using a sequential microsampling method along the enamel growth axis, we collected more than 150 enamel microsamples from 51 deciduous teeth of 12 different modern human individuals of known dietary histories, as well as nine enamel samples from permanent third molars...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546309/inferential-learning-of-serial-order-of-perceptual-categories-by-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#13
Natalie Tanner, Greg Jensen, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Category learning in animals is typically trained explicitly, in most instances by varying the exemplars of a single category in a matching-to-sample task. Here, we show that male rhesus macaques can learn categories by a transitive inference paradigm in which novel exemplars of five categories were presented throughout training. Instead of requiring decisions about a constant set of repetitively presented stimuli, we studied the macaque's ability to determine the relative order of multiple exemplars of particular stimuli that were rarely repeated...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540953/a-novel-anion-doping-strategy-to-enhance-upconversion-luminescence-in-nagd-moo4-2-yb-3-er-3-nanophosphors
#14
Anming Li, Dekang Xu, Hao Lin, Lu Yao, Shenghong Yang, Yuanzhi Shao, Yueli Zhang, Zhenqiang Chen
We propose a novel and efficient F(-) anion doping strategy for enhancing upconversion luminescence in upconversion nanophosphors. NaGd(MoO4)2:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanophosphors doped with different F(-) contents are synthesized hydrothermally. Rietveld refinement results obtained from X-ray diffraction data indicate that the Gd-O bond length decreases and the O-Gd-O bond angle varies with increasing F(-) content, resulting in augmented local crystal field strength and distorted local site symmetry of the dopant lanthanide sites...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535461/raman-spectroscopic-study-of-cyclohexane-at-pressures-below-1000mpa
#15
Erwei Qiao, Haifei Zheng
At present, the room temperature freezing pressure of cyclohexane is still uncertain, and the phase transition pressure of solid I - solid III is not reliable at ambient temperature. In this work, we have performed a Raman spectroscopic study of cyclohexane in a Moissanite anvil cell at pressures below 1000MPa at 25°C, and analyzed the characteristic of Raman brands νs(CH2), νas(CH2) and νb(Ring). Two phase transition pressures 80MPa and 550MPa were determined by a quartz pressure gauge, and they are the room temperature freezing pressure of cyclohexane and the phase transition pressure of solid I to solid III, respectively...
May 16, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524679/transition-from-collisional-to-collisionless-regimes-in-interpenetrating-plasma-flows-on-the-national-ignition-facility
#16
J S Ross, D P Higginson, D Ryutov, F Fiuza, R Hatarik, C M Huntington, D H Kalantar, A Link, B B Pollock, B A Remington, H G Rinderknecht, G F Swadling, D P Turnbull, S Weber, S Wilks, D H Froula, M J Rosenberg, T Morita, Y Sakawa, H Takabe, R P Drake, C Kuranz, G Gregori, J Meinecke, M C Levy, M Koenig, A Spitkovsky, R D Petrasso, C K Li, H Sio, B Lahmann, A B Zylstra, H-S Park
A study of the transition from collisional to collisionless plasma flows has been carried out at the National Ignition Facility using high Mach number (M>4) counterstreaming plasmas. In these experiments, CD-CD and CD-CH planar foils separated by 6-10 mm are irradiated with laser energies of 250 kJ per foil, generating ∼1000  km/s plasma flows. Varying the foil separation distance scales the ion density and average bulk velocity and, therefore, the ion-ion Coulomb mean free path, at the interaction region at the midplane...
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518200/multichromophoric-hybrid-species-made-of-perylene-bisimide-derivatives-and-ru-ii-and-os-ii-polypyridine-subunits
#17
Francesco Nastasi, Giuseppina La Ganga, Sebastiano Campagna, Zois Syrgiannis, Francesco Rigodanza, Stefania Vitale, Antonino Licciardello, Maurizio Prato
Herein, the synthesis and the photophysical and redox properties of a new perylene bisimide (PBI) species (L), bearing two 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands at the two imide positions of the PBI, and its dinuclear Ru(ii) and Os(ii) complexes, [(bpy)2Ru(μ-L)Ru(bpy)2](PF6)4 (Ru2; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [(Me2-bpy)2Os(μ-L)Os(Me2-bpy)2](PF6)4 (Os2; Me2-bpy = (4,4'-dimethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine), are reported. The absorption spectra of the compounds are dominated by the structured bands of the PBI subunit due to the lowest-energy spin-allowed π-π* transition...
May 31, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515314/the-mzidentml-data-standard-version-1-2-supporting-advances-in-proteome-informatics
#18
Juan Antonio Vizcaíno, Gerhard Mayer, Simon R Perkins, Harald Barsnes, Marc Vaudel, Yasset Perez-Riverol, Tobias Ternent, Julian Uszkoreit, Martin Eisenacher, Lutz Fischer, Juri Rappsilber, Eugen Netz, Mathias Walzer, Oliver Kohlbacher, Alexander Leitner, Robert J Chalkley, Fawaz Ghali, Salvador Martínez-Bartolomé, Eric W Deutsch, Andrew R Jones
The first stable version of the Proteomics Standards Initiative mzIdentML open data standard (version 1.1) was published in 2012 - capturing the outputs of peptide and protein identification software. In the intervening years, the standard has become well supported in both commercial and open software, as well as a submission and download format for public repositories. Here we report a new release of mzIdentML (version 1.2) that is required to keep pace with emerging practice in proteome informatics. New features have been added to support: (i) scores associated with localization of modifications on peptides; (ii) statistics performed at the level of peptides; (iii) identification of cross-linked peptides; and (iv) support for proteogenomics approaches...
May 17, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514147/fragmentation-of-valence-and-core-shell-cl-2p-excited-c2cl4-molecule
#19
A C F Santos, M A MacDonald, A B Rocha, N Appathurai, M M Sant'Anna, W Holetz, R Wehlitz, L Zuin
The dynamics of the photofragmentation pathways of tetrachloroethylene with photon energies from 15 up to 250 eV encompassing the Cl 2p edge is presented. In order to distinguish the fragmentation channels, the ionic fragments were separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio, measured in coincidence with the photoelectrons, and collected as a function of the incident photon energy. Distinct minima or maxima are found in the partial ion yield in the region between 40 and 50 eV. These features are believed to be associated with the Cooper minimum which results from a molecular orbital with a strong atomic 3p subshell character...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513668/computational-analysis-of-site-differences-in-selective-aliphatic-c-h-hydroxylation-by-nonheme-iron-oxo-complexes
#20
Jian Wang, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Po-Heng Lee
Selective C-H hydroxylation by nonheme iron complexes offers a promising method in the field of organic synthesis. Aliphatic C-H bond oxidation reactions of pivalate (R) catalyzed by [Fe(S,S-PDP)(CH3CN)2](2+) (CAT1) were examined using the density functional theory. Our calculations of the CH3CN solvent agree with the experimental findings. However, it was observed that the gas-phase results did not replicate selective C-H hydroxylation observed experimentally when CAT1 catalyzed hydrocarbon oxidations by H2O2via an HO-Fe(V)[double bond, length as m-dash]O oxidant (CAT1a)...
May 31, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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