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Molecular medical imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344776/dawning-of-a-new-era-in-trp-channel-structural-biology-by-cryo-electron-microscopy
#1
REVIEW
M Gregor Madej, Christine M Ziegler
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) permits the determination of atomic protein structures by averaging large numbers of individual projection images recorded at cryogenic temperatures-a method termed single-particle analysis. The cryo-preservation traps proteins within a thin glass-like ice layer, making literally a freeze image of proteins in solution. Projections of randomly adopted orientations are merged to reconstruct a 3D density map. While atomic resolution for highly symmetric viruses was achieved already in 2009, the development of new sensitive and fast electron detectors has enabled cryo-EM for smaller and asymmetrical proteins including fragile membrane proteins...
January 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341024/advanced-contrast-agents-for-multimodal-biomedical-imaging-based-on-nanotechnology
#2
Daniel Calle, Paloma Ballesteros, Sebastián Cerdán
Clinical imaging modalities have reached a prominent role in medical diagnosis and patient management in the last decades. Different image methodologies as Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Tomography, X-Rays, or Magnetic Resonance Imaging are in continuous evolution to satisfy the increasing demands of current medical diagnosis. Progress in these methodologies has been favored by the parallel development of increasingly more powerful contrast agents. These are molecules that enhance the intrinsic contrast of the images in the tissues where they accumulate, revealing noninvasively the presence of characteristic molecular targets or differential physiopathological microenvironments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337111/early-re-staging-and-molecular-subtype-shift-surveillance-of-locally-recurrent-or-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-new-pet-ct-integrated-precise-algorithm
#3
Wei Guo, Bing Hao, Nana Luo, Dan Ruan, Xiuyu Guo, Hao-Jun Chen, Hua Wu, Long Sun
Recurrent breast cancer poses considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for clinic. Clinical suspicion of recurrence must be first confirmed by imaging studies. Then re-biopsy of suspected recurrence and metastasis in patients with breast cancer is recommended in the practice guidelines of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) to confirm whether the molecular subtype changes. It may change the individual treatment plan directly. Our research provided an integrated algorithm for locally recurrent or distant metastatic breast cancer, including early relapse detection and subsequently a new practical PET/CT imaging guide biopsy approach for surveilling molecular subtype shifts of the recurrent breast cancer...
January 11, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332985/civility-cloud-based-interactive-visualization-of-tractography-brain-connectome
#4
Danaële Puechmaille, Martin Styner, Juan C Prieto
Cloud based Interactive Visualization of Tractography Brain Connectome (CIVILITY) is an interactive visualization tool of brain connectome in the cloud. This application submits tasks to remote computing grids were the CIVILITY-tractography pipeline is deployed. The application will list the running tasks for the user and once a task is completed the brain connectome is visualized using Hierarchical Edge Bundling. The analysis pipeline uses FSL tools (bedpostx and probtrackx2) to generate a triangular matrix indicating the connectivity strength between different regions in the brain...
March 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330674/advances-in-serological-imaging-techniques-and-molecular-diagnosis-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#5
REVIEW
Ali Rostami, Panagiotis Karanis, Shirzad Fallahi
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is worldwide distributed zoonotic infection disease with medical importance in immunocompromised patients, pregnant women and congenitally infected newborns. Having basic information on the traditional and new developed methods is essential for general physicians and infectious disease specialists for choosing a suitable diagnostic approach for rapid and accurate diagnosis of the disease and, consequently, timely and effective treatment. METHODS: We conducted English literature searches in PubMed from 1989 to 2016 using relevant keywords and summarized the recent advances in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis...
January 12, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326867/cavitary-lung-lesion-suspicious-for-malignancy-reveals-mycobacterium-xenopi
#6
Sumit Fogla, Vaishali M Pansare, Luis G Camero, Uzma Syeda, Naveen Patil, Arun Chaudhury
We report the case of a 68-year-old gentleman who presented with musculoskeletal chest pain which appeared suddenly when he bent over with his dog. The chest pain was localized to the left lower chest and increased with movement and deep breathing. The patient did not complain weight loss, night sweat, fever or chill. He complained of mild cough, with expectoration of whitish mucus. Imaging revealed cavitary chest lesion in the right upper lobe, which was initially suspected to be lung cancer. The patient had a 50-year-old history of smoking 2 packs per day...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323551/gamma-imaging-guided-minimally-invasive-breast-biopsy-initial-clinical-experience
#7
Rachel F Brem, Anita K Mehta, Jocelyn A Rapelyea, Esma A Akin, Adriana M Bazoberry, Christel D Velasco
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate our initial experience with gamma imaging-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in women with abnormal findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients undergoing breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), also known as molecular breast imaging (MBI), between April 2011 and October 2015 found 117 nonpalpable mammographically and sonographically occult lesions for which gamma imaging-guided biopsies were recommended...
January 11, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323224/x-ray-diffraction-tomography-with-limited-projection-information
#8
Zheyuan Zhu, Alexander Katsevich, Anuj J Kapadia, Joel A Greenberg, Shuo Pang
X-ray diffraction tomography (XDT) records the spatially-resolved X-ray diffraction profile of an extended object. Compared to conventional transmission-based tomography, XDT displays high intrinsic contrast among materials of similar electron density and improves the accuracy in material identification thanks to the molecular structural information carried by diffracted photons. However, due to the weak diffraction signal, a tomographic scan covering the entire object typically requires a synchrotron facility to make the acquisition time more manageable...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322089/the-wisconsin-registry-for-alzheimer-s-prevention-a-review-of-findings-and-current-directions
#9
REVIEW
Sterling C Johnson, Rebecca L Koscik, Erin M Jonaitis, Lindsay R Clark, Kimberly D Mueller, Sara E Berman, Barbara B Bendlin, Corinne D Engelman, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Kirk J Hogan, Sanjay Asthana, Cynthia M Carlsson, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager
The Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention is a longitudinal observational cohort study enriched with persons with a parental history (PH) of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Since late 2001, Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention has enrolled 1561 people at a mean baseline age of 54 years. Participants return for a second visit 4 years after baseline, and subsequent visits occur every 2 years. Eighty-one percent (1270) of participants remain active in the study at a current mean age of 64 and 9 years of follow-up...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321822/pursuing-meaningful-end-points-for-stem-cell-therapy-assessment-in-ischemic-cardiac-disease
#10
REVIEW
Maria Dorobantu, Nicoleta-Monica Popa-Fotea, Mihaela Popa, Iulia Rusu, Miruna Mihaela Micheu
Despite optimal interventional and medical therapy, ischemic heart disease is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although not included in standard of care rehabilitation, stem cell therapy (SCT) could be a solution for prompting cardiac regeneration. Multiple studies have been published from the beginning of SCT until now, but overall no unanimous conclusion could be drawn in part due to the lack of appropriate end-points. In order to appreciate the impact of SCT, multiple markers from different categories should be considered: Structural, biological, functional, physiological, but also major adverse cardiac events or quality of life...
December 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319504/automated-cell-type-classification-in-intact-tissues-by-single-cell-molecular-profiling
#11
Monica Nagendran, Daniel P Riordan, Pehr B Harbury, Tushar J Desai
A major challenge in biology is identifying distinct cell classes and mapping their interactions in vivo. Tissue-dissociative technologies enable deep single cell molecular profiling but do not provide spatial information. We developed a proximity ligation- in situ hybridization technology (PLISH) with exceptional signal strength, specificity, and sensitivity in tissue. Multiplexed data sets can be acquired using barcoded probes and rapid label-image-erase cycles, with automated calculation of single cell profiles, enabling clustering and anatomical re-mapping of cells...
January 10, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303444/reductions-in-brain-pericytes-are-associated-with-arteriovenous-malformation-vascular-instability
#12
Ethan A Winkler, Harjus Birk, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Xiaolin Chen, John K Yue, Diana Guo, W Caleb Rutledge, George F Lasker, Carlene Partow, Tarik Tihan, Edward F Chang, Hua Su, Helen Kim, Brian P Walcott, Michael T Lawton
OBJECTIVE Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are rupture-prone tangles of blood vessels with direct shunting of blood flow between arterial and venous circulations. The molecular and/or cellular mechanisms contributing to bAVM pathogenesis and/or destabilization in sporadic lesions have remained elusive. Initial insights into AVM formation have been gained through models of genetic AVM syndromes. And while many studies have focused on endothelial cells, the contributions of other vascular cell types have yet to be systematically studied...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280746/congenital-hyperinsulinism-diagnosis-and-treatment-update
#13
Hüseyin Demirbilek, Khalid Hussain
Pancreatic β-cells are finely tuned to secrete insulin so that plasma glucose levels are maintained within a narrow physiological range (3.5-5.5 mmol/L). Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) is the inappropriate seretion of insulin in the presence of low plasma glucose levels and leads to severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children. Mutations in 12 different key genes (ABCC8, KCNJ11, GLUD1, GCK, HADH, SLC16A1, UCP2, HNF4A, HNF1A, HK1, PGM1 and PMM2) that are involved in the regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells have been described to be responsible for the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to congenital HH...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278620/95th-anniversary-of-pathophysiology-in-croatia
#14
Zdenko Kovač
University level of Pathophysiology research and teaching in Croatia had started with the third year of Medical School of Zagreb in academic year 1919./20. Ever since, despite historical changes of the main university stake holder, the state of Croatia, Department of Pathophysiology development progressed and has made visible academic achievements, with a broader effect in medical community. The first 95 years of academic tradition and major achievements are shortly described in this paper. Professor Miroslav Mikuličić envisioned Pathophysiology in close relations with Pharmacology and made the pioneering steps of establishing the "double" department at Šalata...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274276/recent-progress-in-11-c-carbon-dioxide-11-c-co2-and-11-c-carbon-monoxide-11-c-co-chemistry
#15
Carlotta Taddei, Antony D Gee
[11 C]Carbon dioxide ([11 C]CO2 ) and [11 C]carbon monoxide ([11 C]CO) are two attractive precursors for labelling the carbonyl position (C=O) in a vast range of functionalised molecules (e.g. ureas, amides and carboxylic acids). The development of radiosynthetic methods to produce functionalised 11 C-labelled compounds is required to enhance the radiotracers available for positron emission tomography (PET), molecular and medical imaging applications. Following a brief summary of secondary 11 C-precursor production and uses, the review focuses on recent progress with direct 11 C-carboxylation routes with [11 C]CO2 and 11 C-carbonylation with [11 C]CO...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273451/loss-of-pten-and-activation-of-kras-synergistically-induce-formation-of-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasia-from-pancreatic-ductal-cells-in-mice
#16
Janel L Kopp, Claire L Dubois, David F Schaeffer, Atefeh Samani, Farnaz Taghizadeh, Robert W Cowan, Andrew D Rhim, Bangyan L Stiles, Mark Valasek, Maike Sander
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasias (IPMN) are precancerous cystic lesions that can develop into pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). These large macroscopic lesions are frequently detected during medical imaging, but it is unclear how they form or progress to PDAC. We aimed to identify cells that form IPMNs and mutations that promote IPMN development and progression. METHODS: We generated mice with disruption of Pten specifically in ductal cells (Sox9CreERT2;Ptenflox/flox;R26RYFP or PtenΔDuct/ΔDuct mice) and used PtenΔDuct/+ and Pten+/+ mice as controls...
December 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258335/targeting-of-microbubbles-contrast-agents-for-ultrasound-molecular-imaging
#17
Shiying Wang, John A Hossack, Alexander L Klibanov
For contrast ultrasound imaging, the most efficient contrast agents comprise highly compressible gas-filled microbubbles. These micrometer-sized particles are typically filled with low-solubility perfluorocarbon gases, and coated with a thin shell, often a lipid monolayer. These particles circulate in the bloodstream for several minutes; they demonstrate good safety and are already in widespread clinical use as blood pool agents with very low dosage necessary (sub-mg per injection). As ultrasound is an ubiquitous medical imaging modality, with tens of millions of exams conducted annually, its use for molecular/targeted imaging of biomarkers of disease may enable wider implementation of personalized medicine applications, precision medicine, non-invasive quantification of biomarkers, targeted guidance of biopsy and therapy in real time...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243353/first-in-human-evaluation-of-the-vascular-biocompatibility-and-biomechanical-performance-of-a-novel-ultra-high-molecular-weight-amorphous-plla-bioresorbable-scaffold-in-the-absence-of-anti-proliferative-drugs-two-year-imaging-results-in-humans
#18
Miguel Moncada, Juan A Delgado, Antonio Colombo, Pawel Gasior, Kamal Ramzipoor, Alex Estrada, Chang Lee, Danny Dokko, Juan F Granada
OBJECTIVES: In this first-in-human study, we prospectively studied the vascular compatibility and mechanical performance of a novel bare ultra-high molecular weight amorphous PLLA bioresorbable scaffold (BRS, FORTITUDE®, Amaranth Medical, Mountain View, California) up to two years after implantation using multimodality imaging techniques. BACKGROUND: The vascular biocompatibility of polymers used in BRS has not been fully characterized in the absence of anti-proliferative drugs...
December 15, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234601/the-characterization-of-an-economic-and-portable-led-based-photoacoustic-imaging-system-to-facilitate-molecular-imaging
#19
Ali Hariri, Jeanne Lemaster, Junxin Wang, AnanthaKrishnan S Jeevarathinam, Daniel L Chao, Jesse V Jokerst
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a non-invasive, high-resolution hybrid imaging modality that combines optical excitation and ultrasound detection. PAI can image endogenous chromophores (melanin, hemoglobin, etc.) and exogenous contrast agents in different medical applications. However, most current equipment uses sophisticated and complicated OPO lasers with tuning and stability features inconsistent with broad clinical deployment. As the number of applications of PAI in medicine increases, there is an urgent need to make the imaging equipment more compact, portable, and affordable...
March 2018: Photoacoustics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218895/deep-integrative-analysis-for-survival-prediction
#20
Chenglong Huang, Albert Zhang, Guanghua Xiao
Survival prediction is very important in medical treatment. However, recent leading research is challenged by two factors: 1) the datasets usually come with multi-modality; and 2) sample sizes are relatively small. To solve the above challenges, we developed a deep survival learning model to predict patients' survival outcomes by integrating multi-view data. The proposed network contains two sub-networks, one view-specific and one common sub-network. We designated one CNN-based and one FCN-based sub-network to efficiently handle pathological images and molecular profiles, respectively...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
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