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Molecular medical imaging

Junu Bae, Zijian Zhou, Thomas Theis, Warren S Warren, Qiu Wang
Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (HP-MR) is a powerful, sensitive, and noninvasive approach to visualize molecular structure, function, and dynamics in vitro and in vivo. Current applications of HP-MR mostly rely on hyperpolarization of target compounds in dedicated hyperpolarizers because biomolecules can typically not be hyperpolarized directly in vivo. The injected hyperpolarized probes often undergo multiple metabolic pathways in living systems, and it remains challenging to localize and identify specific targets with high chemical selectivity...
March 2018: Science Advances
D Bradley Welling, Robert K Jackler
PURPOSE: To review contributions of the American Otological Society (AOS) over the most recent quarter century (1993-2018) and to comment on possible future evolution of the field during the quarter century to come. METHODS: Retrospective review of selected topics from the AOS transactions, distinguished lectureships over the past 25 years, and selective reflection by the authors. Speculation on potential advances of the next quarter century derived from emerging topics in the current literature and foreseeable trends in science and technology are also proffered for consideration (and possible future ridicule)...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Xiaowei Wang, Amy Kate Searle, Jan David Hohmann, Ao Leo Liu, Meike-Kristin Abraham, Jathushan Palasubramaniam, Bock Lim, Yu Yao, Maria Wallert, Eefang Yu, Yung-Chih Chen, Karlheinz Peter
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an often deadly disease without medical, non-invasive treatment options. The upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on aortic endothelium provides an early target epitope for a novel biotechnological theranostic approach. MicroRNA-126 was used as a therapeutic agent, based on its capability to downregulate VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells and thereby reduces leukocyte adhesion and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Ultrasound microbubbles were chosen as carriers, allowing both molecular imaging as well as targeted therapy of AAA...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Ephraim E Parent, David M Schuster
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging method that can exploit various aspects of tumor biology to enable greater detection of prostate cancer than can be provided by morphologic imaging alone. Anti-1-amino-3-[18 F]-flurocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18 F-fluciclovine) is a non-naturally occurring amino acid PET radiotracer that is recently United States Food and Drug Administration approved for detection of suspected recurrent prostate cancer. The tumor imaging features of this radiotracer mirror the upregulation of transmembrane amino acid transport that occurs in prostate cancer due to increased amino acid metabolism for energy and protein synthesis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Alex Root, Peter Allen, Paul Tempst, Kenneth Yu
Approximately 75% of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are diagnosed with advanced cancer, which cannot be safely resected. The most commonly used biomarker CA19-9 has inadequate sensitivity and specificity for early detection, which we define as Stage I/II cancers. Therefore, progress in next-generation biomarkers is greatly needed. Recent reports have validated a number of biomarkers, including combination assays of proteins and DNA mutations; however, the history of translating promising biomarkers to clinical utility suggests that several major hurdles require careful consideration by the medical community...
March 7, 2018: Cancers
Andrzej Grzybowski, Waldemar Elikowski, Magdalena Gaca-Wysocka
RATIONALE: To analyze cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidity of acute unilateral visual loss due to combined central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO). PATIENT CONCERNS: Among patients with retinal vein or artery occlusion hospitalized at the Department of Ophthalmology between January 2011 and August 2017, subjects with combined CRVO/CLRAO were selected. All of them underwent ophthalmologic and cardiologic examination, including fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, 12-lead electrocardiogram, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, carotid Doppler sonography, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and a panel of laboratory tests...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xiaohong Li, Wenchao Li, Wuning Mo, Zheng Yang
RATIONALE: Both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) are small round cell tumors, and it is difficult to differential diagnose them because of overlapping clinical, radiographic, histologic, and immunophenotypic features. PATIENT'S CONCERNS: A 5-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital because of pains in his left leg without obvious inducement and lameness worsening with walking over a two 2-month period. DIAGNOSES: Based on the comprehensive analysis of radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathology biopsy and immunohistochemistry, the lesion was confirmed to be ES...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yilong Wang, Shuyang Sun, Zhiyuan Zhang, Donglu Shi
Medical science has recently advanced to the point where diagnosis and therapeutics can be carried out with high precision, even at the molecular level. A new field of "precision medicine" has consequently emerged with specific clinical implications and challenges that can be well-addressed by newly developed nanomaterials. Here, a nanoscience approach to precision medicine is provided, with a focus on cancer therapy, based on a new concept of "molecularly-defined cancers." "Next-generation sequencing" is introduced to identify the oncogene that is responsible for a class of cancers...
March 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
David Faustino Ângelo, Pedro Morouço, Florencio Monje Gil, Lisete Mónico, Raúl González-Gárcia, Rita Sousa, Lia Neto, Inês Caldeira, Margaret Smith, Susan Smith, David Sanz, Fábio Abade Dos Santos, Mário Pinho, Belmira Carrapiço, Sandra Cavaco, Carla Moura, Nuno Alves, Francisco Salvado, Christopher Little
INTRODUCTION: The role of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery is not well defined due to a lack of quality randomized controlled clinical trials, comparing different TMJ surgical treatments with medical and placebo interventions. The temporomandibular joint interposal study (TEMPOJIMS) is a rigorous preclinical trial divided in 2 phases. In phase 1 the authors investigated the role of the TMJ disc and in phase 2 the authors evaluated 3 different interposal materials. The present work of TEMPOJIMS - phase 1, aims to evaluate histopathologic and imaging changes of bilateral discectomy and discopexy in Black Merino sheep TMJ, using a high-quality trial following the ARRIVE guidelines...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Gregory R Naumiec, Lisheng Cai, Shuiyu Lu, Victor W Pike
Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important molecular imaging technique for medical diagnosis, biomedical research and drug development. PET tracers for molecular imaging contain β+ -emitting radionuclides, such as carbon-11 ( t 1/2 = 20.4 min) or fluorine-18 ( t 1/2 = 109.8 min). The [18 F]2-fluoro-pyridyl moiety features in a few prominent PET radiotracers, not least because this moiety is usually resistant to unwanted radiodefluorination in vivo. Various methods have been developed for labeling these radiotracers from cyclotron-produced no-carrier-added [18 F]fluoride ion, mainly based on substitution of a leaving group, such as halide (Cl or Br), or preferably a better leaving group, such as nitro or trimethylammonium...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Dalong Ni, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Peng Huang, Weibo Cai
As one of the most biocompatible and well-tolerated inorganic nanomaterials, silica-based nanoparticles (SiNPs) have received extensive attention over the last several decades. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of radiolabeled SiNPs has provided a highly sensitive, noninvasive, and quantitative readout of the organ/tissue distribution, pharmacokinetics, and tumor targeting efficiency in vivo, which can greatly expedite the clinical translation of these promising NPs. Encouraged by the successful PET imaging of patients with metastatic melanoma using124 I-labeled ultrasmall SiNPs (known as Cornell dots or C dots) and their approval as an Investigational New Drug (IND) by the United States Food and Drug Administration, different radioisotopes (64 Cu,89 Zr,18 F,68 Ga,124 I, etc...
February 28, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Rakesh Gupta, Beena Rai
Nanoparticles are used in the medical field for various applications like cell imaging, drug delivery, gene and si-RNA delivery, to name a few. Designing nanoparticles for a given application, purely based on the trial and error experimentation, requires a lot of time and effort. In this study we show that computer simulations could help in designing nanoparticles for drug delivery thus reducing the time and cost associated with their design, development and deployment. The permeation of nanoparticles, having various surface chemistries and patterns, through the skin lipid bilayer was studied using constrained and unconstrained molecular dynamics simulations...
February 27, 2018: Nanoscale
Wei Li, Xiaoxue Xu, Wenjiang Li, Yun Zhao, Minfang Chen
A novel, cost-effective biomedical triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been fabricated based on biocompatible medical 317L stainless steel (317L SS) and polylactic acid (PLLA) films as the friction layers, whose surface roughness designed by simple and low-cost laser etching and hot-embossing template methods, respectively. With the increase of the TENG's tribo-interface roughness and the molecular weight of the PLLA, the power output of TENG was greatly increased owing to more charges produced and excellent mechanical properties of PLLA possessed...
February 27, 2018: Nanotechnology
Doo-Sik Kong, Junhyung Kim, Gyuha Ryu, Hye-Jin You, Joon Kyung Sung, Yong Hee Han, Hye-Mi Shin, In-Hee Lee, Sung-Tae Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Seung Hong Choi, Jeong Won Choi, Ho Jun Seol, Jung-Il Lee, Do-Hyun Nam
Quantitative imaging biomarkers have increasingly emerged in the field of research utilizing available imaging modalities. We aimed to identify good surrogate radiomic features that can represent genetic changes of tumors, thereby establishing noninvasive means for predicting treatment outcome. From May 2012 to June 2014, we retrospectively identified 65 patients with treatment-naïve glioblastoma with available clinical information from the Samsung Medical Center data registry. Preoperative MR imaging data were obtained for all 65 patients with primary glioblastoma...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Leijenaar Rth, Bogowicz M, Jochems A, Hoebers Fjp, Frederik Fwr, Huang Sh, Chan B, Waldron Jn, O'Sullivan B, Rietveld D, Leemans Cr, Brakenhoff Rh, Riesterer O, Tanadini-Lang S, Guckenberger M, Ikenberg K, Lambin P
OBJECTIVES: HPV positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPSCC) is biologically and clinically different from HPV negative OPSCC. Here, we evaluate the use of a radiomic approach to identify the HPV status of OPSCC. METHODS: Four independent cohorts, totaling 778 OPSCC patients with HPV determined by p16 were collected. We randomly assigned 80% of all data for model training (N=628) and 20% for validation (N=150). On the pre-treatment CT images, 902 radiomic features were calculated from the gross tumor volume (GTV)...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Martin Körsgen, Bonnie J Tyler, Marcel Heeger, Moritz Buhl, Heinrich F Arlinghaus
The use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is of increasing interest for biological and medical applications due to its ability to provide chemical information on a submicrometer scale. However, the detection of larger biomolecules such as phospholipids and peptides is often inhibited by high fragmentation rates and low ionization efficiencies. One way to increase the secondary ion molecular yield is to chemically modify the surface using the matrix-enhanced SIMS approach, where an organic matrix is placed upon the surface...
February 8, 2018: Biointerphases
Gianfranco Paternò, Paolo Cardarelli, Adriano Contillo, Mauro Gambaccini, Angelo Taibi
Advanced applications of digital mammography such as dual-energy and tomosynthesis require multiple exposures and thus deliver higher dose compared to standard mammograms. A straightforward manner to reduce patient dose without affecting image quality would be removal of the anti-scatter grid, provided that the involved reconstruction algorithms are able to take the scatter figure into account [1]. Monte Carlo simulations are very well suited for the calculation of X-ray scatter distribution and can be used to integrate such information within the reconstruction software...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Donald J Johann, Mathew Steliga, Ik J Shin, Donghoon Yoon, Konstantinos Arnaoutakis, Laura Hutchins, Meeiyueh Liu, Jason Liem, Karl Walker, Andy Pereira, Mary Yang, Susanne K Jeffus, Erich Peterson, Joshua Xu
Liquid biopsy methodologies, for the purpose of plasma genotyping of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of solid tumors, are a new class of novel molecular assays. Such assays are rapidly entering the clinical sphere of research-based monitoring in translational oncology, especially for thoracic malignancies. Potential applications for these blood-based cfDNA assays include: (i) initial diagnosis, (ii) response to therapy and follow-up, (iii) tumor evolution, and (iv) minimal residual disease evaluation. Precision medicine will benefit from cutting-edge molecular diagnostics, especially regarding treatment decisions in the adjuvant setting, where avoiding over-treatment and unnecessary toxicity are paramount...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
(no author information available yet)
Recently, prostate cancer has become the most common male urological cancer worldwide. However, it was difficult for the currently widely available imaging modalities to precisely diagnose this disease. With the development of nuclear medical technology, molecular imaging targeting prostate specific membrane antigen has been introduced into China. To promote the standardization of this imaging modality, the experts consensus was published by Chinese Anticancer Association Genitourinary Oncology Committee and recommendations for its application in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer were attached, which would be helpful for doctors who are conducting or preparing for this examination...
February 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Bradley J Erickson, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Timothy L Kline, Zeynettin Akkus, Kenneth Philbrick, Alexander D Weston
Deep learning (DL) is a popular method that is used to perform many important tasks in radiology and medical imaging. Some forms of DL are able to accurately segment organs (essentially, trace the boundaries, enabling volume measurements or calculation of other properties). Other DL networks are able to predict important properties from regions of an image-for instance, whether something is malignant, molecular markers for tissue in a region, even prognostic markers. DL is easier to train than traditional machine learning methods, but requires more data and much more care in analyzing results...
January 29, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
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