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Molecular medical imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916556/cell-scientist-to-watch-paul-timpson
#1
(no author information available yet)
Paul Timpson received his bachelor's degree from the University of Strathclyde, UK and completed his PhD under the supervision of Margaret Frame at the Beatson Institute for Cancer Research and the University of Glasgow in 2002, working on Src kinases and Rho family GTPases in cancer cell invasion. He then moved to the Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Sydney, Australia to work with Roger Daly on the actin-binding protein cortactin in several cancer models. Paul returned to the Beatson Institute in 2007 with the aid of an AstraZeneca postdoctoral research fellowship...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916107/genetically-functionalized-ferritin-nanoparticles-with-a-high-affinity-protein-binder-for-immunoassay-and-imaging
#2
Jong-Won Kim, Woosung Heu, Sukyo Jeong, Hak-Sung Kim
Molecular detection of target molecules with high sensitivity and specificity is of great significance in bio and medical sciences. Here, we present genetically functionalized ferritin nanoparticles with a high-affinity protein binder, and their utility as a signal generator in a variety of immunoassays and imaging. As a high-affinity protein binder, human IgG-specific repebody, which is composed of LRR (Leucine-rich repeat) modules, was used. The repebody was genetically fused to the N-terminal heavy-chain ferritin, and the resulting subunits were self-assembled to the repebody-ferritin nanoparticles composed of 24 subunits...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915902/development-and-clinical-application-of-radiomics-in-lung-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Bojiang Chen, Rui Zhang, Yuncui Gan, Lan Yang, Weimin Li
Since the discovery of X-rays at the end of the 19(th) century, medical imageology has progressed for 100 years, and medical imaging has become an important auxiliary tool for clinical diagnosis. With the launch of the human genome project (HGP) and the development of various high-throughput detection techniques, disease exploration in the post-genome era has extended beyond investigations of structural changes to in-depth analyses of molecular abnormalities in tissues, organs and cells, on the basis of gene expression and epigenetics...
September 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905504/is-essential-tremor-a-single-entity
#4
Franziska Hopfner, Günther Deuschl
Essential tremor (ET) is a frequent movement disorder. A new tremor classification has subdivided ET, into the classical form with bilateral action tremor of the hands with or without involvement of further tremor locations and without any other explaining signs or symptoms for the tremor and into 'ET plus' which comes additionally with further neurologic signs of unknown origin. This will provide a better foundation for subclassifying the condition. The immediate cause of ET is a preformed oscillating network within the central nervous system as revealed with electrophysiologic methods...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902016/raman-microscopy-a-noninvasive-method-to-visualize-the-localizations-of-biomolecules-in-the-cornea
#5
Yuichi Kaji, Toshihiro Akiyama, Hiroki Segawa, Tetsuro Oshika, Hideaki Kano
PURPOSE: In vivo and in situ visualization of biomolecules without pretreatment will be important for diagnosis and treatment of ocular disorders in the future. Recently, multiphoton microscopy, based on the nonlinear interactions between molecules and photons, has been applied to reveal the localizations of various molecules in tissues. We aimed to use multimodal multiphoton microscopy to visualize the localizations of specific biomolecules in rat corneas. METHODS: Multiphoton images of the corneas were obtained from nonlinear signals of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, third-order sum frequency generation, and second-harmonic generation...
September 7, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893601/seek-destroy-use-of-targeting-peptides-for-cancer-detection-and-drug-delivery
#6
Vadim Le Joncour, Pirjo Laakkonen
Accounting for 16 million new cases and 9 million deaths annually, cancer leaves a great number of patients helpless. It is a complex disease and still a major challenge for the scientific and medical communities. The efficacy of conventional chemotherapies is often poor and patients suffer from off-target effects. Each neoplasm exhibits molecular signatures - sometimes in a patient specific manner - that may completely differ from the organ of origin, may be expressed in markedly higher amounts and/or in different location compared to the normal tissue...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887401/proposal-of-a-structured-reporting-system-for-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-psma-targeted-pet-imaging-psma-rads-version-1-0
#7
Steven Rowe, Kenneth Pienta, Martin G Pomper, Michael Gorin
As medical imaging has grown progressively more complicated and sub-specialized in recent decades, a number of standardized reporting systems have been proposed for a variety of imaging modalities and conditions. These include reporting and data systems for imaging of the breast (BI-RADS) (1), prostate (PI-RADS) (2), lung (LUNG-RADS) (3), liver (LI-RADS) (4), and thyroid (TI-RADS) (5). While these systems differ extensively in their details, each provides a standardized framework for conveying findings and recommendations to clinicians...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883395/bio-degradable-highly-fluorescent-conjugated-polymer-nanoparticles-for-bio-medical-imaging-applications
#8
Tatjana Repenko, Anne Rix, Simon Ludwanowski, Dennis Go, Fabian Kiessling, Wiltrud Lederle, Alexander J C Kuehne
Conjugated polymer nanoparticles exhibit strong fluorescence and have been applied for biological fluorescence imaging in cell culture and in small animals. However, conjugated polymer particles are hydrophobic and often chemically inert materials with diameters ranging from below 50 nm to several microns. As such, conjugated polymer nanoparticles cannot be excreted through the renal system. This drawback has prevented their application for clinical bio-medical imaging. Here, we present fully conjugated polymer nanoparticles based on imidazole units...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881270/molecular-and-clinical-characterization-of-a-series-of-patients-with-childhood-onset-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-retrospective-investigations-follow-up-and-detection-of-two-novel-lipa-pathogenic-variants
#9
Livia Pisciotta, Giulia Tozzi, Lorena Travaglini, Roberta Taurisano, Tiziano Lucchi, Giuseppe Indolfi, Francesco Papadia, Maja Di Rocco, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Patricia Crock, Komal Vora, Scott Nightingale, Helen Michelakakis, Anastasia Garoufi, Lilia Lykopoulou, Stefano Bertolini, Sebastiano Calandra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Childhood/Adult-onset Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (LAL-D) is a recessive disorder due to loss of function variants of LAL, the enzyme which hydrolyses cholesteryl esters, derived from internalized apoB containing lipoproteins. The disease is characterized by multi-organ involvement including the liver, spleen, intestine and cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was the clinical and molecular characterization of 14 (13 unrelated) previously unreported patients with childhood-onset LAL-D...
August 26, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872110/a-protocol-for-the-administration-of-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-training
#10
Matthew S Sherwood, Emily E Diller, Elizabeth Ey, Subhashini Ganapathy, Jeremy T Nelson, Jason G Parker
Neurologic disorders are characterized by abnormal cellular-, molecular-, and circuit-level functions in the brain. New methods to induce and control neuroplastic processes and correct abnormal function, or even shift functions from damaged tissue to physiologically healthy brain regions, hold the potential to dramatically improve overall health. Of the current neuroplastic interventions in development, neurofeedback training (NFT) from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has the advantages of being completely non-invasive, non-pharmacologic, and spatially localized to target brain regions, as well as having no known side effects...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858253/unique-roles-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-drug-delivery-targeting-and-imaging-applications
#11
REVIEW
Fen-Ying Kong, Jin-Wei Zhang, Rong-Fang Li, Zhong-Xia Wang, Wen-Juan Wang, Wei Wang
Nanotechnology has become more and more potentially used in diagnosis or treatment of diseases. Advances in nanotechnology have led to new and improved nanomaterials in biomedical applications. Common nanomaterials applicable in biomedical applications include liposomes, polymeric micelles, graphene, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, ferroferric oxide nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and so on. Among them, Au NPs have been considered as the most interesting nanomaterial because of its unique optical, electronic, sensing and biochemical properties...
August 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855921/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-and-its-implications-for-paediatric-endocrinology
#12
REVIEW
Huseyin Demirbilek, Sofia A Rahman, Gonul Gulal Buyukyilmaz, Khalid Hussain
Glucose homeostasis requires appropriate and synchronous coordination of metabolic events and hormonal activities to keep plasma glucose concentrations in a narrow range of 3.5-5.5 mmol/L. Insulin, the only glucose lowering hormone secreted from pancreatic β-cells, plays the key role in glucose homeostasis. Insulin release from pancreatic β-cells is mainly regulated by intracellular ATP-generating metabolic pathways. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH), the most common cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children, is the inappropriate secretion of insulin which occurs despite low plasma glucose levels leading to severe and persistent hypoketotic hypoglycaemia...
2017: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840309/impact-of-hybrid-molecular-imaging-in-retroperitoneal-fibrosis-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Isidora T Grozdic Milojevic, Bogomir Milojevic, Dragana P Sobic-Saranovic, Vera M Artiko
The aim of this article was to critically assess the usefulness of hybrid molecular imaging (FDG PET/CT and FDG PET/MR) procedures in the evaluation of inflammatory activity in retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF). A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed without timeline restriction and using the following keywords: retroperitoneal fibrosis, disease activity, diagnostic techniques, PET/CT, PET/MR. We evaluated full text articles written in the English language. Case reports, review articles or editorials and articles not in the field of interest of this review were excluded...
August 24, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828856/smart-self-assembled-organic-nanoprobe-for-protein-specific-detection-design-synthesis-application-and-mechanism-studies
#14
Tang Gao, Shuqi Yang, Xiaozheng Cao, Jie Dong, Ning Zhao, Peng Ge, Wenbin Zeng, Zhen Cheng
Specific detection or imaging protein has high potential to contribute greatly to medical diagnosis, biological research, and therapeutic applications. The level of human serum albumin (HSA) in blood is related to a variety of diseases and thus serves as an important biomarker for fast clinical diagnosis. Here we report the use of aggregation-induced emission (AIE) based supramolecular assembly to design biomolecular responsive smart organic nanomaterials for detection protein HSA. The designed nanoprobes were aggregates of small molecules and silent in fluorescence, but in the presence of HSA they disassembled and produced a clear turn-on fluorescent signal...
September 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818257/high-risk-carotid-plaque-lessons-learned-from-histopathology
#15
REVIEW
Frank D Kolodgie, Kazuyuki Yahagi, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Hugh H Trout, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The pathophysiology and natural history of atherosclerotic carotid disease is predicated on a more extensive knowledge of lesion progression gained in the studies conducted in the coronary arteries, and these will be reviewed. While the precise sequence of lesion progression leading to carotid plaque vulnerability and cerebrovascular events remain less well understood, specific early and more advanced progressive lesion morphologies associated with stroke risk have been characterized. Of late, there has been a conscious effort for stroke prevention in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients to move beyond luminal stenosis as the only guidance to predict future cerebrovascular events...
March 2017: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799517/imaging-biomarkers-of-anti-epileptic-drug-action-insights-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Lorenzo Caciagli, Fenglai Xiao, Britta Wandschneider, Matthias J Koepp
BACKGROUND: Approximately one third of patients with epilepsy are refractory to medical treatment. Adverse effects associated with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to affect quality of life often more than seizures themselves. Neuroimaging techniques, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have proven instrumental in clinical decision making in relation to epilepsy surgery, but may also provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying treatment response and side effects associated with AEDs...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783106/melanin-based-contrast-agents-for-biomedical-optoacoustic-imaging-and-theranostic-applications
#17
REVIEW
Dario Livio Longo, Rachele Stefania, Silvio Aime, Alexander Oraevsky
Optoacoustic imaging emerged in early 1990s as a new biomedical imaging technology that generates images by illuminating tissues with short laser pulses and detecting resulting ultrasound waves. This technique takes advantage of the spectroscopic approach to molecular imaging, and delivers high-resolution images in the depth of tissue. Resolution of the optoacoustic imaging is scalable, so that biomedical systems from cellular organelles to large organs can be visualized and, more importantly, characterized based on their optical absorption coefficient, which is proportional to the concentration of absorbing chromophores...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780044/from-interventionist-imaging-to-intraoperative-guidance-new-perspectives-by-combining-advanced-tools-and-navigation-with-radio-guided-surgery
#18
S Vidal-Sicart, R Valdés Olmos, O E Nieweg, R Faccini, M R Grootendorst, H J Wester, N Navab, B Vojnovic, H van der Poel, S Martínez-Román, J Klode, F Wawroschek, F W B van Leeuwen
The integration of medical imaging technologies into diagnostic and therapeutic approaches can provide a preoperative insight into both anatomical (e.g. using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, or ultrasound (US)), as well as functional aspects (e.g. using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), lymphoscintigraphy, or optical imaging). Moreover, some imaging modalities are also used in an interventional setting (e.g. CT, US, gamma or optical imaging) where they provide the surgeon with real-time information during the procedure...
August 3, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758836/contributions-for-classification-of-platelet-rich-plasma-proposal-of-a-new-classification-marspill
#19
Jose Fabio Santos Duarte Lana, Joseph Purita, Christian Paulus, Stephany Cares Huber, Bruno Lima Rodrigues, Ana Amélia Rodrigues, Maria Helena Santana, João Lopo Madureira, Ângela Cristina Malheiros Luzo, William Dias Belangero, Joyce Maria Annichino-Bizzacchi
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a significant therapy used in medical conditions with heterogeneous results. There are some important classifications to try to standardize the PRP procedure. The aim of this report is to describe PRP contents studying celular and molecular components, and also propose a new classification for PRP. The main focus is on mononuclear cells, which comprise progenitor cells and monocytes. In addition, there are important variables related to PRP application incorporated in this study, which are the harvest method, activation, red blood cells, number of spins, image guidance, leukocytes number and light activation...
July 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755996/receptor-visualization-and-the-atomic-bomb-a-historical-account-of-the-development-of-the-chemical-neuroanatomy-of-receptors-for-neurotransmitters-and-drugs-during-the-cold-war
#20
REVIEW
J M Palacios, G Mengod
This is a historical account of how receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs got to be seen at the regional, cellular, and subcellular levels in brain, in the years going from the end of the World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War (1945-1991). The realization in the US of the problem of mental health care, as a consequence of the results of medical evaluation for military service during the war, let the US Government to act creating among other things the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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