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Molecular medical imaging

Nawal Shaikh, Karan Dixit, Jeffrey Raizer
Meningiomas are the most common adult primary intracranial tumor. Despite their higher incidence, there have not-until recently-been as many advances in understanding and managing meningiomas. Thus far, two broad classes of meningiomas have emerged on the basis of their mutational profile: those driven by neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) inactivation and those with non-NF2 driver gene alterations, such as mammalian target of rapamycin and Hedgehog, Wingless/b-catenin, Notch, transforming growth factor-b receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phospholipase C pathway alterations...
2018: F1000Research
Yi-Bin Zhang, Yan-Peng Wang, Jing Liu
Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA which are isolated from synthesized random oligonucleotide library in vitro via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and can bind to metal ions, small molecules, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and others targets with high affinity and specificity. Aptamers have the advantages of simple preparation, good thermal stability, and low immunogenicity and have great potential in the medical fields such as molecular imaging, biosensing, early diagnosis of diseases, and targeted therapy...
May 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Nagma Parveen, Doortje Borrenberghs, Susana Rocha, Jelle Hendrix
Viruses are simple agents exhibiting complex reproductive mechanisms. Decades of research have provided crucial basic insights, antiviral medication and moderately successful gene therapy trials. The most infectious viral particle is, however, not always the most abundant one in a population, questioning the utility of classic ensemble-averaging virology. Indeed, viral replication is often not particularly efficient, prone to errors or containing parallel routes. Here, we review different single-molecule sensitive fluorescence methods that we employ routinely to investigate viruses...
May 10, 2018: Viruses
Gregory R Waetzig, Gregory A Horrocks, Joshua W Jude, Graciela V Villalpando, Lucia Zuin, Sarbajit Banerjee
The development of an expanded palette of X-ray phosphors is a critical imperative for applications in medical imaging, radiation detection, and scientific instrumentation. The rational design of X-ray phosphors has been stymied by the absence of fundamental understanding of activation channels, sensitization mechanisms, and recombination pathways induced upon high-energy excitation of luminescent centers. In this article, we describe the preparation of Eu-doped LaOCl nanocrystals based on the condensation of molecular precursors...
May 10, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Przemysław Krawczyk, Przemysław Czeleń, Piotr Cysewski
The presented research focuses on the theoretical design and procedures for preparing protein conjugates with markers. For this purpose a series of phenanthroimidazole (PhI) analogous compounds was designed and investigated by means of first principle methods. Through the judicious choice of cross-linking reagents and the selection of reactive groups, five target fluorescent probes were selected, one of which was previously described using in vitro tests. For the best cognitive purpose and understanding of the nature of the protein conjugation, the studies describe the impact of the reactive group on the solvatochromism, the polarity of the charge transfer of the excited states, the Stokes' shift, ECD spectra and two-photon cross sections...
May 8, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Frank S Fan, Chung-Fan Yang
BACKGROUND: Definite diagnosis of metastasis from unknown primary depends on a comprehensive immunohistochemical investigation of tumor specimen. Accurate identification of the origin site usually helps a lot in choosing the most appropriate treatment. Molecular characterization provides more chance of a cure. Echoing modern medical development, BRCA1/2 mutations have been correlated with high efficiency of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in ovarian cancer. While a previous case report demonstrated a surprising cure of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer with BRCA2 mutation by orally administered melphalan...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
F Pacini, F Basolo, R Bellantone, G Boni, M A Cannizzaro, M De Palma, C Durante, R Elisei, G Fadda, A Frasoldati, L Fugazzola, R Guglielmi, C P Lombardi, P Miccoli, E Papini, G Pellegriti, L Pezzullo, A Pontecorvi, M Salvatori, E Seregni, P Vitti
BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. METHODS: Six scientific Italian societies entitled to cure thyroid cancer patients (the Italian Thyroid Association, the Medical Endocrinology Association, the Italian Society of Endocrinology, the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, the Italian Society of Unified Endocrine Surgery and the Italian Society of Anatomic Pathology and Diagnostic Cytology) felt the need to develop a consensus report based on significant scientific advances occurred in the field...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Siyu He, Hongyuan Li, Carmen L Gomes, Dmitri V Voronine
Optical detection and conformational mapping of aptamers are important for improving medical and biosensing technologies and for better understanding of biological processes at the molecular level. The authors investigate the vibrational signals of deoxyribonucleic acid aptamers specific to Listeria monocytogenes immobilized on gold substrates using tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) spectroscopy and nanoscale imaging. The authors compare topographic and nano-optical signals and investigate the fluctuations of the position-dependent TERS spectra...
May 3, 2018: Biointerphases
Manoj Gupta, Partha Sarathi Choudhury, Sudhir Rawal, Gurudutt Gupta
Introduction: Bladder outlet obstruction due to prostate enlargement is a common health problem in male and frequently investigated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). TRUS-guided biopsy is critical to differentiate benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer (PCa) even though it has been associated with false negative with reported 3%-16% incidence of PCa in BPH specimens. Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PSMA PET/CT), a targeted molecular imaging for PCa, has showed promising results in recurrence and staging...
April 2018: Urology Annals
Balram Neupane, Qifeng Zhou, Meinrad Gawaz, Michael Gramlich
Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is the result of persistent myocardial inflammation which can arise from both infectious or noninfectious causes. While most patients with acute myocarditis recover, up to 20% develop inflammatory cardiomyopathy with chronic heart failure. The interaction between host factors and factors of the agent that triggered myocardial inflammation must be considered to fully understand the individual mechanism of disease. Several inflammatory biomarkers, histology, immunohistochemistry, advanced imaging technologies as well as molecular high-throughput sequencing techniques help to identify disease pathways and to establish a comprehensive, individualized treatment approach, which can include anti-inflammatory medication, antiviral drugs and heart failure therapy...
March 2018: Personalized Medicine
Jacqueline Gunther, Andreas Walther, Lars Rippe, Stefan Kröll, Stefan Andersson-Engels
Biological tissue is a highly scattering medium that prevents deep imaging of light. For medical applications, optical imaging offers a molecular sensitivity that would be beneficial for diagnosing and monitoring of diseases. Acousto-optical tomography has the molecular sensitivity of optical imaging with the resolution of ultrasound and has the potential for deep tissue imaging. Here, we present a theoretical study of a system that combines acousto-optical tomography and slow light spectral filters created using spectral hole burning methods...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Clarissa Gillmann, Roland Coras, Karl Rössler, Arnd Doerfler, Michael Uder, Ingmar Blümcke, Tobias Bäuerle
The aim of the present study is to differentiate subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using ex vivo ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Included were 14 surgically resected hippocampi of patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The resected hippocampi were histologically categorized into subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS type 1 (n = 10), HS type 2 (n = 2) and no-HS (n = 2)) and subsequently scanned on a preclinical 7T MRI acquiring T2-weighted morphology, relaxometry and diffusion tensor imaging...
2018: PloS One
Francesco Saverio Di Leva, Stefano Tomassi, Salvatore Di Maro, Florian Reichart, Johannes Notni, Abha Dangi, Udaya Kiran Marelli, Diego Brancaccio, Francesco Merlino, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Ettore Novellino, Horst Kessler, Luciana Marinelli
The RGD-recognizing αvβ6 integrin has only recently emerged as a major target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Thus, the development of selective, low molecular weight ligands of this receptor is still of great demand. Here, a metadynamics-driven design strategy allowed us to successfully convert a helical nonapeptide into a cyclic pentapeptide (6) showing remarkable potency and αvβ6 specificity. NMR and docking studies elucidated the reasons for the high affinity and selectivity of this compound, setting the ground for the rational design of new αvβ6-specific small sized peptides or even peptidomimetics...
April 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Mahabubur Rahman, Hiroshi Watabe
Molecular imaging serves as an important tool for researchers and clinicians to visualize and investigate complex biochemical phenomena using specialized instruments; these instruments are either used individually or in combination with targeted imaging agents to obtain images related to specific diseases with high sensitivity, specificity, and signal-to-noise ratios. However, molecular imaging, which is a multidisciplinary research field, faces several challenges, including the integration of imaging informatics with bioinformatics and medical informatics, requirement of reliable and robust image analysis algorithms, effective quality control of imaging facilities, and those related to individualized disease mapping, data sharing, software architecture, and knowledge management...
April 4, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Li Li, Yang Du, Xinjian Chen, Jie Tian
PURPOSE: Malignant gliomas are major causes of cancer-related mortality and morbidity. Traditional surgery usually leads to incomplete resection of gliomas resulting in the high incidence of tumor recurrence. Advanced medical imaging technology, such as fluorescence imaging-guided surgery, combined with tumor-specific imaging probes allows the identification of tumor margins and improved surgery. However, there are two pressing issues that need to be addressed: first, few fluorescence imaging probes can specifically target gliomas; second, fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) cannot get the in-depth information of deep-seated gliomas; both of which affect the complete removal of the gliomas...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
C Y Lv, M N Li, L R Zhang, Z M Liu
OBJECTIVE: To create a protocol that could be used to construct chemical information database from scientific literature quickly and automatically. METHODS: Scientific literature, patents and technical reports from different chemical disciplines were collected and stored in PDF format as fundamental datasets. Chemical structures were transformed from published documents and images to machine-readable data by using the name conversion technology and optical structure recognition tool CLiDE...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Kjell Öberg
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) constitute a heterogenous group of malignancies with varying clinical presentation, tumor biology and prognosis. The incidence of pNETs has steadily increased during the last decades with an estimated incidence 2012 of 4.8/100,000. Recent whole genome sequencing of pNETs has demonstrated mutations in the DNA repair genes MUTYH and point mutations and gene fusions in four main pathways from chromatin remodeling, DNA damage repair, activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and the telomere maintenance...
February 2018: Gland Surgery
Yoon-Myung Kim, Eungu Kang, Jin-Ho Choi, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo, Beom Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Camurati-Engelmann disease is an extremely rare disease characterized by hyperostosis of multiple long bones. This condition is caused by heterozygous mutations in the TGFB1 gene. METHODS: We describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of 4 Korean patients with this rare disease diagnosed at Asan Medical Center in Korea between June 2012 and May 2016, to increase awareness about this condition among general physicians and orthopedists. The presenting features, biochemical findings, radiographic and nuclear imaging findings, molecular analysis, and treatment outcomes of 4 patients were reviewed retrospectively...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anna Vlahiotis, Brian Griffin, A Thomas Stavros, Jay Margolis
Background: Little data exist on real-world patterns and associated costs of downstream breast diagnostic procedures following an abnormal screening mammography or clinical exam. Objectives: To analyze the utilization patterns in real-world clinical settings for breast imaging and diagnostic procedures, including the frequency and volume of patients and procedures, procedure sequencing, and associated health care expenditures. Materials and methods: Using medical claims from 2011 to 2015 MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Databases, adult females with breast imaging/diagnostic procedures (diagnostic mammography, ultrasound, molecular breast imaging, tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, or biopsy) other than screening mammography were selected...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Lorenzo Tosco, Annouschka Laenen, Thomas Gevaert, Isabelle Salmon, Christine Decaestecker, Elai Davicioni, Christine Buerki, Frank Claessens, Johan Swinnen, Karolien Goffin, Raymond Oyen, Wouter Everaerts, Lisa Moris, Gert De Meerleer, Karin Haustermans, Steven Joniau
BACKGROUND: Recent retrospective data suggest that neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy can improve the prognosis of high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Novel androgen receptor pathway inhibitors are nowadays available for treatment of metastatic PCa and these compounds are promising for early stage disease. Apalutamide is a pure androgen antagonist with a very high affinity with the androgen receptor. The combination of apalutamide with degarelix, an LHRH antagonist, could increase the efficacy compared to degarelix alone...
April 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
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