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Molecular medical imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156147/electromagnetic-navigational-bronchoscopy-versus-ct-guided-percutaneous-sampling-of-peripheral-indeterminate-pulmonary-nodules-a-cohort-study
#1
Kavita M Bhatt, Yasmeen K Tandon, Ruffin Graham, Charles T Lau, Jason K Lempel, Joseph T Azok, Peter J Mazzone, Erika Schneider, Nancy A Obuchowski, Michael A Bolen
Purpose To compare the diagnostic yield and complication rates of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopic (ENB)-guided and computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous tissue sampling of lung nodules. Materials and Methods Retrospectively identified were 149 patients sampled percutaneously with CT guidance and 146 patients who underwent ENB with transbronchial biopsy of a lung lesion between 2013 and 2015. Clinical data, incidence of complications, and nodule pathologic analyses were assessed through electronic medical record review...
November 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149993/label-free-determination-of-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-in-human-whole-blood-at-nanomolar-levels-by-magnetically-assisted-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#2
Zuzana Chaloupková, Anna Balzerová, Jitka Bařinková, Zdenka Medříková, Pavel Šácha, Petr Beneš, Václav Ranc, Jan Konvalinka, Radek Zbořil
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men and can in its later stages cause serious medical problems. Due to the limited suitability of current diagnostic biochemical markers, new biomarkers for the detection of prostate cancer are highly sought after. An ideal biomarker should serve as a reliable prognostic marker, be applicable for early diagnosis, and be applicable for monitoring of therapeutic response. One potential candidate is glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), also known as prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which has a promising role for direct imaging...
January 2, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144411/nucleic-acid-aptamers-emerging-applications-in-medical-imaging-nanotechnology-neurosciences-and-drug-delivery
#3
REVIEW
Pascal Röthlisberger, Cécile Gasse, Marcel Hollenstein
Recent progresses in organic chemistry and molecular biology have allowed the emergence of numerous new applications of nucleic acids that markedly deviate from their natural functions. Particularly, DNA and RNA molecules-coined aptamers-can be brought to bind to specific targets with high affinity and selectivity. While aptamers are mainly applied as biosensors, diagnostic agents, tools in proteomics and biotechnology, and as targeted therapeutics, these chemical antibodies slowly begin to be used in other fields...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143190/role-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-management-of-perianal-crohn-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jose C Gallego, Ana Echarri
Perianal fistulas are a major problem in many patients with Crohn's disease. These are usually complex fistulas that adversely affect patients' quality of life, and their clinical management is difficult. Medical treatment sometimes achieves cessation of discharge and closure of the external opening; however, it is difficult to assess the status of the rest of the fistula tract. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice with which to evaluate the condition of perianal fistulas and allows for assessment of the status of inaccessible areas...
November 15, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133954/exogenous-ghrelin-administration-increases-alcohol-self-administration-and-modulates-brain-functional-activity-in-heavy-drinking-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#5
M Farokhnia, E N Grodin, M R Lee, E N Oot, A N Blackburn, B L Stangl, M L Schwandt, L A Farinelli, R Momenan, V A Ramchandani, L Leggio
Preclinical evidence suggests that ghrelin, a peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the stomach and a key component of the gut-brain axis, is involved in alcohol seeking as it modulates both central reward and stress pathways. However, whether and how ghrelin administration may impact alcohol intake in humans is not clear. For, we believe, the first time, this was investigated in the present randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study. Participants were non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent heavy-drinking individuals...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133948/increased-hippocampal-tail-volume-predicts-depression-status-and-remission-to-anti-depressant-medications-in-major-depression
#6
J J Maller, K Broadhouse, A J Rush, E Gordon, S Koslow, S M Grieve
Studies of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have consistently reported reduced hippocampal volumes; however, the exact pattern of these volume changes in specific anatomical subfields and their functional significance is unclear. We sought to clarify the relationship between hippocampal tail volumes and (i) a diagnosis of MDD, and (ii) clinical remission to anti-depressant medications (ADMs). Outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD (n=202) based on DSM-IV criteria and a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) score ⩾16 underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging as part of the international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D)...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125066/autonomous-self-navigating-drug-delivery-vehicles-from-science-fiction-to-reality
#7
Valery A Petrenko
Low efficacy of targeted nanomedicines in biological experiments enforced us to challenge the traditional concept of drug targeting and suggest a paradigm of 'addressed self-navigating drug-delivery vehicles,' in which affinity selection of targeting peptides and vasculature-directed in vivo phage screening is replaced by the migration selection, which explores ability of 'promiscuous' phages and their proteins to migrate through the tumor-surrounding cellular barriers, using a 'hub and spoke' delivery strategy, and penetrate into the tumor affecting the diverse tumor cell population...
December 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115153/molecular-and-morphological-description-of-isospora-sp-from-common-mynah-acridotheres-tristis-and-preliminary-survey-of-two-anticoccidial-drugs-in-natural-infection
#8
Seyed Ahmad Madani, Fatemeh Arabkhazaeli, Elyas Shakeri, Sedigheh Nabian
Coccidian parasites especially Isospora are prevalent parasites in Passeriformes. Isosporan oocysts from common mynahs (Acridotheres tristis) are incompletely described. Detailed knowledge on biology, prevalence, pathogenesis and treatment of avian isosporiasis are scant. In this study isosporan oocysts isolated from common mynahs were morphologically and molecularly characterized. The medication efficiencies of diclazuril and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim in isosporiasis in naturally infected mynahs were evaluated...
November 8, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114182/application-of-deep-learning-in-automated-analysis-of-molecular-images-in-cancer-a-survey
#9
REVIEW
Yong Xue, Shihui Chen, Jing Qin, Yong Liu, Bingsheng Huang, Hanwei Chen
Molecular imaging enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations of biological procedures at molecular and/or cellular level, which is of great significance for early detection of cancer. In recent years, deep leaning has been widely used in medical imaging analysis, as it overcomes the limitations of visual assessment and traditional machine learning techniques by extracting hierarchical features with powerful representation capability. Research on cancer molecular images using deep learning techniques is also increasing dynamically...
2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113917/the-diagnosis-of-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency
#10
REVIEW
Qihua Le, Jianjiang Xu, Sophie X Deng
Limbal stem cells (LSCs) maintain the normal homeostasis and wound healing of corneal epithelium. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a pathologic condition that results from the dysfunction and/or an insufficient quantity of LSCs. The diagnosis of LSCD has been made mainly based on medical history and clinical signs, which often are not specific to LSCD. Methods to stage the severity of LSCD have been lacking. With the application of newly developed ocular imaging modalities and molecular methods as diagnostic tools, standardized quantitative criteria for the staging of LSCD can be established...
November 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111687/time-gated-imaging-of-latent-fingerprints-and-specific-visualization-of-protein-secretions-via-molecular-recognition
#11
Jie Wang, Qinqin Ma, Haoyang Liu, Yingqian Wang, Haijing Shen, Xiaoxia Hu, Chao Ma, Quan Yuan, Weihong Tan
Persistent nanophosphors can remain luminescent after excitation ceases; thus, they offer a promising way to avoid background fluorescence interference in bioimaging. In this work, Zn2GeO4:Ga,Mn (ZGO:Ga,Mn) persistent luminescence nanoparticles were developed and they were employed for time-gated imaging of latent fingerprints (LFP). The nanoparticles were functionalized with a carboxyl group and utilized to label LFP through reacting with the amino group in the LFP. Results proved the potent ability of ZGO:Ga,Mn in eliminating background fluorescence to afford highly sensitive LFP imaging...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097909/molecular-imaging-of-cancer-with-nanoparticle-based-theranostic-probes
#12
REVIEW
Ying-Yu Ma, Ke-Tao Jin, Shi-Bing Wang, Hui-Ju Wang, Xiang-Min Tong, Dong-Sheng Huang, Xiao-Zhou Mou
Although advancements in medical technology supporting cancer diagnosis and treatment have improved survival, these technologies still have limitations. Recently, the application of noninvasive imaging for cancer diagnosis and therapy has become an indispensable component in clinical practice. However, current imaging contrasts and tracers, which are in widespread clinical use, have their intrinsic limitations and disadvantages. Nanotechnologies, which have improved in vivo detection and enhanced targeting efficiency for cancer, may overcome some of the limitations of cancer diagnosis and therapy...
2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079915/-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-patients-with-autoimmune-diseases
#13
REVIEW
S Blaas
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia plays an increasing role in patients with autoimmune disorders, due to more intensive immunosuppressive therapy. Humans seem to be the most important pathogen reservoir. Diseases are probably caused by airborne new infections. Cough, subfebrile temperature and dyspnea on exertion are the leading symptoms. In addition to imaging, in particular high-resolution computed tomography, pathogen detection by staining methods or molecular genetic methods plays the decisive role. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the most important medication for treatment...
November 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069943/pregnancy-related-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures-in-two-patients-treated-with-low-molecular-weight-heparin-during-pregnancy-case-reports
#14
Gulcan Ozturk, Pinar Akpinar, Ayse Duygu Karamanlioglu, Feyza Unlu Ozkan, Ilknur Aktas
Pregnancy-related osteoporosis (PRO) is an uncommon metabolic bone disease that can result in vertebral fragility fractures. Here we report two cases of young women who had been previously treated with LMWH-enoxaparin and were diagnosed with PRO with vertebral fragility fractures after delivery. In first case report, a 33-year-old primigravid woman who was treated with 40 mg/day of enoxaparin for eight months to prevent venous thromboembolism was presented. After delivery, Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DEXA) revealed osteoporosis in lumbar and femoral neck region...
October 26, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056457/vibrio-cholerae-combines-individual-and-collective-sensing-to-trigger-biofilm-dispersal
#15
Praveen K Singh, Sabina Bartalomej, Raimo Hartmann, Hannah Jeckel, Lucia Vidakovic, Carey D Nadell, Knut Drescher
Bacteria can generate benefits for themselves and their kin by living in multicellular, matrix-enclosed communities, termed biofilms, which are fundamental to microbial ecology and the impact bacteria have on the environment, infections, and industry [1-6]. The advantages of the biofilm mode of life include increased stress resistance and access to concentrated nutrient sources [3, 7, 8]. However, there are also costs associated with biofilm growth, including the metabolic burden of biofilm matrix production, increased resource competition, and limited mobility inside the community [9-11]...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045978/-clinicopathologic-features-of-infant-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
H Wang, J T Ye, H X Yao, D Li, Y Dong
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) has traditionally been viewed as rare benign tumors that present with seizure widely considered curable with surgery alone. Most DNTs occur in childhood and young adults. However, rare reported cases occur in infants. This paper reported an infant case of DNT and its diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, molecular features and prognosis based on the review of current literatures. The age onset of this patient was only 11 months old. The clinical manifestations were partial seizures and the imaging data untypical; CT and MRI were all supportive of astrocytoma...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038599/widespread-white-matter-microstructural-differences-in-schizophrenia-across-4322-individuals-results-from-the-enigma-schizophrenia-dti-working-group
#17
S Kelly, N Jahanshad, A Zalesky, P Kochunov, I Agartz, C Alloza, O A Andreassen, C Arango, N Banaj, S Bouix, C A Bousman, R M Brouwer, J Bruggemann, J Bustillo, W Cahn, V Calhoun, D Cannon, V Carr, S Catts, J Chen, J-X Chen, X Chen, C Chiapponi, Kl K Cho, V Ciullo, A S Corvin, B Crespo-Facorro, V Cropley, P De Rossi, C M Diaz-Caneja, E W Dickie, S Ehrlich, F-M Fan, J Faskowitz, H Fatouros-Bergman, L Flyckt, J M Ford, J-P Fouche, M Fukunaga, M Gill, D C Glahn, R Gollub, E D Goudzwaard, H Guo, R E Gur, R C Gur, T P Gurholt, R Hashimoto, S N Hatton, F A Henskens, D P Hibar, I B Hickie, L E Hong, J Horacek, F M Howells, H E Hulshoff Pol, C L Hyde, D Isaev, A Jablensky, P R Jansen, J Janssen, E G Jönsson, L A Jung, R S Kahn, Z Kikinis, K Liu, P Klauser, C Knöchel, M Kubicki, J Lagopoulos, C Langen, S Lawrie, R K Lenroot, K O Lim, C Lopez-Jaramillo, A Lyall, V Magnotta, R C W Mandl, D H Mathalon, R W McCarley, S McCarthy-Jones, C McDonald, S McEwen, A McIntosh, T Melicher, R I Mesholam-Gately, P T Michie, B Mowry, B A Mueller, D T Newell, P O'Donnell, V Oertel-Knöchel, L Oestreich, S A Paciga, C Pantelis, O Pasternak, G Pearlson, G R Pellicano, A Pereira, J Pineda Zapata, F Piras, S G Potkin, A Preda, P E Rasser, D R Roalf, R Roiz, A Roos, D Rotenberg, T D Satterthwaite, P Savadjiev, U Schall, R J Scott, M L Seal, L J Seidman, C Shannon Weickert, C D Whelan, M E Shenton, J S Kwon, G Spalletta, F Spaniel, E Sprooten, M Stäblein, D J Stein, S Sundram, Y Tan, S Tan, S Tang, H S Temmingh, L T Westlye, S Tønnesen, D Tordesillas-Gutierrez, N T Doan, J Vaidya, N E M van Haren, C D Vargas, D Vecchio, D Velakoulis, A Voineskos, J Q Voyvodic, Z Wang, P Wan, D Wei, T W Weickert, H Whalley, T White, T J Whitford, J D Wojcik, H Xiang, Z Xie, H Yamamori, F Yang, N Yao, G Zhang, J Zhao, T G M van Erp, J Turner, P M Thompson, G Donohoe
The regional distribution of white matter (WM) abnormalities in schizophrenia remains poorly understood, and reported disease effects on the brain vary widely between studies. In an effort to identify commonalities across studies, we perform what we believe is the first ever large-scale coordinated study of WM microstructural differences in schizophrenia. Our analysis consisted of 2359 healthy controls and 1963 schizophrenia patients from 29 independent international studies; we harmonized the processing and statistical analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data across sites and meta-analyzed effects across studies...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038384/multimodal-nanoparticle-imaging-agents-design-and-applications
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin P Burke, Christopher Cawthorne, Stephen J Archibald
Molecular imaging, where the location of molecules or nanoscale constructs can be tracked in the body to report on disease or biochemical processes, is rapidly expanding to include combined modality or multimodal imaging. No single imaging technique can offer the optimum combination of properties (e.g. resolution, sensitivity, cost, availability). The rapid technological advances in hardware to scan patients, and software to process and fuse images, are pushing the boundaries of novel medical imaging approaches, and hand-in-hand with this is the requirement for advanced and specific multimodal imaging agents...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038378/current-status-and-future-challenges-for-molecular-imaging
#19
REVIEW
Carolyn J Anderson, Jason S Lewis
Molecular imaging (MI), used in its wider sense of biology at the molecular level, is a field that lies at the intersection of molecular biology and traditional medical imaging. As advances in medicine have exponentially expanded over the last few decades, so has our need to better understand the fundamental behaviour of living organisms in a non-invasive and timely manner. This commentary draws from topics the authors addressed in their presentations at the 2017 Royal Society Meeting 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging', as well as a discussion of where MI is today and where it is heading in the future...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038377/recent-development-of-nanoparticles-for-molecular-imaging
#20
REVIEW
Jonghoon Kim, Nohyun Lee, Taeghwan Hyeon
Molecular imaging enables us to non-invasively visualize cellular functions and biological processes in living subjects, allowing accurate diagnosis of diseases at early stages. For successful molecular imaging, a suitable contrast agent with high sensitivity is required. To date, various nanoparticles have been developed as contrast agents for medical imaging modalities. In comparison with conventional probes, nanoparticles offer several advantages, including controllable physical properties, facile surface modification and long circulation time...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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