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Autism and university

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926378/automated-segmentation-of-white-matter-fiber-bundles-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-and-a-new-density-based-clustering-algorithm
#1
Tahereh Kamali, Daniel Stashuk
OBJECTIVE: Robust and accurate segmentation of brain white matter (WM) fiber bundles assists in diagnosing and assessing progression or remission of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism and depression. Supervised segmentation methods are infeasible in most applications since generating gold standards is too costly. Hence, there is a growing interest in designing unsupervised methods. However, most conventional unsupervised methods require the number of clusters be known in advance which is not possible in most applications...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918948/adult-autism-subthreshold-spectrum-adas-spectrum-validation-of-a-questionnaire-investigating-subthreshold-autism-spectrum
#2
L Dell'Osso, C Gesi, E Massimetti, I M Cremone, M Barbuti, G Maccariello, I Moroni, S Barlati, G Castellini, M Luciano, L Bossini, M Rocchetti, M Signorelli, E Aguglia, A Fagiolini, P Politi, V Ricca, A Vita, C Carmassi, M Maj
AIM: Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. METHODS: 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum...
November 9, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905645/-morbidity-profile-among-adolescents-with-down-syndrome
#3
Antonia Cárdenas, María A Paul, Catalina Correa, Sebastián Valderrama, Jaime Cerda, Macarena Lizama
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information about morbidity and mortality of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). AIM: To describe morbidity and mortality of a cohort of Chilean adolescents with DS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of electronic clinical records of 67 ambulatory patients with DS aged 10 to 20 years (37 women), seen between the years 2007 and 2014 in outpatient clinics of a University hospital. RESULTS: The mean age at the last consultation was 13 ± 3 years...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874273/association-testing-of-vasopressin-receptor-1a-microsatellite-polymorphisms-in-non-clinical-autism-spectrum-phenotypes
#4
Tanya L Procyshyn, Peter L Hurd, Bernard J Crespi
Variation in the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene is associated with autism risk in clinical populations and with variation in social behavior in non-clinical populations. However, whether a relationship exists between AVPR1a polymorphisms and non-clinical manifestations of autism spectrum phenotypes has not been established. In this study, 873 Caucasian university students were administered the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire and genotyped for the RS1 and RS3 microsatellites. A significant association was found between RS3 microsatellite variation and AQ score, with the long/long RS3 genotype associated with higher AQ score...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874270/neurodevelopmental-disorders-are-highly-over-represented-in-children-with-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Elisabet Wentz, Anna Björk, Jovanna Dahlgren
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children with obesity and to compare body mass index (BMI) and metabolic profile in the children. METHODS: Seventy-six children (37 girls, 39 boys) were consecutively recruited from a university outpatient clinic specialized in severe obesity. Neurodevelopmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were assessed using interviews and questionnaires...
November 22, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852289/serological-screening-for-celiac-disease-in-382-pre-schoolers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Sara Calderoni, Elisa Santocchi, Teresa Del Bianco, Elena Brunori, Laura Caponi, Aldo Paolicchi, Francesca Fulceri, Margherita Prosperi, Antonio Narzisi, Angela Cosenza, Raffaella Tancredi, Filippo Muratori
BACKGROUND: Recent investigations suggest a possible common genetic background between Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Celiac Disease (CD). However, studies regarding this association are scarce and often limited by the small sample sizes and/or large heterogeneity among ASD groups in terms of demographic and clinical features. The present study aims to investigate the overall CD prevalence (biopsy proven-CD patients plus screening detected tTG and EMA positive cases) in a large population of pre-schoolers with ASD referred to a tertiary care University Hospital...
November 16, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843043/hyperekplexia-report-on-phenotype-and-genotype-of-16-jordanian-patients
#7
Amira Masri, Seo-Kyung Chung, Mark I Rees
BACKGROUND: Hyperekplexia, is a rare disorder characterized by excessive startle response to acoustic, visual, or other stimuli. It is inherited in autosomal recessive and dominant pattern. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and genetic features of hyperekplexia in Jordanian patients. METHODS: This retrospective study includes all patients with proved genetic diagnosis of hyperekplexia who presented to our clinic at the Jordan University Hospital from January 2001 through July 2015...
November 11, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793367/behavioral-cognitive-and-motor-performance-and-physical-development-of-five-year-old-children-who-were-born-after-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-with-the-use-of-testicular-sperm
#8
Aukje M Meijerink, Liliana Ramos, Anjo J W M Janssen, Nienke M Maas-van Schaaijk, Andreas Meissner, Sjoerd Repping, Monique H Mochtar, Didi D M Braat, Kathrin Fleischer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate at the age of 5 years the behavioral, cognitive, and motor performance and physical development of children born after testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Two university medical centers. PATIENT(S): A total of 103 5-year-olds who were born after TESE-ICSI. INTERVENTION(S): The follow-up of the children was performed by questionnaires at birth and again at 1 year and at 4 years of age...
December 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725927/a-developmental-and-sequenced-one-to-one-educational-intervention-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-randomized-single-blind-controlled-trial
#9
Antoine Tanet, Annik Hubert-Barthelemy, Graciela C Crespin, Nicolas Bodeau, David Cohen, Catherine Saint-Georges
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who also exhibit severe-to-moderate ranges of intellectual disability (ID) still face many challenges (i.e., less evidence-based trials, less inclusion in school with peers). METHODS: We implemented a novel model called the "Developmental and Sequenced One-to-One Educational Intervention" (DS1-EI) in 5- to 9-year-old children with co-occurring ASD and ID. The treatment protocol was adapted for school implementation by designing it using an educational agenda...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724933/a-mixed-methods-study-of-individual-and-organizational-factors-that-affect-implementation-of-interventions-for-children-with-autism-in-public-schools
#10
Jill Locke, Rinad S Beidas, Steven Marcus, Aubyn Stahmer, Gregory A Aarons, Aaron R Lyon, Carolyn Cannuscio, Frances Barg, Shannon Dorsey, David S Mandell
BACKGROUND: The significant lifelong impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), combined with the growing number of children diagnosed with ASD, have created urgency in improving school-based quality of care. Although many interventions have shown efficacy in university-based research, few have been effectively implemented and sustained in schools, the primary setting in which children with ASD receive services. Individual- and organizational-level factors have been shown to predict the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for the prevention and treatment of other mental disorders in schools, and may be potential targets for implementation strategies in the successful use of autism EBIs in schools...
October 10, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676697/phenotyping-etiological-factors-and-biomarkers-toward-precision-medicine-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
David Q Beversdorf
Despite the progress made in understanding the biology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), effective biological interventions for the core symptoms remain elusive. Because of the etiological heterogeneity of ASD, identification of a "one-size-fits-all" treatment approach will likely continue to be challenging. A meeting was convened at the University of Missouri and the Thompson Center to discuss strategies for stratifying patients with ASD for the purpose of moving toward precision medicine. The "white paper" presented here articulates the challenges involved and provides suggestions for future solutions...
October 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672325/autistic-traits-in-women-with-primary-dysmenorrhea-a-case-control-study
#12
Harun Toy, Arzu Hergüner, Sevcan Şimşek, Sabri Hergüner
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that women with autism spectrum disorder have higher rates of menstrual problems, including irregular menstrual cycles, unusually painful periods (dysmenorrhea), and excessive menstrual bleeding. In this study, we investigated the autistic traits in female university students with primary dysmenorrhea (PD). METHODS: Seventy females with PD and 70 females without PD were enrolled in the study. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to measure autistic traits and the Brief Symptom Inventory was used for evaluating anxiety and depression levels...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651549/correlation-between-autism-treatment-evaluation-checklist-atec-and-childhood-autism-rating-scale-cars-in-the-evaluation-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Nouf Backer Al Backer
Identification of health issues in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is paramount to provide appropriate care and interventions. The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) is the one of the few current measures that assesses ASD-associated health problems thus informing intervention decisions. However, little research has been conducted to compare ATEC with other more recognized measures such as the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). It is unclear whether these two scales can be used interchangeably or whether high scores on one scale are comparable to the other...
2016: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606252/social-thinking%C3%A2-science-pseudoscience-or-antiscience
#14
Justin B Leaf, Alyne Kassardjian, Misty L Oppenheim-Leaf, Joseph H Cihon, Mitchell Taubman, Ronald Leaf, John McEachin
Today, there are several interventions that can be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Most of these interventions have limited to no empirical evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, yet they are widely implemented in home, school, university, and community settings. In 1996, Green wrote a chapter in which she outlined three levels of science: evidence science, pseudoscience, and antiscience; professionals were encouraged to implement and recommend only those procedures that would be considered evidence science...
June 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606194/caldwell-university-s-department-of-applied-behavior-analysis
#15
Kenneth F Reeve, Sharon A Reeve
Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth...
May 2016: Behavior Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602190/profile-of-mental-and-behavioral-disorders-among-preschoolers-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-oman-a-retrospective-study
#16
Marwan M Al-Sharbati, Yahya M Al-Farsi, Zena M Al-Sharbati, Fatima Al-Sulaimani, Allal Ouhtit, Samir Al-Adawi
OBJECTIVES: Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of mental and behavioral disorders in preschoolers is critical for a better prognosis, ultimately leading to improved quality of life for both the child and the family. Our study investigated the clinical profile of mental and behavioral disorders in children < 7 years of age, seeking consultation at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 1 June 2006 and 31 December 2010. The objective was to explore demographic variables, intervention types, and annual trends...
September 2016: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541347/emotions-mediate-the-relationship-between-autistic-traits-and-disordered-eating-a-new-autistic-emotional-model-for-eating-pathology
#17
Salma Mansour, Vanja Rozenblat, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Chiara Paganini, Janet Treasure, Isabel Krug
The aim of the study was to assess the extent of overlap between autistic traits, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and to explore the mediating effects of negative attitudes towards emotional expression and emotion dysregulation. The sample comprised 416 university students (82% females, 17-48 years [M=19.76, SD=3.85]), who completed an online questionnaire assessing eating attitudes and behaviours (including dieting, bulimia and oral control), body dissatisfaction, and autistic traits (including the Autism Quotient [AQ] and its related subscales as well as the Empathising Quotient)...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534322/interaction-design-in-the-built-environment-designing-for-the-universal-user
#18
Cathy Dalton
Concepts of responsive architecture have to date largely involved response to environmental context, in order to mediate ambient environmental factors and modify internal conditions for the comfort of users, with energy efficiency and sustainability as the main impetus. 'Smart' buildings often address little other than technically functional issues, with any ideas of 'design' as a unifying factor being disregarded. At the same time, music and performance art have been in the vanguard of creating digital interaction that intimately involves the user in aesthetic outcomes, in the creation of what Umberto Eco describes as an 'Open Work'...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534317/developing-a-user-centred-planning-tool-for-young-adults-with-development-disorders-a-research-based-teaching-project
#19
Kirsten Ribu, Tulpesh Patel
People with development disorders, for instance autism, need structured plans to help create predictability in their daily lives. Digital plans can facilitate enhanced independency, learning, and quality of life, but existing apps are largely general purpose and lack the flexibility required by this specific but heterogeneous user group. Universal design is both a goal and a process and should be based on a holistic approach and user-centered design, interacting with the users in all stages of the development process...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533116/is-daily-replication-necessary-when-sampling-cortisol-concentrations-in-association-studies-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-discussion-paper
#20
Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, Linda L Agnew, Nicholas M Andronicos
Salivary cortisol may be used as a biomarker of stress and anxiety in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some suggestions have been made that the measurement of cortisol needs to be undertaken by repeated days' observations to ensure reliability of the data obtained. These requirements are discussed in regard to 14 studies of the test-retest agreement and stability in cortisol data across repeated daily measurements. Results of those studies almost universally fail to support the argument for repeated daily measurements of cortisol...
August 17, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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