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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332277/sequencing-of-sporadic-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-identifies-novel-and-potentially-pathogenic-de-novo-variants-and-excludes-overlap-with-genes-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Daniel Seung Kim, Amber A Burt, Jane E Ranchalis, Beth Wilmot, Joshua D Smith, Karynne E Patterson, Bradley P Coe, Yatong K Li, Michael J Bamshad, Molly Nikolas, Evan E Eichler, James M Swanson, Joel T Nigg, Deborah A Nickerson, Gail P Jarvik
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has high heritability; however, studies of common variation account for <5% of ADHD variance. Using data from affected participants without a family history of ADHD, we sought to identify de novo variants that could account for sporadic ADHD. Considering a total of 128 families, two analyses were conducted in parallel: first, in 11 unaffected parent/affected proband trios (or quads with the addition of an unaffected sibling) we completed exome sequencing. Six de novo missense variants at highly conserved bases were identified and validated from four of the 11 families: the brain-expressed genes TBC1D9, DAGLA, QARS, CSMD2, TRPM2, and WDR83...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326054/dynamical-constants-and-time-universals-a-first-step-toward-a-metrical-definition-of-ordered-and-abnormal-cognition
#2
REVIEW
Mark A Elliott, Naomi du Bois
From the point of view of the cognitive dynamicist the organization of brain circuitry into assemblies defined by their synchrony at particular (and precise) oscillation frequencies is important for the correct correlation of all independent cortical responses to the different aspects of a given complex thought or object. From the point of view of anyone operating complex mechanical systems, i.e., those comprising independent components that are required to interact precisely in time, it follows that the precise timing of such a system is essential - not only essential but measurable, and scalable...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292384/association-of-learning-and-memory-calcineurin-binding-protein-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan, Laila Y. Al- ayadhi, Adel Q. Alkhedaide
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of learning and memory calcineurin binding (CABIN1) protein with autism spectrum disorders. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparative study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Autism Research and Treatment Center, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to May 2014. METHODOLOGY: Serum levels of CABIN1 protein in 62 (64%) autistic male children were analysed and 35 (36%) age healthy children measured by using ELISA...
February 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236099/a-meta-analysis-of-single-subject-research-on-behavioral-momentum-to-enhance-success-in-students-with-autism
#4
Richard J Cowan, Leah Abel, Lindsay Candel
We conducted a meta-analysis of single-subject research studies investigating the effectiveness of antecedent strategies grounded in behavioral momentum for improving compliance and on-task performance for students with autism. First, we assessed the research rigor of those studies meeting our inclusionary criteria. Next, in order to apply a universal metric to help determine the effectiveness of this category of antecedent strategies investigated via single-subject research methods, we calculated effect sizes via omnibus improvement rate differences (IRDs)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230428/improving-the-care-of-children-with-learning-disabilities-in-hospital
#5
Alan Glasper
Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses care delivery for children with learning disabilities or autism who require a hospital stay, prompted by the recent Lenehan report.
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212508/examining-cross-cultural-differences-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-multinational-comparison-from-greece-italy-japan-poland-and-the-united-states
#6
J L Matson, M Matheis, C O Burns, G Esposito, P Venuti, E Pisula, A Misiak, E Kalyva, V Tsakiris, Y Kamio, M Ishitobi, R L Goldin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communication impairments as well as restricted, repetitive behavior patterns. Despite the fact that ASD is reported worldwide, very little research exists examining ASD characteristics on a multinational scale. Cross-cultural comparisons are especially important for ASD, since cultural differences may impact the perception of symptoms. Identifying behaviors that are similarly reported as problematic across cultures as well as identifying behaviors in which there is cultural variation could aid in the development and refinement of more universally effective measures...
February 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209607/parenting-for-autism-language-and-communication-evaluation-study-palaces-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Margiad Elen Williams, Richard Hastings, Joanna Mary Charles, Sue Evans, Judy Hutchings
INTRODUCTION: Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) often have associated behavioural difficulties that can present a challenge for parents and parenting. There are several effective social learning theory-based parenting programmes for dealing with behavioural difficulties, including the Incredible Years (IY) parent programmes. However, these programmes typically do not specifically target parents of children with ASD. Recently, a new addition to the IY suite of programmes known as the IY Autistic Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) parent programme was developed...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195316/structural-hierarchy-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-symptoms-an-integrative-framework
#8
Hyunsik Kim, Cara M Keifer, Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Nicholas R Eaton, Matthew D Lerner, Kenneth D Gadow
BACKGROUND: In an attempt to resolve questions regarding the symptom classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previous research generally aimed to demonstrate superiority of one model over another. Rather than adjudicating which model may be optimal, we propose an alternative approach that integrates competing models using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying symptom structure of ASD. METHODS: The study sample comprised 3,825 individuals, consecutive referrals to a university hospital developmental disabilities specialty clinic or a child psychiatry outpatient clinic...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191795/simulation-modeling-analysis-of-sequential-relations-among-therapeutic-alliance-symptoms-and-adherence-to-child-centered-play-therapy-between-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-two-therapists
#9
Geoff Goodman, Hyewon Chung, Leah Fischel, Laura Athey-Lloyd
This study examined the sequential relations among three pertinent variables in child psychotherapy: therapeutic alliance (TA) (including ruptures and repairs), autism symptoms, and adherence to child-centered play therapy (CCPT) process. A 2-year CCPT of a 6-year-old Caucasian boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder was conducted weekly with two doctoral-student therapists, working consecutively for 1 year each, in a university-based community mental-health clinic. Sessions were video-recorded and coded using the Child Psychotherapy Process Q-Set (CPQ), a measure of the TA, and an autism symptom measure...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188104/observing-and-participating-in-social-interactions-action-perception-and-action-control-across-the-autistic-spectrum
#10
REVIEW
Dimitris Bolis, Leonhard Schilbach
Autism is a developmental condition, characterized by difficulties of social interaction and communication, as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although several important conceptions have shed light on specific facets, there is still no consensus about a universal yet specific theory in terms of its underlying mechanisms. While some theories have exclusively focused on sensory aspects, others have emphasized social difficulties. However, sensory and social processes in autism might be interconnected to a higher degree than what has been traditionally thought...
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160764/vaccination-attitudes-and-practices-of-integrative-medicine-physicians
#11
Laura Jean Buehning, Kenneth Michael Peddecord
Context • The growth of Internet-based information and social networking has increased the accessibility and importance of antivaccine information. That information has led to a questioning of vaccination schedules and policies by many individuals. Although the attitudes of complementary and alternative practitioners, such as homeopaths and chiropractic students, toward vaccination have been assessed, despite the growth of integrative medicine, no assessment of the attitudes and practices regarding vaccination of these physicians has been performed...
January 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132120/mentoring-university-students-with-asd-a-mentee-centered-approach
#12
Nicole Roberts, Elina Birmingham
This study presents a conceptual understanding of how mentorship is experienced by the participants of a mentorship program for university students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. We interviewed the participants of the Autism Mentorship Initiative at Simon Fraser University. A grounded theory approach was used to systematically organize data from interviews and documents to reveal themes that were salient to the mentees (students with autism; n = 9) and mentors (neurotypical students; n = 9). The following five main themes were identified and interrelated under the core theme of A Mentee-centered Approach: (1) The Natural Progression of the Relationship, (2) The Supportive Mentor, (3) The Meeting Process, (4) Identifying and Implementing Goals, and (5) Learning Together...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114681/assessment-with-children-who-need-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-aac-clinical-decisions-of-aac-specialists
#13
Shelley K Lund, Wendy Quach, Kristy Weissling, Miechelle McKelvey, Aimee Dietz
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who are augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) specialists approach the assessment process for 2 case studies, 1 child with cerebral palsy and 1 with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of the study was to answer the following questions: (a) How do clinicians with expertise approach the AAC assessment process for children with developmental disabilities? (b) Can any initial hypothesis be drawn about how SLPs approach the assessment of children with motor versus social interactive deficits? Method: This study used a phenomenological qualitative design...
January 1, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109262/implementation-of-early-intensive-behavioural-intervention-for-children-with-autism-in-switzerland
#14
Nadja Studer, Ronnie Gundelfinger, Tanja Schenker, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
BACKGROUND: There is a major gap between the US and most European countries regarding the implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for children with autism. The present paper reports on the current status of EIBI in Switzerland and on the effectiveness of EIBI under clinical conditions in a Swiss pilot project. METHODS: The paper combines a narrative report of the care system for children with autism in Switzerland and an initial evaluation of EIBI as implemented in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich...
January 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087836/neuropathological-consequences-of-gestational-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-and-ultrafine-particles-in-the-mouse
#15
Carolyn Klocke, Joshua L Allen, Marissa Sobolewski, Margot Mayer-Pröschel, Jason L Blum, Dana Lauterstein, Judith T Zelikoff, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Increasing evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) is a target of air pollution. We previously reported that postnatal exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (UFP; ≤100nm) via the University of Rochester HUCAPS system during a critical developmental window of CNS development, equivalent to human 3(rd) trimester, produced male-predominant neuropathological and behavioral characteristics common to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in humans...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077292/general-and-specific-factors-in-the-processing-of-faces
#16
Roeland J Verhallen, Jenny M Bosten, Patrick T Goodbourn, Adam J Lawrance-Owen, Gary Bargary, J D Mollon
The ability to recognize faces varies considerably between individuals, but does performance co-vary for tests of different aspects of face processing? For 397 participants (of whom the majority were university students) we obtained scores on the Mooney Face Test, Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT), Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and Composite Face Test. Overall performance was significantly correlated for each pair of tests, and we suggest the term f for the factor underlying this pattern of positive correlations...
January 7, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018573/basic-and-complex-emotion-recognition-in-children-with-autism-cross-cultural-findings
#17
Shimrit Fridenson-Hayo, Steve Berggren, Amandine Lassalle, Shahar Tal, Delia Pigat, Sven Bölte, Simon Baron-Cohen, Ofer Golan
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have emotion recognition deficits when tested in different expression modalities (face, voice, body). However, these findings usually focus on basic emotions, using one or two expression modalities. In addition, cultural similarities and differences in emotion recognition patterns in children with ASC have not been explored before. The current study examined the similarities and differences in the recognition of basic and complex emotions by children with ASC and typically developing (TD) controls across three cultures: Israel, Britain, and Sweden...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003905/coexistence-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-among-three-children-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-case-reports-and-review-of-literature
#18
Amna Al-Futaisi, Ahmed Idris, Abeer Al-Sayegh, Watfa S Al-Mamari
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem neurocutaneous disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and characterised by benign tumours in the brain and other vital organs such as the heart, eyes, kidneys, skin and lungs. Links between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and TSC have been postulated for many decades, with TSC considered to be one of the main syndromic causes of ASD; however, precise confirmation of a relationship between these two disorders required validated diagnostic tools. Fortunately, accurate evaluation of this relationship is now possible with standardised criteria for ASD diagnosis...
November 2016: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926378/automated-segmentation-of-white-matter-fiber-bundles-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-and-a-new-density-based-clustering-algorithm
#19
Tahereh Kamali, Daniel Stashuk
OBJECTIVE: Robust and accurate segmentation of brain white matter (WM) fiber bundles assists in diagnosing and assessing progression or remission of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism and depression. Supervised segmentation methods are infeasible in most applications since generating gold standards is too costly. Hence, there is a growing interest in designing unsupervised methods. However, most conventional unsupervised methods require the number of clusters be known in advance which is not possible in most applications...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918948/adult-autism-subthreshold-spectrum-adas-spectrum-validation-of-a-questionnaire-investigating-subthreshold-autism-spectrum
#20
L Dell'Osso, C Gesi, E Massimetti, I M Cremone, M Barbuti, G Maccariello, I Moroni, S Barlati, G Castellini, M Luciano, L Bossini, M Rocchetti, M Signorelli, E Aguglia, A Fagiolini, P Politi, V Ricca, A Vita, C Carmassi, M Maj
AIM: Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. METHODS: 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum...
November 9, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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