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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721603/the-disadapted-animal-niko-tinbergen-on-human-nature-and-the-human-predicament
#1
Marga Vicedo
This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen's path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called "the human predicament," his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen transferred his general adaptationist view of animal behavior to the realm of human biology; here, his concern about disadaptation led him to a view of human behavior that was strongly determined by the species' evolutionary past, a position that I call evolutionary determinism...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704446/a-specialist-peer-mentoring-program-for-university-students-on-the-autism-spectrum-a-pilot-study
#2
Choo Ting Siew, Trevor G Mazzucchelli, Rosanna Rooney, Sonya Girdler
INTRODUCTION: The provision of peer mentoring may improve tertiary education outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluated the pilot year of the Curtin Specialist Mentoring Program (CSMP), a specialised peer mentoring program for university students with ASD aimed at improving self-reported well-being, academic success and retention in university studies. METHODS: A single group pre-test, post-test design was employed. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were undertaken with 10 young adults with ASD to explore the effectiveness and acceptability of the CSMP program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701971/facilitating-social-play-for-children-with-pdds-effects-of-paired-robotic-devices
#3
Soichiro Matsuda, Eleuda Nunez, Masakazu Hirokawa, Junichi Yamamoto, Kenji Suzuki
Interacting with toys and other people is fundamental for developing social communication skills. However, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized by having a significant impairment in social interaction, which often leads to deficits in play skills. For this reason, methods of teaching play skills to young children with ASD have been well documented. Although previous studies have examined a variety of instructional strategies for teaching skills, few studies have evaluated the potential of using robotic devices...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690234/-pcdh19-gene-mutations-lead-to-epilepsy-with-mental-retardation-limited-to-females-in-2-cases-and-literature-review
#4
Li Yang, Ahmed Arafat, Jing Peng, Chen Chen, Yuping Ma, Fei Yin
Epilepsy with mental retardation limited to females (EFMR) is a syndrome characterized by early onset heat-sensitive epilepsy of infancy or early childhood and generally limited to females, which previously reported that the cadherin gene superfamily subtype protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) gene is its pathogenic gene. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data for 2 cases of EFMR patients with PCDH19 mutation diagnosed by Department of Pediatric Neurology of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University in 2015. Literature on PubMed, OMIM and HGMD relevant to this syndrome was reviewed, and the clinical characteristics were summarized accordingly...
June 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683558/supporting-university-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Ashleigh Hillier, Jody Goldstein, Deirdra Murphy, Rhoda Trietsch, Jacqueline Keeves, Eva Mendes, Alexa Queenan
Increasing numbers of students with autism spectrum disorder are entering higher education. Their success can be jeopardized by organizational, social/emotional, and academic challenges if appropriate supports are not in place. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group model for university students with autism spectrum disorder in improving psychological and functional outcomes. A curriculum guided the weekly discussions and consisted of topics such as time and stress management, managing group work, and social communication...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678216/public-awareness-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Matar A Alsehemi, Mahmoud M Abousaadah, Razan A Sairafi, Mohammed M Jan
OBJECTIVE: Examine the awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in our community which would help in early recognition and improved support of affected families. METHODS: A focused 20-item questionnaire was designed to survey the public awareness and knowledge of ASD. Personal interviews were conducted during an ASD awareness day, which was organized in a major shopping mall on February 20, 2015 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: A total of 259 individuals participated in the study with 47% being <30 years of age and 57% being females...
July 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660082/autistic-traits-affect-p300-response-to-unexpected-events-regardless-of-mental-state-inferences
#7
Mitsuhiko Ishikawa, Shoji Itakura, Hiroki C Tanabe
Limited use of contextual information has been suggested as a way of understanding cognition in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it has also been argued that individuals with ASD may have difficulties inferring others' mental states. Here, we examined how individuals with different levels of autistic traits respond to contextual deviations by measuring event-related potentials that reflect context usage. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to quantify autistic-like traits in 28 university students, and 19 participants were defined as Low or High AQ groups...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642808/increasing-social-integration-for-college-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Kristen Ashbaugh, Robert Koegel, Lynn Koegel
Increasing numbers of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are entering postsecondary education; however, many report feeling lonely and isolated. These difficulties with socialization have been found to impact students' academic success, involvement within the university, and overall well being. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess, within the context of a multiple-baseline across participants design, whether a structured social planning intervention would increase social integration for college students with ASD...
April 2017: Behav Dev Bull
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637055/a-pilot-study-on-professional-documentation-do-we-write-from-a-strengths-perspective
#9
Matthew J Braun, Winnie Dunn, Scott D Tomchek
Purpose: There is growing evidence supporting the use of strengths-based practices when serving families. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of strengths-based approaches in the context of written professional documentation. We specifically explored whether or not interdisciplinary clinicians in one university-based medical center clinic write from a strengths perspective (e.g., writing focuses on abilities rather than on deficits) when documenting child behavior in autism diagnostic clinics...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632303/audition-specific-temporal-processing-deficits-associated-with-language-function-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Kimberly B Schauder, Alexandra P Key, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone
Sensory processing alterations are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurobiologically-based theories of ASD propose that abnormalities in the processing of temporal aspects of sensory input could underlie core symptoms of ASD. For example, rapid auditory temporal processing is critical for speech perception, and language difficulties are central to the social communication deficits defining the disorder. This study assessed visual and auditory temporal processing abilities and tested their relation to core ASD symptoms...
June 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631035/brief-report-the-negev-hospital-university-based-hub-autism-database
#11
Gal Meiri, Ilan Dinstein, Analya Michaelowski, Hagit Flusser, Michal Ilan, Michal Faroy, Asif Bar-Sinai, Liora Manelis, Dana Stolowicz, Lili Lea Yosef, Nadav Davidovitch, Hava Golan, Shosh Arbelle, Idan Menashe
Elucidating the heterogeneous etiologies of autism will require investment in comprehensive longitudinal data acquisition from large community based cohorts. With this in mind, we have established a hospital-university-based (HUB) database of autism which incorporates prospective and retrospective data from a large and ethnically diverse population. The collected data includes social-demographic characteristics, standardized behavioral testing, detailed clinical history from electronic patient records, genetic samples, and various neurological measures...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616150/pitch-perception-in-tone-language-speaking-adults-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Stella T T Cheng, Gary Y H Lam, Carol K S To
Enhanced low-level pitch perception has been universally reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined whether tone language speakers with ASD exhibit this advantage. The pitch perception skill of 20 Cantonese-speaking adults with ASD was compared with that of 20 neurotypical individuals. Participants discriminated pairs of real syllable, pseudo-syllable (syllables that do not conform the phonotactic rules or are accidental gaps), and non-speech (syllables with attenuated high-frequency segmental content) stimuli contrasting pitch levels...
May 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612953/eye-movements-sensori-motor-adaptation-and-cerebellar-dependent-learning-in-autism-towards-potential-biomarkers-and-sub-phenotypes
#13
Edward G Freedman, John J Foxe
Because of the wide range of symptoms expressed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their idiosyncratic severity it is unlikely that a single remedial approach will be universally effective. Resolution of this dilemma requires identifying subgroups within the autism spectrum, based on symptom set and severity, on an underlying neuro-structural difference, and on specific behavioral dysfunction. This will provide critical insight into the disorder and may lead to better diagnoses, and more targeted remediation in these subphenotypes of people with ASD...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604149/risk-of-second-seizure-in-pediatric-patients-with-idiopathic-autism
#14
Asad A Qadir, Emily Obringer, Joseph Hageman, Charles Marcuccilli
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a comorbidity of idiopathic autism spectrum disorder. The aim was to characterize the risk and time of second seizure in children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed at the University of Chicago and NorthShore University HealthSystem. Patients with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder, ≥1 seizure, and age 2 to 23 years were included. RESULTS: 153 patients were included; 141 (92%) had a second seizure...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597186/problem-behaviors-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-association-with-verbal-ability-and-adapting-coping-skills
#15
Diane L Williams, Matthew Siegel, Carla A Mazefsky
Data from the Autism Inpatient Collection was used to examine the relationship between problem behaviors and verbal ability, which have generally, though not universally, been highly associated. In a comparison of 169 minimally-verbal and 177 fluently-verbal 4 to 20-year-old psychiatric inpatients with ASD, the severity of self-injurious behavior, stereotyped behavior, and irritability (including aggression and tantrums) did not significantly differ, when controlling for age and NVIQ. Verbal ability was not strongly related to the severity of problem behaviors...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492151/secretagogin-scgn-plasma-levels-and-their-association-with-cognitive-and-social-behavior-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#16
Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan, Laila Al -Ayadhi, Dost Muhammad Halepoto
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the secretagogin (SCGN) plasma levels in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to age and gender-matched healthy control, and its association with cognitive and social behaviors by using childhood autism rating scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS). STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2015 to May 2016...
April 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482386/-reducing-maternal-parenting-stress-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-father-s-involvement
#17
C C Hu, Y Li, B R Zhou, C X Liu, C Y Li, Y Zhang, Q Xu, X Xu
Objective: To explore the relationship between fathers' nursing time and maternal parenting stress of children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD). Method: Mothers of 98 ASD children who were first diagnosed in the department of Child Health Care, Children's Hospital of Fudan University during June 2015 to January 2016 were included in the ASD group, with mothers of 92 typical children from a Community Maternal and Child Health Hospital and a kindergarten in the control group. The evaluation of parenting stress, parents' nursing time and other related factors were cross-sectionally analyzed...
May 4, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468548/book-review-jennifer-s-singh-multiple-autisms-spectrums-of-advocacy-and-genomic-science-singh-jennifer-s-multiple-autisms-spectrums-of-advocacy-and-genomic-science-university-of-minnesota-press-minneapolis-2016-xv-285-pp-9780816698301-us-94-hbk
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458645/-for-a-long-time-our-voices-have-been-hushed-using-student-perspectives-to-develop-supports-for-neurodiverse-college-students
#19
Kristen Gillespie-Lynch, Dennis Bublitz, Annemarie Donachie, Vincent Wong, Patricia J Brooks, Joanne D'Onofrio
Although the challenges that autistic students face adapting to college are often pronounced, they are similar to the challenges that students with other disabilities face (e.g., difficulties with social interaction, self-advocacy, and executive functioning). However, extant evaluations of services for autistic college students are very limited despite an emerging literature examining supports for college students with a range of other disabilities. Given that many autistic students do not self-identify as autistic in college, and consequently might avoid autism-specific services, autistic students might benefit from services that are designed to support a broad range of neurodiverse students, or services that are structured according to the principles of Universal Design...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439605/effectiveness-of-a-preparatory-aid-in-facilitating-oral-assessment-in-a-group-of-saudi-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-central-saudi-arabia
#20
Ebtissam Z Murshid
To evaluate the effectiveness of a specially-designed dental book (preparatory aid) on the behavior of a group of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Saudi children during their first dental visit to the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional double-blinded pre-and post clinical study consisting of 2 parts; a survey targeting the parents, and a clinical oral examination of their ASD children was conducted between January and June of 2016.  Results: A total of 40 children (75% males and 25% females) with an average age of 6...
May 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
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