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Autism and higher education

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781890/self-reported-pregnancy-exposures-and-placental-dna-methylation-in-the-marbles-prospective-autism-sibling-study
#1
Rebecca J Schmidt, Diane I Schroeder, Florence K Crary-Dooley, Jacqueline M Barkoski, Daniel J Tancredi, Cheryl K Walker, Sally Ozonoff, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Janine M LaSalle
Human placenta is a fetal-derived tissue that offers a unique sample of epigenetic and environmental exposures present in utero. In the MARBLES prospective pregnancy study of high-risk younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), pregnancy and environmental factors collected by maternal interviews were examined as predictors of placental DNA methylation, including partially methylated domains (PMDs), an embryonic feature of the placental methylome. DNA methylation data from MethylC-seq analysis of 47 placentas of children clinically diagnosed at 3 years with ASD or typical development using standardized assessments were examined in relation to: child's gestational age, birth-weight, and diagnosis; maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, education, parity, height, prenatal vitamin and folate intake; home ownership; pesticides professionally applied to lawns or gardens or inside homes, pet flea/tick pouches, collars, or soaps/shampoos used in the 3 months prior to or during pregnancy...
December 2016: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753498/the-impact-of-epilepsy-on-academic-achievement-in-children-with-normal-intelligence-and-without-major-comorbidities-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
S W Wo, L C Ong, W Y Low, P S M Lai
PURPOSE: To systematically examine published literature which assessed the prevalence of academic difficulties in children with epilepsy (CWE) of normal intelligence, and its associating factors. METHODS: A search was conducted on five databases for articles published in English from 1980 till March 2015. Included were studies who recruited children (aged 5-18 years), with a diagnosis or newly/recurrent epilepsy, an intelligent quotient (IQ) of ≥70 or attending regular school, with or without a control group, which measured academic achievement using a standardised objective measure, and published in English...
July 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750544/emotion-awareness-and-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-in-young-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Cara Roberts-Collins, Gerwyn Mahoney-Davies, Ailsa Russell, Anne Booth, Maria Loades
Young people with autism spectrum disorder experience high levels of emotional problems, including anxiety and depression. Adapted cognitive behavioural therapy is recommended for such difficulties. However, no evidence suggests whether emotion awareness is important in treatment outcome for young people on the autism spectrum. This study aimed to investigate the potential differences in emotion awareness between (1) young people on the autism spectrum and typically developing youth and (2) young people on the autism spectrum with and without experience of cognitive behavioural therapy...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701294/self-directed-telehealth-parent-mediated-intervention-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-examination-of-the-potential-reach-and-utilization-in-community-settings
#4
Brooke Ingersoll, Katherine Shannon, Natalie Berger, Katherine Pickard, Bree Holtz
BACKGROUND: There is a significant need for strategies to increase access to evidence-based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One novel approach is to train parents to use evidence-based interventions for their child with ASD via telehealth. Pilot work examining the efficacy of one such program, ImPACT Online, demonstrated a high rate of parent program engagement, low attrition, and associated gains in parent learning and child social communication. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to conduct an open trial of ImPACT Online to better understand its dissemination potential...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685409/development-of-a-college-transition-and-support-program-for-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Susan W White, Rebecca Elias, Nicole N Capriola-Hall, Isaac C Smith, Caitlin M Conner, Susan B Asselin, Patricia Howlin, Elizabeth E Getzel, Carla A Mazefsky
Empirically based, consumer-informed programming to support students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) transitioning to college is needed. Informed by theory and research, the Stepped Transition in Education Program for Students with ASD (STEPS) was developed to address this need. The first level (Step 1) supports high school students and the second level (Step 2) is for postsecondary students with ASD. Herein, we review the extant research on transition supports for emerging adults with ASD and describe the development of STEPS, including its theoretical basis and how it was informed by consumer input...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683558/supporting-university-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Ashleigh Hillier, Jody Goldstein, Deirdra Murphy, Rhoda Trietsch, Jacqueline Keeves, Eva Mendes, Alexa Queenan
Increasing numbers of students with autism spectrum disorder are entering higher education. Their success can be jeopardized by organizational, social/emotional, and academic challenges if appropriate supports are not in place. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group model for university students with autism spectrum disorder in improving psychological and functional outcomes. A curriculum guided the weekly discussions and consisted of topics such as time and stress management, managing group work, and social communication...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677419/aging-in-place-in-every-community-social-exclusion-experiences-of-parents-of-adult-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Christina N Marsack, Tam E Perry
This article offers an examination of aging processes of lifelong caregivers and the possibilities for social exclusion place experienced by parents of adult children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study of parental caregivers ( n = 51) sheds light on how enduring caregiving roles can lead to social exclusion in three ways: misunderstanding of ASD and stigma, the complexity of the caregiving roles, and impact on daily routines including challenges with long-term planning for both the adult children and the parental caregivers...
January 1, 2017: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627743/polygenic-scores-for-schizophrenia-and-educational-attainment-are-associated-with-behavioural-problems-in-early-childhood-in-the-general-population
#8
Philip R Jansen, Tinca J C Polderman, Koen Bolhuis, Jan van der Ende, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Danielle Posthuma, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies in adults have identified numerous genetic variants related to psychiatric disorders and related traits, such as schizophrenia and educational attainment. However, the effects of these genetic variants on behaviour in the general population remain to be fully understood, particularly in younger populations. We investigated whether polygenic scores of five psychiatric disorders and educational attainment are related to emotional and behaviour problems during early childhood...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593714/autism-awareness-in-children-and-young-people-surveys-of-two-populations
#9
K Dillenburger, J-A Jordan, L McKerr, K Lloyd, D Schubotz
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, pupils on the autism spectrum are educated in inclusive mainstream classrooms. However, they often experience social isolation and bullying, and raising the awareness of autism in peers has been suggested as a remedy. METHODS: In order to assess autism awareness in peers, autism-related questions were included in two large-scale surveys: the Kids Life and Times survey for 11-year olds and the Young Life and Times survey for 16-year olds; a total of n = 3353 children and young people completed the surveys...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586511/factors-affecting-dance-exercise-performance-among-students-at-a-special-needs-school
#10
Yukiko Ito, Izumi Hiramoto, Hideya Kodama
BACKGROUND: In Japan, dance exercise has been introduced as a compulsory element of health and physical education. However, there is a considerable discrepancy in the levels of performance among students with intellectual disabilities (ID) at a special needs school. AIM: To demonstrate factors affecting the performance of dance exercise in students with ID. METHODS: A 4-month dance exercise program was implemented for junior high school students at a special needs school, and performance of 32 students at 22 sessions was assessed quantitatively by amount of calorie use by exercise and the proficiency scores of performances...
June 6, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580294/gender-differences-in-the-structural-connectome-of-the-teenage-brain-revealed-by-generalized-q-sampling-mri
#11
Yeu-Sheng Tyan, Jan-Ray Liao, Chao-Yu Shen, Yu-Chieh Lin, Jun-Cheng Weng
The question of whether there are biological differences between male and female brains is a fraught one, and political positions and prior expectations seem to have a strong influence on the interpretation of scientific data in this field. This question is relevant to issues of gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric conditions, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, dyslexia, depression, and eating disorders. Understanding how gender influences vulnerability to these conditions is significant...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560650/effects-of-learning-strategy-training-on-the-writing-performance-of-college-students-with-asperger-s-syndrome
#12
Lynn G Jackson, Mary Lou Duffy, Michael P Brady, Jazarae McCormick
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly entering institutions of higher education. However, many are not prepared for the academic and social demands of postsecondary environments. Although studies have evaluated academic and social interventions for children and adolescents with ASD, little research exists on the college population. The current study utilized a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of a writing learning strategy on the writing performance of three college students with ASD...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410256/parent-reported-severity-and-health-educational-services-use-among-us-children-with-autism-results-from-a-national-survey
#13
Katharine E Zuckerman, Nora D B Friedman, Alison E Chavez, Amy M Shui, Karen A Kuhlthau
OBJECTIVE: Little national data exist regarding service use patterns for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of varying severity. This study aimed to assess the relationship between parent-reported severity and use of educational and health care services. METHODS: Data from the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services were used to examine a nationally representative sample of 1420 US children aged 6 to 17 years with ASD, with or without developmental delay and intellectual disability...
May 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395297/observed-and-parent-report-measures-of-social-communication-in-toddlers-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-across-race-ethnicity
#14
Sheri T Stronach, Amy M Wetherby
Purpose: This study investigated whether measures of early social communication vary among young children of diverse racial/ethnic status with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Participants were 364 toddlers between ages 18 and 36 months with a diagnosis of ASD confirmed (n = 195) or ruled out (n = 169), from 3 racial/ethnic categories: non-Hispanic White (n = 226), non-Hispanic Black (n = 74), and Hispanic (n = 64). Group differences in social communication were examined using an observational measure-the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Behavior Sample (CSBS-BS; Wetherby & Prizant, 2002)-and a parent-report measure, the Early Screening for Autism and Communication Disorders (Wetherby, Woods, & Lord, 2007)...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325061/overweight-and-obese-status-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-disruptive-behavior
#15
Kristen K Criado, William G Sharp, Courtney E McCracken, Oana De Vinck-Baroody, Liansai Dong, Michael G Aman, Christopher J McDougle, James T McCracken, L Eugene Arnold, Carol Weitzman, John M Leventhal, Benedetto Vitiello, Lawrence Scahill
Overweight and obesity are common in pediatric populations. Children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior may be at higher risk. This study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are more likely to be overweight or obese than matched controls. Baseline data from medication-free children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (N = 276) were compared to 544 control children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database matched on age, sex, race, parent education, and era of data collection...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322650/parental-feeding-behaviors-and-weight-related-concerns-in-children-with-special-needs
#16
Michele Polfuss, Pippa Simpson, Rachel Neff Greenley, Liyun Zhang, Kathleen J Sawin
Parental feeding behaviors and concern about child weight are associated with obesity among youth who are typically developing. Little is known about this relationship among parents of youth with special needs, despite these children having higher obesity risk. This study used an online survey to explore associations among parental feeding behaviors, parent weight concerns, demographics, and child weight status in a sample of 356 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, spina bifida, and Down syndrome...
January 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276079/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-examine-the-effects-of-the-tackling-teenage-psychosexual-training-program-for-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Kirsten Visser, Kirstin Greaves-Lord, Nouchka T Tick, Frank C Verhulst, Athanasios Maras, Esther J M van der Vegt
BACKGROUND: Previous research underscores the importance of psychosexual guidance for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Such guidance is provided in the Tackling Teenage Training (TTT) program, in which adolescents with ASD receive psycho-education and practice communicative skills regarding topics related to puberty, sexuality, and intimate relationships. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of the TTT program on (a) cognitive outcomes (i.e. psychosexual knowledge, and insight in interpersonal boundaries) and (b) behavioral outcomes (i...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238023/speech-acts-during-friends-and-non-friends-spontaneous-conversations-in-preschool-dyads-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-versus-typical-development
#18
Nirit Bauminger-Zviely, Adi Golan-Itshaky, Gila Tubul-Lavy
In this study, we videotaped two 10-min. free-play interactions and coded speech acts (SAs) in peer talk of 51 preschoolers (21 ASD, 30 typical), interacting with friend versus non-friend partners. Groups were matched for maternal education, IQ (verbal/nonverbal), and CA. We compared SAs by group (ASD/typical), by partner's friendship status (friend/non-friend), and by partner's disability status. Main results yielded a higher amount and diversity of SAs in the typical than the ASD group (mainly in assertive acts, organizational devices, object-dubbing, and pretend-play); yet, those categories, among others, showed better performance with friends versus non-friends...
May 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237264/child-to-adult-neurodevelopmental-and-mental-health-trajectories-after-early-life-deprivation-the-young-adult-follow-up-of-the-longitudinal-english-and-romanian-adoptees-study
#19
Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Mark Kennedy, Robert Kumsta, Nicky Knights, Dennis Golm, Michael Rutter, Barbara Maughan, Wolff Schlotz, Jana Kreppner
BACKGROUND: Time-limited, early-life exposures to institutional deprivation are associated with disorders in childhood, but it is unknown whether effects persist into adulthood. We used data from the English and Romanian Adoptees study to assess whether deprivation-associated adverse neurodevelopmental and mental health outcomes persist into young adulthood. METHODS: The English and Romanian Adoptees study is a longitudinal, natural experiment investigation into the long-term outcomes of individuals who spent from soon after birth to up to 43 months in severe deprivation in Romanian institutions before being adopted into the UK...
April 15, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179482/language-outcomes-at-7-years-early-predictors-and-co-occurring-difficulties
#20
Cristina McKean, Sheena Reilly, Edith L Bavin, Lesley Bretherton, Eileen Cini, Laura Conway, Fallon Cook, Patricia Eadie, Margot Prior, Melissa Wake, Fiona Mensah
OBJECTIVE: To examine at 7 years the language abilities of children, the salience of early life factors and language scores as predictors of language outcome, and co-occurring difficulties METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study of 1910 infants recruited at age 8 to 10 months. Exposures included early life factors (sex, prematurity, birth weight/order, twin birth, socioeconomic status, non-English speaking background,family history of speech/language difficulties); maternal factors (mental health, vocabulary, education, and age); and child language ability at 2 and 4 years...
March 2017: Pediatrics
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