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Autism and higher education

Rebecca J Weber, Kenneth D Gadow
The present study aimed to characterize the association of psychopathology with the clinical correlates of epilepsy, asthma, and allergy within and between neurobehavioral syndromes. Participants were consecutively evaluated youth (6-18 years, 75 % male) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 589) and non-ASD outpatient psychiatry referrals (n = 653). Informants completed a background questionnaire (parents) and a psychiatric symptom severity rating scale (parents, teachers). Youth with ASD had higher rates of epilepsy and allergy but not asthma than psychiatry referrals, even when analyses were limited to youth with IQ ≥ 70...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Gerard J Garvan, Cynthia W Garvan, Linda S Behar-Horenstein
The importance of educating dental students in cultural competence has been widely emphasized, but there is a need to assess cultural competence in a consistent and reliable way. The aims of this study were to determine latent constructs for the initial measure of cultural competence for oral health providers, the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument (KEPI), and to determine how well these factors related to previously identified latent constructs. Data were collected in surveys of dental students and from dental hygiene, dental assisting, and dental faculty members in 44 academic dental institutions from 2012 to 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Education
Harun Toy, Arzu Hergüner, Sevcan Şimşek, Sabri Hergüner
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that women with autism spectrum disorder have higher rates of menstrual problems, including irregular menstrual cycles, unusually painful periods (dysmenorrhea), and excessive menstrual bleeding. In this study, we investigated the autistic traits in female university students with primary dysmenorrhea (PD). METHODS: Seventy females with PD and 70 females without PD were enrolled in the study. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to measure autistic traits and the Brief Symptom Inventory was used for evaluating anxiety and depression levels...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yvonne W Wu, Michael W Kuzniewicz, Lisa Croen, Eileen M Walsh, Charles E McCulloch, Thomas B Newman
OBJECTIVE: Whether neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and/or phototherapy increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear. We sought to quantify the risk of ASD associated with elevated total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels and with phototherapy. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study of 525 409 infants born at ≥35 weeks' gestation in 15 Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) hospitals, 1995-2011, we obtained all TSB levels and determined which infants received phototherapy...
September 26, 2016: Pediatrics
É Cappe, N Poirier, É Boujut, N Nader-Grosbois, C Dionne, A Boulard
INTRODUCTION: Autism and related disorders are grouped into the category of « Autism Spectrum Disorder » (ASD) in the DSM-5. This appellation reflects the idea of a dimensional representation of autism that combines symptoms and characteristics that vary in severity and intensity. Despite common characteristics, there are varying degrees in intensity and in the onset of symptoms, ranging from a disability that can be very heavy with a total lack of communication and major disorders associated with the existence of a relative autonomy associated, sometimes, with extraordinary intellectual abilities...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Michal Hrdlicka, Maria Vacova, Hana Oslejskova, Veronika Gondzova, Iveta Vadlejchova, Jana Kocourkova, Jiri Koutek, Iva Dudova
BACKGROUND: The marked increase in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence has stimulated worldwide interest in exploring broader circumstances of care of autistic children, including the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and family information on autism. METHODS: Our sample comprised of 160 children who participated in a diagnostic examination focused on autism, and their parents who completed a simple descriptive questionnaire focusing on the family situation as well as family self-education about autism...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Karola Dillenburger, Lyn McKerr, Julie-Ann Jordan, Mickey Keenan
Having well-trained staff is key to ensuring good quality autism services, especially since people affected with autism generally tend to have higher support needs than other populations in terms of daily living, as well as their mental and physical health. Poorly-trained staff can have detrimental effects on service provision and staff morale and can lead to staff burn-out, as well as increased service user anxiety and stress. This paper reports on a survey with health, social care, and education staff who work within the statutory autism services sector in the UK that explored their knowledge and training with regards to autism...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tony Charman, Gregory S Young, Jessica Brian, Alice Carter, Leslie J Carver, Katarzyna Chawarska, Suzanne Curtin, Karen Dobkins, Mayada Elsabbagh, Stelios Georgiades, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Ted Hutman, Jana M Iverson, Emily J Jones, Rebecca Landa, Suzanne Macari, Daniel S Messinger, Charles A Nelson, Sally Ozonoff, Celine Saulnier, Wendy L Stone, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Sara Jane Webb, Nurit Yirmiya, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum
This study characterized developmental outcomes of a large sample of siblings at familial high-risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who themselves did not have ASD (n = 859), and low-risk controls with no family history of ASD (n = 473). We characterized outcomes at age 3 years using a developmental assessment of language and learning and an observational measure of ASD symptoms and, where available, parent interviews about ASD behaviors and adaptive functioning. Around one-in-ten high-risk siblings had mild-to-moderate levels of developmental delay, a rate significantly higher than the low-risk controls...
July 15, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Renee R Dijkhuis, Tim B Ziermans, Sophie Van Rijn, Wouter G Staal, Hanna Swaab
Autism is generally associated with poor functional outcome but little is known about predictors of quality of life, especially during early adulthood. This study was conducted to assess subjective quality of life during early adulthood in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and its relation with self-regulating abilities. Individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder who progressed into post-secondary higher education (N = 75) were compared to a typical peer control group (N = 28) based on behavioral self-report questionnaires...
July 11, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Sarah E Fitzpatrick, Laura Srivorakiat, Logan K Wink, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Catherine C Bradley, Andrea D Boan, Amy P Cohen, Jane M Charles, Laura A Carpenter
OBJECTIVE: Previous research on developmental regression in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has often been limited by the definition, assessment, and methodology used to evaluate and describe regression. This study sought to overcome these limitations by examining the prevalence, timing, and correlates of documented cases of developmental regression in a large, epidemiological sample of youth with ASD. METHOD: Utilizing a population-based surveillance methodology, this study includes 862 youth with ASD identified through abstraction and clinician record review...
July 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Lauren E Hirsch, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Antipsychotics have been used as a medication intervention for irritability related to ASD. Aripiprazole, a third-generation, atypical antipsychotic, is a relatively new drug that has a unique mechanism of action different from that of other antipsychotics. This review updates a previous Cochrane review on the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole for individuals with ASD, published in 2011 (Ching 2011)...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lawrence Scahill, Karen Bearss, Luc Lecavalier, Tristram Smith, Naomi Swiezy, Michael G Aman, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Courtney McCracken, Noha Minshawi, Kylan Turner, Lynne Levato, Celine Saulnier, James Dziura, Cynthia Johnson
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of parent training on adaptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior. METHODS: This was a 24-week, 6-site, randomized trial of parent training versus parent education in 180 children with ASD (aged 3-7 years; 158 boys and 22 girls) and moderate or greater behavioral problems. Parent training included specific strategies to manage disruptive behavior over 11 to 13 sessions, 2 telephone boosters, and 2 home visits...
July 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Andrew T Nelson, Christopher Lopata, Martin A Volker, Marcus L Thomeer, Jennifer A Toomey, Elissa Dua
This study examined the factor structure and internal consistency of special education teaching staff ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2; Constantino and Gruber 2012), as well as the percentage of ratings falling above pre-established cut scores, for a sample of lower-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 264). Results of the exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor correlated solution. The individual factors and total score demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency reliability for screening purposes...
September 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Katherine McKenzie, Hélène Ouellette-Kuntz, Ashleigh Blinkhorn, Ashley Démoré
BACKGROUND: The transition period out of the educational system can be a source of stress for parents of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as families lose the support and respite offered by schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a before and after design nested within a 24-month follow-up study of parents seeking adult developmental services for their children, parents' perception of distress was measured using the Brief Family Distress Scale (Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 2011, 521) and their perception of helpfulness of formal supports was assessed using the Family Support Scale (Journal of Individual, Family, and Community Wellness, 1, 1984, 45)...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Laura A Carpenter, Andrea D Boan, Amy E Wahlquist, Amy Cohen, Jane Charles, Walter Jenner, Catherine C Bradley
PURPOSE: Findings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-sponsored Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) network suggest a growing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The rigorous ADDM record review methodology has provided valuable insight into the epidemiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but recent studies using alternative methods have reported significantly higher prevalence estimates. The South Carolina Children's Educational Surveillance Study (SUCCESS) was designed to determine ASD prevalence via population-based screening and direct assessment and to compare prevalence results to ADDM and administrative prevalence counts...
June 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Christine J Spaulding, Matthew D Lerner, Kenneth D Gadow
Relatively little is known about patterns of school-based supportive services for youth with autism spectrum disorder. This study describes these supportive services and their correlates, both cross-sectionally and retrospectively, in a large sample (N = 283) of 6- to 18- year-old youth. To assess whether special education designation and classroom placement patterns were peculiar to autism spectrum disorder, we also conducted analyses comparing youth with autism spectrum disorder to those with other psychiatric diagnoses (N = 1088)...
May 12, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Yingna Liu, Jialing Li, Qiaolan Zheng, Charles M Zaroff, Brian J Hall, Xiuhong Li, Yuantao Hao
BACKGROUND: In China, children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can potentially benefit from universal education policies and recent initiatives designed to address the needs of children with developmental disorders. However, adequate schooling is often unavailable for children with ASD, in part because teachers lack the knowledge and skills needed to work with this population. To better understand the current state of knowledge of ASD in China, we surveyed knowledge and attitudes regarding the disorder in preschool teachers...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
JoAnne Cascia, Jason J Barr
BACKGROUND: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been characterized as having deficits in social communication and empathy which present difficulties in the areas of social reciprocity, sharing of emotions and developing and maintaining relationships. This study explores the associations between vocabulary, executive function skills and empathy in individuals with ASD. METHOD: A survey study with a purposive sample was used. Twenty adolescents with ASD completed receptive and expressive vocabulary assessments while their parent and teacher completed executive function and empathy scales...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Dejene Tilahun, Charlotte Hanlon, Abebaw Fekadu, Bethlehem Tekola, Yonas Baheretibeb, Rosa A Hoekstra
BACKGROUND: Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. METHODS: Participants comprised caregivers (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders attending two child mental health clinics in Addis Ababa...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
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