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Autism and higher education

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808467/performance-of-the-autism-spectrum-rating-scale-and-social-responsiveness-scale-in-identifying-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-cases-of-intellectual-disability
#1
Chunpei Li, Hao Zhou, Tianqi Wang, Shasha Long, Xiaonan Du, Xiu Xu, Weili Yan, Yi Wang
The Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (ASRS) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) have been widely used for screening autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the general population during epidemiological studies, but studies of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are quite limited. Therefore, we recruited the parents/caregivers of 204 ASD cases, 71 ID cases aged 6-18 years from special education schools, and 402 typically developing (TD) children in the same age span from a community-based population to complete the ASRS and SRS...
May 28, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744704/autism-and-the-university-experience-narratives-from-students-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
Yasamine Bolourian, Sasha M Zeedyk, Jan Blacher
Relatively limited research has been devoted to understanding the postsecondary experience from the students' perspectives. In the current study, individual interviews were conducted with university students with autism spectrum disorder (n = 13) and students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 18) to investigate likely factors impeding meaningful postsecondary experiences. Through an iterative coding process, nine themes were identified, and direct narratives exemplifying each are included...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732730/differences-in-teachers-verbal-responsiveness-to-groups-of-children-with-asd-who-vary-in-cognitive-and-language-abilities
#3
X Qian
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine whether verbal responsiveness in special education teachers varied among subgroups of children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 112) who differed in cognitive and language abilities. METHODS: Participants were divided into clusters using cluster analysis based on standardised cognitive and language tests using k-mean clustering. For each child, a 15-min video of free play in school setting was collected. Three types of responsive utterances were coded: follow-in directives for behaviour, follow-in directives for language and follow-in comments...
June 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730869/cognitive-features-of-high-functioning-adults-with-autism-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#4
Öykü Mançe Çalışır, Eşref Cem Atbaşoğlu, Halise Devrimci Özgüven, Şenay Ölmez
OBJECTIVE: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia share common features in terms of pathophysiology and clinical appearance. Cognitive deficits are also present in both disorders. However, ASD and schizophrenia are heterogeneous syndromes, and  few  studies  have addressed patients with these disorders who have above average educational attainment. In this study, we assessed the cognitive functions of a group of adult ASD patients with adequate mental development and verbal communication skills (High Functioning Autism, HFA) and compared them with a group of Schizophrenia patients matched for level of education...
2018: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721744/students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-their-parents-in-the-transition-into-higher-education-impact-on-dynamics-in-the-parent-child-relationship
#5
Valérie Van Hees, Herbert Roeyers, Jan De Mol
This study examined how 34 senior students and first-year college students with autism spectrum disorder, their mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 26) navigate the higher education transition, and how this context impacts on dynamics in the parent-child relationships. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed based on grounded theory and dyadic analysis principles. Both parties were confronted with an abundance of challenges and experienced strong feelings of ambivalence, stress and anxiety. Differences in perspectives occurred regarding the construction of adulthood, the acquisition of autonomy, disclosure and subscribing to support services...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701730/prevalence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-children-aged-8-years-autism-and-developmental-disabilities-monitoring-network-11-sites-united-states-2014
#6
Jon Baio, Lisa Wiggins, Deborah L Christensen, Matthew J Maenner, Julie Daniels, Zachary Warren, Margaret Kurzius-Spencer, Walter Zahorodny, Cordelia Robinson Rosenberg, Tiffany White, Maureen S Durkin, Pamela Imm, Loizos Nikolaou, Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, Li-Ching Lee, Rebecca Harrington, Maya Lopez, Robert T Fitzgerald, Amy Hewitt, Sydney Pettygrove, John N Constantino, Alison Vehorn, Josephine Shenouda, Jennifer Hall-Lande, Kim Van Naarden Braun, Nicole F Dowling
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PERIOD COVERED: 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin)...
April 27, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651681/higher-autistic-traits-among-criminals-but-no-link-to-psychopathy-findings-from-a-high-security-prison-in-portugal
#7
Diana Loureiro, Ana Machado, Tânia Silva, Tânia Veigas, Carlos Ramalheira, Joaquim Cerejeira
The relationship between autism, criminality and psychopathy has gained increased attention in recent years, although research has focused on autism spectrum disorders, and not autistic traits. We measured autistic traits (with the Autism Spectrum Quotient) in a sample of 101 inmates from a high-security prison and compared them to a control group, using a logistic regression model that included age, education, psychopathology, psychopathy and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder as covariates. Prisoners had more autistic traits (OR 1...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610706/the-value-of-citizen-science-for-ecological-monitoring-of-mammals
#8
Arielle Waldstein Parsons, Christine Goforth, Robert Costello, Roland Kays
Citizen science approaches are of great interest for their potential to efficiently and sustainably monitor wildlife populations on both public and private lands. Here we present two studies that worked with volunteers to set camera traps for ecological surveys. The photographs recorded by these citizen scientists were archived and verified using the eMammal software platform, providing a professional grade, vouchered database of biodiversity records. Motivated by managers' concern with perceived high bear activity, our first example enlisted the help of homeowners in a short-term study to compare black bear activity inside a National Historic Site with surrounding private land...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610413/transition-of-individuals-with-autism-to-adulthood-a-review-of-qualitative-studies
#9
Kristy A Anderson, Collette Sosnowy, Alice A Kuo, Paul T Shattuck
Many young adults with autism spectrum disorder experience poor transition outcomes in key areas, including postsecondary employment, higher education, health care, social connectedness, and independent living, yet we lack a clear understanding of the specific factors that impact these outcomes. We reviewed qualitative research in which the perspectives of youth and young adults with autism spectrum disorder, parents, services providers, and other stakeholders were gathered to identify barriers and facilitators to optimal outcomes...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610408/family-characteristics-and-children-s-receipt-of-autism-services-in-low-resourced-families
#10
Elizabeth A Karp, Rebecca Dudovitz, Bergen B Nelson, Wendy Shih, Amanda Gulsrud, Felice Orlich, Costanza Colombi, Alice A Kuo
OBJECTIVES: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face competing demands when caring for their child and fulfilling family commitments. It remains unknown whether family obligations and parental stress might decrease the use of intervention services for young children with ASD. METHODS: The current study is a secondary analysis of baseline date from a published randomized control trial with 147 low-resourced caregiver-child dyads. Demographic information, data on service use, maternal employment, parent's perception of their child's development, and parental stress were collected for primary caregivers of 2- to 5-year-old children with ASD from 5 sites...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580218/education-and-employment-status-of-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-germany-a-cross-sectional-survey
#11
Fabian Frank, Martina Jablotschkin, Tobias Arthen, Andreas Riedel, Thomas Fangmeier, Lars P Hölzel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
BACKGROUND: Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience challenges in participating in the labour market and struggle to achieve and maintain appropriate professional positions, possibly due to impairments of communication and social interaction. Studies have shown high rates of unemployment as well as evidence of inadequate employment. As knowledge on the participation in the German labour market is scarce, the aim of our study was to examine employment status, type of occupation and inadequate employment in a sample of clinically mostly late-diagnosed and most likely not intellectually disabled adults with ASD in Germany...
March 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579089/to-be-understood-transitioning-to-adult-life-for-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Craig Thompson, Sven Bölte, Torbjörn Falkmer, Sonya Girdler
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to explore the viewpoints of parents of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in relation to their child's transition to adulthood. METHODS: Data were collected during four structured focus groups with 19 parents of young people with ASD with average to high intellectual capacities. Condensed meaning units were identified and checked during focus groups, and were subsequently linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566153/outcome-dependent-associations-between-short-interpregnancy-interval-and-offspring-psychological-and-educational-problems-a-population-based-quasi-experimental-study
#13
Quetzal A Class, Martin E Rickert, Henrik Larsson, Anna Sara Öberg, Ayesha C Sujan, Catarina Almqvist, Paul Lichtenstein, Brian M D'Onofrio
Background: Causal interpretation of associations between short interpregnancy interval (the duration from the preceeding birth to the conception of the next-born index child) and the offspring's psychological and educational problems may be influenced by a failure to account for unmeasured confounding. Methods: Using population-based Swedish data from 1973-2009, we estimated the association between interpregnancy interval and outcomes [autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), severe mental illness, suicide attempt, criminality, substance-use problem and failing grades] while controlling for measured covariates...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556443/a-preliminary-analysis-of-mastery-criterion-level-effects-on-response-maintenance
#14
Jessica L Fuller, Daniel M Fienup
Educators use a mastery criterion to evaluate skill acquisition programming for children with autism and other developmental disabilities; however, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no research evaluating how the mastery criterion level of accuracy affects the maintenance of those responses. This study investigated the effects of 3 skill acquisition mastery criterion levels (50%, 80%, and 90% accuracy) on response maintenance. Following mastery of a set of skills, maintenance was evaluated once a week for 3 to 4 weeks...
March 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551982/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-anxiety-in-a-clinical-dutch-sample-of-children-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Lieke A M W Wijnhoven, Daan H M Creemers, Ad A Vermulst, Isabela Granic
Anxiety is highly prevalent in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is inconsistency in studies investigating the prevalence and risk factors of anxiety in children with ASD. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in a clinical Dutch sample of children with ASD. The second aim was to investigate age, gender, ASD subtype, and IQ as potential risk factors for anxiety in this sample. In total, 172 children with ASD (age, 8-15 years) and their parents participated in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506195/demographic-and-operational-factors-predicting-study-completion-in-a-multisite-case-control-study-of-preschool-children
#16
Chyrise B Bradley, Erica N Browne, Aimee A Alexander, Jack Collins, Jamie L Dahm, Carolyn G DiGuiseppi, Susan E Levy, Eric J Moody, Laura A Schieve, Gayle C Windham, Lisa Young, Julie L Daniels
Participant attrition can limit inferences drawn from study results and inflate research costs. We examined factors associated with completion of the Study to Explore Early Development (2007-2011), a multiple-component, case-control study of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in preschoolers, conducted in California, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. Participants (n = 3,769) were asked to complete phone interviews, questionnaires, an in-person evaluation, and biologic sampling...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498956/when-a-child-unexpectedly-draws-a-violent-scene
#17
Andy Barnes, Richard Ziegler, Neena McConnico, Martin T Stein
Carter is a 12-year-old boy who has been seeing a developmental-behavioral pediatrician since the age of 7 years for problems with behavioral regulation. Around that time, he began to receive special education services after an educational assessment of autism. He has average intellectual abilities, with below-average semantic-pragmatic speech (e.g., conversations are one-sided). His medical diagnoses included attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined presentation, and generalized anxiety disorder...
April 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486137/characteristics-of-children-prescribed-antipsychotics-analysis-of-routinely-collected-data
#18
Sinead Brophy, Jonathan Kennedy, Fabiola Fernandez-Gutierrez, Ann John, Robert Potter, Christine Linehan, Michael Kerr
OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotics are licensed for psychosis and are also prescribed for behavior control. This study aims to examine characteristics and outcomes of children prescribed antipsychotics. METHODS: A cohort study using general practice and hospital records linked with education records for 1,488,936 children living in Wales between 1999 and 2015. The characteristics of the children who were prescribed antipsychotics are presented using descriptive statistics and outcomes such as respiratory illness, diabetes, and injury were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression and the prior event rate ratio (PERR)...
April 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424959/influence-of-family-demographic-factors-on-social-communication-questionnaire-scores
#19
Steven A Rosenberg, Eric J Moody, Li-Ching Lee, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Gayle C Windham, Lisa D Wiggins, Laura A Schieve, Caroline M Ledbetter, Susan E Levy, Lisa Blaskey, Lisa Young, Pilar Bernal, Cordelia R Rosenberg, M Daniele Fallin
This study examined the effect of demographic factors on Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) scores in children aged 30-68 months. Diagnoses of ASD were made after a gold standard evaluation that included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R). The relationship of demographic variables to SCQ scores was compared in two source populations: (a) children recruited from clinical and educational sources serving children who have ASD or other developmental disorders (CE) and (b) children recruited from birth certificates to represent the general population (BC)...
February 9, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411255/advanced-maternal-age-and-maternal-education-disparity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
For-Wey Lung, Tung-Liang Chiang, Shio-Jean Lin, Meng-Chih Lee, Bih-Ching Shu
Objective Previous studies have shown inconsistent results with regard to the association between advanced parental age and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sociodemographic status of parents has been found to be associated with children with ASD, however. Therefore, a pathway analysis was undertaken of the roles of maternal age and education in ASD diagnosis and community screening, in a national birth cohort database, using a propensity score matching (PSM) method. Method The 6- and 66-month Taiwan Birth Cohort Study dataset was used (N = 20,095)...
February 6, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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