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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730416/quality-of-life-coping-styles-stress-levels-and-time-use-in-mothers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-comparing-single-versus-coupled-households
#1
Tomomi McAuliffe, Reinie Cordier, Sharmila Vaz, Yvonne Thomas, Torbjorn Falkmer
This study aimed to examine the influence of differences in household status on the parental stress, coping, time use and quality of life (QoL) among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders. Forty-three single and 164 coupled mothers completed the survey. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. We found that single mothers were 1.05 times more likely to report lower levels of environmental QoL. Whilst they were 1.73 times more likely to use acceptance coping style, this association did not persist after adjusting for total number of children, household income and employment status...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711654/involvement-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-neurite-outgrowth-in-the-model-mice-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Koichi Kawada, Seisuke Mimori, Yasunobu Okuma, Yasuyuki Nomura
Neurodevelopmental disorders are congenital impairments, impeding the growth and development of the central nervous system. These disorders include autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. ASD is caused by a gene defect and chromosomal duplication. Despite numerous reports on ASD, the pathogenic mechanisms are not clear. The optimal methods to prevent ASD and to treat it are also not clear. Other studies have reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704446/a-specialist-peer-mentoring-program-for-university-students-on-the-autism-spectrum-a-pilot-study
#3
Choo Ting Siew, Trevor G Mazzucchelli, Rosanna Rooney, Sonya Girdler
INTRODUCTION: The provision of peer mentoring may improve tertiary education outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluated the pilot year of the Curtin Specialist Mentoring Program (CSMP), a specialised peer mentoring program for university students with ASD aimed at improving self-reported well-being, academic success and retention in university studies. METHODS: A single group pre-test, post-test design was employed. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were undertaken with 10 young adults with ASD to explore the effectiveness and acceptability of the CSMP program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702506/prenatal-depression-risk-factors-developmental-effects-and-interventions-a-review
#4
Tiffany Field
This narrative review based on a literature search in PubMed and PsycInfo on the two terms prenatal and antenatal depression includes empirical studies, reviews and meta-analyses that have been published during the last 5 years on risk factors, developmental effects and interventions for prenatal depression. Risk factor studies that met criteria feature demographic measures (lower socioeconomic status, less education, non-marital status, non-employment, less social support and health locus of control, unintended pregnancy, partner violence and history of child abuse) and physiological variables (cortisol, amylase, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and intrauterine artery resistance)...
February 2017: Journal of Pregnancy and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701294/self-directed-telehealth-parent-mediated-intervention-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-examination-of-the-potential-reach-and-utilization-in-community-settings
#5
Brooke Ingersoll, Katherine Shannon, Natalie Berger, Katherine Pickard, Bree Holtz
BACKGROUND: There is a significant need for strategies to increase access to evidence-based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One novel approach is to train parents to use evidence-based interventions for their child with ASD via telehealth. Pilot work examining the efficacy of one such program, ImPACT Online, demonstrated a high rate of parent program engagement, low attrition, and associated gains in parent learning and child social communication. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to conduct an open trial of ImPACT Online to better understand its dissemination potential...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691500/factors-associated-with-sustained-community-employment-among-adults-with-autism-and-co-occurring-intellectual-disability
#6
Wai Chan, Leann E Smith, Jinkuk Hong, Jan S Greenberg, Julie Lounds Taylor, Marsha R Mailick
Sustaining community employment is a challenge for adults with autism spectrum disorders, especially for those who have co-occurring intellectual disability, but factors contributing to this employment outcome have not been fully evaluated. This study utilized longitudinal data to explore the impact of contextual influences, family factors, and individual characteristics on sustained employment over approximately 18 months ( N = 105). Very few adults with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability achieved sustained employment (14...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683565/support-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-without-intellectual-impairment-systematic-review
#7
Theo Lorenc, Mark Rodgers, David Marshall, Hollie Melton, Rebecca Rees, Kath Wright, Amanda Sowden
Adults with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual impairment may benefit from a range of support services. This article presents the results of a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of supportive interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual impairment. A total of 32 studies were included; most focused on younger male participants. Although evidence was lacking for most types of intervention, employment programmes and social skills training were found to be effective for more proximal outcomes such as social skills...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678216/public-awareness-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Matar A Alsehemi, Mahmoud M Abousaadah, Razan A Sairafi, Mohammed M Jan
OBJECTIVE: Examine the awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in our community which would help in early recognition and improved support of affected families. METHODS: A focused 20-item questionnaire was designed to survey the public awareness and knowledge of ASD. Personal interviews were conducted during an ASD awareness day, which was organized in a major shopping mall on February 20, 2015 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: A total of 259 individuals participated in the study with 47% being <30 years of age and 57% being females...
July 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637355/evaluation-of-employment-support-services-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
David B Nicholas, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Jennifer Zwicker, Margaret E Clarke, Ramesh Lamsal, Kevin P Stoddart, Cynthia Carroll, Barbara Muskat, Margaret Spoelstra, Katelyn Lowe
The employment rate among persons with autism spectrum disorder has been noted as unacceptably low. Employment-support services are increasingly linked to the potential for favorable job outcomes, yet little is known about employment-support practices and the outcome of these interventions. This mixed-methods study examined employment-support resources for persons with autism spectrum disorder. An online survey was completed by 137 senior clinicians or administrators in employment-support programs in Canada...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635306/self-injurious-behaviors-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-enrolled-in-the-study-to-explore-early-development
#10
Gnakub Norbert Soke, Steven A Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson Rosenberg, Roma A Vasa, Li-Ching Lee, Carolyn DiGuiseppi
We assessed potential factors associated with "current" or "ever" self-injurious behaviors, reported in the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, among children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 692) from the Study to Explore Early Development. Data on factors examined were obtained from questionnaires, standardized clinical instruments, and birth certificates. We employed a log-binomial regression to assess these associations. Although most associations were quite similar for currently and ever exhibiting self-injurious behaviors, a few differences were noted...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633887/visual-integration-of-fear-and-anger-emotional-cues-by-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-and-neurotypical-peers-an-eeg-study
#11
Evie Malaia, Debbie Cockerham, Katherine Rublein
Communication deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often related to inefficient interpretation of emotional cues, which are conveyed visually through both facial expressions and body language (Apicella et al., 2012). The present study examined ASD behavioral and ERP responses to emotional expressions of anger and fear, as conveyed by the face and body. Behavioral results showed significantly faster response times for the ASD than for the typically developing (TD) group when processing fear, but not anger, in isolated face expressions, isolated body expressions, and in the integration of the two...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627933/the-impact-of-child-and-family-stressors-on-the-self-rated-health-of-mothers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-associations-with-depressed-mood-over-a-12-year-period
#12
Paul R Benson
Employing a cohort sequential design and multilevel modeling, the effects of child and family stressors and maternal depressed mood on the self-rated health of 110 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder were assessed over a 12-year period when children in the study were 7-19 years old. Findings indicate a significant decline in self-rated health over time. In addition, child and family stressors, as well as maternal depressed mood, exerted significant between-persons effects on self-rated health such that mothers who reported more stressors and depressed mood across the study period were less likely to rate themselves in better health across that period...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612384/exploring-partner-intimacy-among-couples-raising-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-a%C3%A2-grounded-theory-investigation
#13
Jake Johnson, Fred P Piercy
In this study, we explored how couples raising children with autism spectrum disorder negotiate intimacy, including what contextual and temporal factors influence these processes. We conducted conjoint interviews with 12 couples, employing grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze the data. Our results indicated that fostering intimacy in these couples' relationships involves partners working together to make key cognitive and relational shifts. Couples are aided or hindered in making these shifts by the degree to which they experience various contextual and environmental factors as resources or roadblocks...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604607/emotional-self-regulation-of-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-smartwatches-for-monitoring-and-interaction
#14
Juan C Torrado, Javier Gomez, Germán Montoro
In this paper, we analyze the needs of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to have a pervasive, feasible and non-stigmatizing form of assistance in their emotional self-regulation, in order to ease certain behavioral issues that undermine their mental health throughout their life. We argue the potential of recent widespread wearables, and more specifically smartwatches, to achieve this goal. Then, a smartwatch system that implements a wide range of self-regulation strategies and infers outburst patterns from physiological signals and movement is presented, along with an authoring tool for smartphones that is to be used by caregivers or family members to create and edit these strategies, in an adaptive way...
June 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600643/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-parent-training-for-disruptive-behavior-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Valentina Postorino, William G Sharp, Courtney E McCracken, Karen Bearss, T Lindsey Burrell, A Nichole Evans, Lawrence Scahill
Parent training (PT) has emerged as a promising treatment for disruptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review summarizes the essential elements of PT for disruptive behavior in children with ASD and evaluates the available evidence for PT using both descriptive and meta-analytic procedures. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases (1980-2016) in peer-reviewed journals for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PT for disruptive behavior in children with ASD. The systematic search of 2023 publications yielded eight RCTs involving a total of 653 participants...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596952/neurodevelopmental-delay-diagnosis-rates-are-increased-in-a-region-with-aerial-pesticide-application
#16
Steven D Hicks, Ming Wang, Katherine Fry, Vignesh Doraiswamy, Eric M Wohlford
A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586261/modulation-of-reward-in-a-live-social-context-as-revealed-through-interactive-social-neuroscience
#17
Max J Rolison, Adam J Naples, Helena J V Rutherford, James C McPartland
Social neuroscience research investigating autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has yielded inconsistent findings, despite ASD being well-characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication through behavioral observation. In particular, specific etiologies and functional and structural assays of the brain in autism have not been consistently identified. To date, most social neuroscience research has focused on a single person viewing static images. Research utilizing interactive social neuroscience featuring dual-brain recording offers great promise for the study of neurodevelopmental disabilities...
June 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584881/thalamocortical-dysconnectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-analysis-of-the-autism-brain-imaging-data-exchange
#18
Neil D Woodward, Monica Giraldo-Chica, Baxter Rogers, Carissa J Cascio
BACKGROUND: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit differences in basic sensorimotor processing as well as general cortical excitability. These observations converge to implicate thalamocortical connectivity as a potential unifying neural mechanism. The goal of this study was to clarify mixed findings on thalamocortical functional connectivity in a large sample of individuals with ASD. METHODS: Using the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE), we examined thalamocortical functional connectivity in 228 individuals with ASD and a matched comparison group of 228 typically developing individuals...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557507/structural-learning-difficulties-implicate-altered-hippocampal-functioning-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Melanie Ring, Claire L T Derwent, Sebastian B Gaigg, Dermot M Bowler
Structural learning is fundamental to the formation of cognitive maps that are necessary for learning, memory, and spatial navigation. It also enables successful navigation of the social world, which is something that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) find particularly difficult. To master these situations, a person needs to bind pieces of information to one another and to consider the context in which experiences happen. Such binding is a capacity of the hippocampus. Although altered hippocampal function has for long been suspected to play a role in the etiology of ASD, the relevant evidence has remained inconclusive because few behavioral tests that are known to specifically necessitate preserved hippocampal function have been employed in studies of ASD...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542465/employers-perception-of-the-costs-and-the-benefits-of-hiring-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-open-employment-in-australia
#20
Melissa Scott, Andrew Jacob, Delia Hendrie, Richard Parsons, Sonya Girdler, Torbjörn Falkmer, Marita Falkmer
Research has examined the benefits and costs of employing adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the perspective of the employee, taxpayer and society, but few studies have considered the employer perspective. This study examines the benefits and costs of employing adults with ASD, from the perspective of employers. Fifty-nine employers employing adults with ASD in open employment were asked to complete an online survey comparing employees with and without ASD on the basis of job similarity. The findings suggest that employing an adult with ASD provides benefits to employers and their organisations without incurring additional costs...
2017: PloS One
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