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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814540/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-fragile-x-syndrome-cooccurring-conditions-and-current-treatment
#1
Walter E Kaufmann, Sharon A Kidd, Howard F Andrews, Dejan B Budimirovic, Amy Esler, Barbara Haas-Givler, Tracy Stackhouse, Catharine Riley, Georgina Peacock, Stephanie L Sherman, W Ted Brown, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are frequently codiagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most of our current knowledge about ASD in FXS comes from family surveys and small studies. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the ASD diagnosis in a large clinic-based FXS population to better inform the care of people with FXS. METHODS: The study employed a data set populated by data from individuals with FXS seen at specialty clinics across the country...
June 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812966/a-snapshot-of-intellectual-disabilities-in-lao-pdr-challenges-for-the-development-of-services
#2
Stian H Thoresen, Angela Fielding, Sue Gillieatt, Barbara Blundell, Liem Nguyen
Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) has experienced significant economic growth in the last two decades. While access to education, health, and employment for people with disabilities has also improved markedly, people with intellectual disabilities are still among the most vulnerable in society. This article presents findings from a screening survey of 2469 participants, a focus group discussion with key stakeholders in intellectual disabilities, and a case study of the Association for Autism. The screening survey suggests 1...
September 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801946/imitation-inhibition-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome
#3
Valerie Cathérine Brandt, Agnes Moczydlowski, Melanie Jonas, Kai Boelmans, Tobias Bäumer, Marcel Brass, Alexander Münchau
OBJECTIVE: Echopraxia, that is, the open and automatic imitation of other peoples' actions, is common in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and also those with frontal lobe lesions. While systematic reaction time tasks have confirmed increased automatic imitation in the latter two groups, adult patients with Tourette syndrome appear to compensate for automatic imitation tendencies by an overall slowing in response times. However, whether children with Tourette syndrome are already able to inhibit automatic imitation tendencies has not been investigated...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774670/exploring-a-method-for-evaluation-of-preschool-and-school-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-through-checking-their-understanding-of-the-speaker-s-emotions-with-the-help-of-prosody-of-the-voice
#4
Mayumi Horie, Hitoshi Okamura
PURPOSE: We attempted to evaluate the ability of 125 preschool and school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD children) to understand the intentions of those speaking to them using prosody of the voice, by comparing it with that of 119 typically developing children (TDC) and 51 development-age-matched children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD children), and to explore, based on the results, a method for objective evaluation of children with ASD in the early and later periods of childhood...
July 31, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749996/misinformation-lingers-in-memory-failure-of-three-pro-vaccination-strategies
#5
Sara Pluviano, Caroline Watt, Sergio Della Sala
People's inability to update their memories in light of corrective information may have important public health consequences, as in the case of vaccination choice. In the present study, we compare three potentially effective strategies in vaccine promotion: one contrasting myths vs. facts, one employing fact and icon boxes, and one showing images of non-vaccinated sick children. Beliefs in the autism/vaccines link and in vaccines side effects, along with intention to vaccinate a future child, were evaluated both immediately after the correction intervention and after a 7-day delay to reveal possible backfire effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730416/quality-of-life-coping-styles-stress-levels-and-time-use-in-mothers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-comparing-single-versus-coupled-households
#6
Tomomi McAuliffe, Reinie Cordier, Sharmila Vaz, Yvonne Thomas, Torbjorn Falkmer
This study aimed to examine the influence of differences in household status on the parental stress, coping, time use and quality of life (QoL) among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders. Forty-three single and 164 coupled mothers completed the survey. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. We found that single mothers were 1.05 times more likely to report lower levels of environmental QoL. Whilst they were 1.73 times more likely to use acceptance coping style, this association did not persist after adjusting for total number of children, household income and employment status...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711654/involvement-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-neurite-outgrowth-in-the-model-mice-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Koichi Kawada, Seisuke Mimori, Yasunobu Okuma, Yasuyuki Nomura
Neurodevelopmental disorders are congenital impairments, impeding the growth and development of the central nervous system. These disorders include autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. ASD is caused by a gene defect and chromosomal duplication. Despite numerous reports on ASD, the pathogenic mechanisms are not clear. The optimal methods to prevent ASD and to treat it are also not clear. Other studies have reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704446/a-specialist-peer-mentoring-program-for-university-students-on-the-autism-spectrum-a-pilot-study
#8
Choo Ting Siew, Trevor G Mazzucchelli, Rosanna Rooney, Sonya Girdler
INTRODUCTION: The provision of peer mentoring may improve tertiary education outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluated the pilot year of the Curtin Specialist Mentoring Program (CSMP), a specialised peer mentoring program for university students with ASD aimed at improving self-reported well-being, academic success and retention in university studies. METHODS: A single group pre-test, post-test design was employed. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were undertaken with 10 young adults with ASD to explore the effectiveness and acceptability of the CSMP program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702506/prenatal-depression-risk-factors-developmental-effects-and-interventions-a-review
#9
Tiffany Field
This narrative review based on a literature search in PubMed and PsycInfo on the two terms prenatal and antenatal depression includes empirical studies, reviews and meta-analyses that have been published during the last 5 years on risk factors, developmental effects and interventions for prenatal depression. Risk factor studies that met criteria feature demographic measures (lower socioeconomic status, less education, non-marital status, non-employment, less social support and health locus of control, unintended pregnancy, partner violence and history of child abuse) and physiological variables (cortisol, amylase, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and intrauterine artery resistance)...
February 2017: Journal of Pregnancy and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701294/self-directed-telehealth-parent-mediated-intervention-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-examination-of-the-potential-reach-and-utilization-in-community-settings
#10
Brooke Ingersoll, Katherine Shannon, Natalie Berger, Katherine Pickard, Bree Holtz
BACKGROUND: There is a significant need for strategies to increase access to evidence-based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One novel approach is to train parents to use evidence-based interventions for their child with ASD via telehealth. Pilot work examining the efficacy of one such program, ImPACT Online, demonstrated a high rate of parent program engagement, low attrition, and associated gains in parent learning and child social communication. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to conduct an open trial of ImPACT Online to better understand its dissemination potential...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691500/factors-associated-with-sustained-community-employment-among-adults-with-autism-and-co-occurring-intellectual-disability
#11
Wai Chan, Leann E Smith, Jinkuk Hong, Jan S Greenberg, Julie Lounds Taylor, Marsha R Mailick
Sustaining community employment is a challenge for adults with autism spectrum disorders, especially for those who have co-occurring intellectual disability, but factors contributing to this employment outcome have not been fully evaluated. This study utilized longitudinal data to explore the impact of contextual influences, family factors, and individual characteristics on sustained employment over approximately 18 months ( N = 105). Very few adults with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability achieved sustained employment (14...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683565/support-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-without-intellectual-impairment-systematic-review
#12
Theo Lorenc, Mark Rodgers, David Marshall, Hollie Melton, Rebecca Rees, Kath Wright, Amanda Sowden
Adults with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual impairment may benefit from a range of support services. This article presents the results of a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of supportive interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual impairment. A total of 32 studies were included; most focused on younger male participants. Although evidence was lacking for most types of intervention, employment programmes and social skills training were found to be effective for more proximal outcomes such as social skills...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678216/public-awareness-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Matar A Alsehemi, Mahmoud M Abousaadah, Razan A Sairafi, Mohammed M Jan
OBJECTIVE: Examine the awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in our community which would help in early recognition and improved support of affected families. METHODS: A focused 20-item questionnaire was designed to survey the public awareness and knowledge of ASD. Personal interviews were conducted during an ASD awareness day, which was organized in a major shopping mall on February 20, 2015 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: A total of 259 individuals participated in the study with 47% being <30 years of age and 57% being females...
July 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637355/evaluation-of-employment-support-services-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
David B Nicholas, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Jennifer Zwicker, Margaret E Clarke, Ramesh Lamsal, Kevin P Stoddart, Cynthia Carroll, Barbara Muskat, Margaret Spoelstra, Katelyn Lowe
The employment rate among persons with autism spectrum disorder has been noted as unacceptably low. Employment-support services are increasingly linked to the potential for favorable job outcomes, yet little is known about employment-support practices and the outcome of these interventions. This mixed-methods study examined employment-support resources for persons with autism spectrum disorder. An online survey was completed by 137 senior clinicians or administrators in employment-support programs in Canada...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635306/self-injurious-behaviors-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-enrolled-in-the-study-to-explore-early-development
#15
Gnakub Norbert Soke, Steven A Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson Rosenberg, Roma A Vasa, Li-Ching Lee, Carolyn DiGuiseppi
We assessed potential factors associated with "current" or "ever" self-injurious behaviors, reported in the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, among children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 692) from the Study to Explore Early Development. Data on factors examined were obtained from questionnaires, standardized clinical instruments, and birth certificates. We employed a log-binomial regression to assess these associations. Although most associations were quite similar for currently and ever exhibiting self-injurious behaviors, a few differences were noted...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633887/visual-integration-of-fear-and-anger-emotional-cues-by-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-and-neurotypical-peers-an-eeg-study
#16
Evie Malaia, Debbie Cockerham, Katherine Rublein
Communication deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often related to inefficient interpretation of emotional cues, which are conveyed visually through both facial expressions and body language (Apicella et al., 2012). The present study examined ASD behavioral and ERP responses to emotional expressions of anger and fear, as conveyed by the face and body. Behavioral results showed significantly faster response times for the ASD than for the typically developing (TD) group when processing fear, but not anger, in isolated face expressions, isolated body expressions, and in the integration of the two...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627933/the-impact-of-child-and-family-stressors-on-the-self-rated-health-of-mothers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-associations-with-depressed-mood-over-a-12-year-period
#17
Paul R Benson
Employing a cohort sequential design and multilevel modeling, the effects of child and family stressors and maternal depressed mood on the self-rated health of 110 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder were assessed over a 12-year period when children in the study were 7-19 years old. Findings indicate a significant decline in self-rated health over time. In addition, child and family stressors, as well as maternal depressed mood, exerted significant between-persons effects on self-rated health such that mothers who reported more stressors and depressed mood across the study period were less likely to rate themselves in better health across that period...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612384/exploring-partner-intimacy-among-couples-raising-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-a%C3%A2-grounded-theory-investigation
#18
Jake Johnson, Fred P Piercy
In this study, we explored how couples raising children with autism spectrum disorder negotiate intimacy, including what contextual and temporal factors influence these processes. We conducted conjoint interviews with 12 couples, employing grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze the data. Our results indicated that fostering intimacy in these couples' relationships involves partners working together to make key cognitive and relational shifts. Couples are aided or hindered in making these shifts by the degree to which they experience various contextual and environmental factors as resources or roadblocks...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604607/emotional-self-regulation-of-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-smartwatches-for-monitoring-and-interaction
#19
Juan C Torrado, Javier Gomez, Germán Montoro
In this paper, we analyze the needs of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to have a pervasive, feasible and non-stigmatizing form of assistance in their emotional self-regulation, in order to ease certain behavioral issues that undermine their mental health throughout their life. We argue the potential of recent widespread wearables, and more specifically smartwatches, to achieve this goal. Then, a smartwatch system that implements a wide range of self-regulation strategies and infers outburst patterns from physiological signals and movement is presented, along with an authoring tool for smartphones that is to be used by caregivers or family members to create and edit these strategies, in an adaptive way...
June 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600643/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-parent-training-for-disruptive-behavior-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Valentina Postorino, William G Sharp, Courtney E McCracken, Karen Bearss, T Lindsey Burrell, A Nichole Evans, Lawrence Scahill
Parent training (PT) has emerged as a promising treatment for disruptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review summarizes the essential elements of PT for disruptive behavior in children with ASD and evaluates the available evidence for PT using both descriptive and meta-analytic procedures. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases (1980-2016) in peer-reviewed journals for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PT for disruptive behavior in children with ASD. The systematic search of 2023 publications yielded eight RCTs involving a total of 653 participants...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
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