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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052463/hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-cross-sectional-developmental-trajectories
#1
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has only been investigated using "cool"-cognitive-EF tasks. Little is known about the development of "hot"-affective-EF and whether it follows a similar developmental pathway. This study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to examine the developmental changes in cool (working memory, inhibition, and planning) and hot EF (delay discounting and affective decision-making) of ASD participants (n = 79) and controls (n = 91) relative to age and IQ, shedding more light on the hot-cool EF organization...
October 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051774/effectiveness-of-the-boost-a%C3%A2-online-transition-planning-program-for-adolescents-on-the-autism-spectrum-a-quasi-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Megan Hatfield, Marita Falkmer, Torbjorn Falkmer, Marina Ciccarelli
BACKGROUND: The majority of existing transition planning programs are focused on people with a disability in general and may not meet the specific need of adolescents on the autism spectrum. In addition, these interventions focus on specific skills (e.g. job readiness or self-determination) rather than the overall transition planning process and there are methodological limitations to many of the studies determining their effectiveness. The Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A™) is an online program that supports adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051601/altered-behavioral-and-amygdala-habituation-in-high-functioning-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-fmri-study
#3
Friederike I Tam, Joseph A King, Daniel Geisler, Franziska M Korb, Juliane Sareng, Franziska Ritschel, Julius Steding, Katja U Albertowski, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
Habituation to repeatedly presented stimuli is an important adaptive property of the nervous system. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with reduced neural habituation, for example in the amygdala, which may be related to social impairments. The main focus of this study was to investigate habituation effects on the level of behavioral responses as well as amygdala responses in adults with ASD during a working memory task flanked by task-irrelevant face stimuli. Twenty-two patients with high-functioning autism and 24 healthy controls (HC) were included in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034696/development-of-the-supported-employment-comprehensive-cognitive-enhancement-and-social-skills-program-for-adults-on-the-autism-spectrum-results-of-initial-study
#4
Mary J Baker-Ericzén, Meghan A Fitch, Mikaela Kinnear, Melissa M Jenkins, Elizabeth W Twamley, Linda Smith, Gabriel Montano, Joshua Feder, Pamela J Crooke, Michelle G Winner, Juan Leon
The population of adults on the autism spectrum continues to increase, and vocational outcomes are particularly poor. Longitudinal studies of adults with autism spectrum and without intellectual disability have shown consistent and persistent deficits across cognitive, social, and vocational domains, indicating a need for effective treatments of functional disabilities as each impact employment. This initial pilot study is an open trial investigation of the feasibility, acceptability, and initial estimates of outcomes for the newly developed Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills intervention, a manualized "soft skills" curriculum, to enhance both cognitive and social development in adults with autism spectrum...
October 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026510/a-novel-system-for-tracking-social-preference-dynamics-in-mice-reveals-sex-and-strain-specific-characteristics
#5
Shai Netser, Shani Haskal, Hen Magalnik, Shlomo Wagner
BACKGROUND: Deciphering the biological mechanisms underlying social behavior in animal models requires standard behavioral paradigms that can be unbiasedly employed in an observer- and laboratory-independent manner. During the past decade, the three-chamber test has become such a standard paradigm used to evaluate social preference (sociability) and social novelty preference in mice. This test suffers from several caveats, including its reliance on spatial navigation skills and negligence of behavioral dynamics...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021833/what-california-sea-lions-exposed-to-domoic-acid-might-teach-us-about-autism-lessons-for-predictive-and-preventive-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Garet Paul Lahvis
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares many biological and behavioral similarities with the deleterious effects of domoic acid (DA) exposure. DA is produced by marine algae and most commonly by species of Pseudo-nitzschia. Humans and marine mammals can be exposed to DA when they consume whole fish or shellfish. The mammalian fetus is highly sensitive to the deleterious effects of DA exposure. Both ASD and exposures to toxic levels of DA feature repetitive behaviors, challenges with social interaction, and seizures...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020804/multi-informant-assessment-of-transition-related-skills-and-skill-importance-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Kara Hume, Jessica Dykstra Steinbrenner, John Sideris, Leann Smith, Suzanne Kucharczyk, Kate Szidon
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder have limited participation in the transition planning process, despite the link between active participation and an improvement in postsecondary education and employment outcomes. The Secondary School Success Checklist was designed to support transition planning for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder by incorporating their own assessments of strengths, skill deficits, and prioritization for instruction along with those of their parents and teachers across multiple skill domains...
October 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020791/parents-and-young-adults-perspectives-on-transition-outcomes-for-young-adults-with-autism
#8
Collette Sosnowy, Chloe Silverman, Paul Shattuck
Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and whether these indicators match their goals and aspirations. We interviewed parents (n = 21) and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (n = 20) about their experiences with the transition to adulthood to understand what they consider to be desirable outcomes and how they seek to achieve them...
October 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018333/cadherin-13-deficiency-increases-dorsal-raphe-5-ht-neuron-density-and-prefrontal-cortex-innervation-in-the-mouse-brain
#9
Andrea Forero, Olga Rivero, Sina Wäldchen, Hsing-Ping Ku, Dominik P Kiser, Yvonne Gärtner, Laura S Pennington, Jonas Waider, Patricia Gaspar, Charline Jansch, Frank Edenhofer, Thérèse J Resink, Robert Blum, Markus Sauer, Klaus-Peter Lesch
Background: During early prenatal stages of brain development, serotonin (5-HT)-specific neurons migrate through somal translocation to form the raphe nuclei and subsequently begin to project to their target regions. The rostral cluster of cells, comprising the median and dorsal raphe (DR), innervates anterior regions of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex. Differential analysis of the mouse 5-HT system transcriptome identified enrichment of cell adhesion molecules in 5-HT neurons of the DR. One of these molecules, cadherin-13 (Cdh13) has been shown to play a role in cell migration, axon pathfinding, and synaptogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994903/antidepressant-exposure-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-in-the-offspring-1-meta-review-of-meta-analyses
#10
Chittaranjan Andrade
There are no randomized controlled trials of antidepressant drugs to treat depression, or to prevent relapse into depression, during pregnancy; therefore, the safety of antidepressant drug exposure during pregnancy is based on evidence from case-control or cohort studies. Many of these observational studies, during the past decade, examined the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in exposed offspring. Different studies using different methods and examining different periods of antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy obtained different results...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964654/a-meta-analysis-of-single-case-research-on-the-use-of-tablet-mediated-interventions-for-persons-with-asd
#11
REVIEW
Ee Rea Hong, Li-Yuan Gong, Jennifer Ninci, Kristi Morin, John L Davis, Sawako Kawaminami, Yan-Qiu Shi, Fumiyuki Noro
BACKGROUND: There is a growing amount of single-case research literature on the benefits of tablet-mediated interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). With the development of tablet-based computers, tablet-mediated interventions have been widely utilized for education and treatment purposes; however, the overall quality and evidence of this literature-base are unknown. AIMS: This article aims to present a quality review of the single-case experimental literature and aggregate results across studies involving the use of tablet-mediated interventions for individuals with ASD...
September 28, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963809/psychiatric-comorbidities-and-use-of-psychotropic-medications-in-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-united-states
#12
Richard Houghton, Rose C Ong, Federico Bolognani
This study investigated psychotropic medication usage in two large, cohorts of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) throughout the calendar year 2014. The cohorts referred to individuals with commercial (employer-sponsored) and Medicaid insurance in the United States. We aimed to understand prescribing patterns of such medications across a wide age-range and in the presence/absence of other clinical and non-clinical characteristics, including psychiatric comorbidities. We described the prevalence and length of prescriptions by age, psychiatric comorbidity and overall...
September 30, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956673/effects-of-a-lag-schedule-of-reinforcement-with-progressive-time-delay-on-topographical-mand-variability-in-children-with-autism
#13
Bryant C Silbaugh, Terry S Falcomata, Raechal H Ferguson
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of a Lag 1 schedule of reinforcement and progressive time delay (TD) on topographical mand variability in children with autism. METHODS: Using single-subject design methodology, a multiple baseline across behaviors with embedded reversal design was employed. During Lag 0, reinforcement was delivered contingent on any independent instances of manding. During Lag 1 + TD, prompts were faded and reinforcement was delivered contingent on independent or prompted variant mand topographies...
September 28, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946574/comparing-behavioral-treatment-of-feeding-difficulties-and-tube-dependence-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Tessa Taylor, Alison M Kozlowski, Peter A Girolami
BACKGROUND: Feeding disorders are multifaceted with behavioral components often contributing to the development and continuation of food refusal. In these cases, behavioral interventions are effective in treating feeding problems, even when medical or oral motor components are also involved. Although behavioral interventions for feeding problems are frequently employed with children with autism, they are less commonly discussed for children with cerebral palsy. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of using applied behavior analytic interventions to address feeding difficulties and tube dependence in children with autism and children with cerebral palsy...
September 16, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940459/parent-implemented-behavioral-skills-training-of-social-skills
#15
Rebecca K Dogan, Melissa L King, Anthony T Fischetti, Candice M Lake, Therese L Mathews, William J Warzak
Impairment in social skills is a primary feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Research indicates that social skills are intimately tied to social development and negative social consequences can persist if specific social behaviors are not acquired. The present study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on teaching four parents of children with ASDs to be social skills trainers. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across parent-child dyads was employed and direct observation was used to assess parent and child behaviors Results demonstrated substantial improvement in social skills teaching for all participants for trained and untrained skills...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931434/long-term-outcome-of-autistic-spectrum-disorder-a-retrospective-case-study-in-a-southern-italian-region
#16
Francesca Felicia Operto, Federica Martino, Annalisa Rinaldi, Angelo Cerracchio, Giovanni Salvati, Mariano Orza, Claudia Lembo, Gianvito Panzarino, Claudia Di Paolantonio, Alberto Verrotti, Giovanni Farello, Giangennaro Coppola
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by impaired social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviours, as well as associated features including intellectual disability and impaired sensorimotor function. Despite a growing interest in this devastating disorder for families and young parents, there are no certainties as regards its aetiology, although a significant genetic background is considered to be important. Since there is little information about the social adaptation and quality of life of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder, we decided to study and evaluate the long-term outcome and quality of life in a sample of children, adolescent and young adults...
September 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929259/vr-employment-outcomes-of-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-decade-in-the-making
#17
Charlotte Y Alverson, Scott H Yamamoto
This study utilized hierarchical linear modeling analysis of a 10-year extant dataset from Rehabilitation Services Administration to investigate significant predictors of employment outcomes for vocational rehabilitation (VR) clients with autism. Predictor variables were gender, ethnicity, attained education level, IEP status in high school, secondary disability status, and total number of VR services. Competitive employment was the criterion variable. Only one predictor variable, Total Number of VR Services, was significant across all 10 years...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925416/extracting-autism-spectrum-disorder-data-from-the-electronic-health-record
#18
Ruth A Bush, Cynthia D Connelly, Alexa Pérez, Halsey Barlow, George J Chiang
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the health care utilization patterns of individuals with pediatric autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES: Electronic health record (EHR) data provide an opportunity to study medical utilization and track outcomes among children with ASD.  Methods: Using a pediatric, tertiary, academic hospital's Epic EHR, search queries were built to identify individuals aged 2-18 with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, 299...
July 19, 2017: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918568/brief-report-an-evaluation-of-an-instructional-package-for-teaching-sentence-construction-to-students-with-asd
#19
Robert C Pennington, Jessica Rockhold
In the current study, we investigated the effects of an instructional package on the construction of sentences writing by four children ages 6-9, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We employed a multiple probe across behaviors design to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention package and also conducted probes to assess generalization and increases in the use of spoken sentences. Data indicated that the package was effective and produced variable levels of maintenance and generalized responding across three of the participants...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914086/preliminary-efficacy-of-a-daily-living-skills-intervention-for-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Amie Duncan, Lisa A Ruble, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Carrie Thomas, Lori J Stark
Daily living skills deficits are strongly associated with poor adult outcomes for individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, and yet, there are no group interventions targeting daily living skills. Seven adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their parents participated in a feasibility pilot of a 12-week manualized group treatment targeting specific daily living skills (i.e. morning routine, cooking, laundry, and money management). Outcomes included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II) age equivalence scores and four goal attainment scaling scores...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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