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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211841/predictors-of-employment-status-among-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Alisha Ohl, Mira Grice Sheff, Sarah Little, Jamie Nguyen, Kelly Paskor, Aliza Zanjirian
BACKGROUND: In the United States, adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience high rates of unemployment and underemployment in relation to adults with other disabilities and the general population. Yet there is little research examining their employment experiences and the predictors of employment status. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the employment characteristics and histories of both employed and unemployed adults with ASD, and the factors that contributed to their employment status...
February 17, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194760/developmental-psychopathology-in-the-post-genomics-era-substantial-challenges-but-reasons-for-hope
#2
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey M Halperin
One only has to quickly look through the Table of Contents for this issue of JCPP to gain an appreciation of the ever-increasing influence of genetic research in the field of developmental psychopathology. Among the 13 articles in this issue that follow this editorial: two employ large family and/or twin studies to provide compelling behavioral genetic findings bolstering the importance of genes in the emergence of ADHD (Chen, Brikell, Lichtenstein, Serlachius, Kuja-Halkola, Sandin, and Larsson) and level of educational achievement in adolescents (Lewis, Asbury, and Plomin); one paper focuses on cortical development in patients with 22q11...
March 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181877/an-in-silico-biomarker-based-method-for-the-evaluation-of-virtual-neuropsychiatric-drug-effects
#3
Peter J Siekmeier
The recent explosion in neuroscience research has markedly increased our understanding of the neurobiological correlates of many psychiatric illnesses, but this has unfortunately not translated into more effective pharmacologic treatments for these conditions. At the same time, researchers have increasingly sought out biological markers, or biomarkers, as a way to categorize psychiatric illness, as these are felt to be closer to underlying genetic and neurobiological vulnerabilities. While biomarker-based drug discovery approaches have tended to employ in vivo (e...
February 9, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181053/developing-autism-screening-criteria-for-the-brief-infant-toddler-social-emotional-assessment-bitsea
#4
Ivy Giserman Kiss, Melanie S Feldman, R Christopher Sheldrick, Alice S Carter
There is a critical need for evidence-based, broadband behavioral, and ASD screening measures for use in pediatric and early educational settings to ensure that young children at risk for developing social-emotional disorders and/or ASD are provided with early intervention services to optimize long-term outcomes. The BITSEA is a 42-item screener designed to identify social-emotional/behavioral problems and delays/deficits in social-emotional competence among 11-48-month-olds; 19 items describe behaviors consistent with ASD...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176032/individual-placement-and-support-for-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-pilot-program
#5
Jennifer McLaren, Jonathan D Lichtenstein, Daniel Lynch, Deborah Becker, Robert Drake
Young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience significant rates of unemployment and underemployment, and the field needs an inexpensive, evidence-based vocational intervention. We examined an approach developed for people with serious mental illness, IPS supported employment, for young adults with ASD. We described a pilot IPS program for young adults with ASD and evaluated the first five participants over 1 year. The first five IPS participants succeeded in competitive employment, expanded independence, and achieved broad psychosocial gains...
February 7, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167115/association-between-autistic-traits-and-emotion-adaptation-to-partially-occluded-faces
#6
Chengwen Luo, Edwin Burns, Hong Xu
Prolonged exposure to a happy face makes subsequently presented faces appear sadder: the facial emotion aftereffect (FEA). People with autism spectrum disorders and their relatives have diminished holistic perception of faces. Levels of autism can be measured continuously in the general population by autistic traits using the autism-quotient (AQ). Prior work has not found any association between AQ and FEA in adults, possibly due to non-holistic processing strategies employed by those at the higher end of the spectrum...
February 16, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164085/public-private-partnerships-in-cloud-computing-services-in-the-context-of-genomic-research
#7
REVIEW
Palmira Granados Moreno, Yann Joly, Bartha Maria Knoppers
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been increasingly used to spur and facilitate innovation in a number of fields. In healthcare, the purpose of using a PPP is commonly to develop and/or provide vaccines and drugs against communicable diseases, mainly in developing or underdeveloped countries. With the advancement of technology and of the area of genomics, these partnerships also focus on large-scale genomic research projects that aim to advance the understanding of diseases that have a genetic component and to develop personalized treatments...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160764/vaccination-attitudes-and-practices-of-integrative-medicine-physicians
#8
Laura Jean Buehning, Kenneth Michael Peddecord
Context • The growth of Internet-based information and social networking has increased the accessibility and importance of antivaccine information. That information has led to a questioning of vaccination schedules and policies by many individuals. Although the attitudes of complementary and alternative practitioners, such as homeopaths and chiropractic students, toward vaccination have been assessed, despite the growth of integrative medicine, no assessment of the attitudes and practices regarding vaccination of these physicians has been performed...
January 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160224/examining-the-behavioural-sleep-wake-rhythm-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-no-comorbid-intellectual-disability
#9
Emma K Baker, Amanda L Richdale
This study aimed to examine the behavioural sleep-wake rhythm in 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to determine the prevalence of circadian sleep-wake rhythm disorders compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Participants completed an online questionnaire battery, a 14-day sleep-wake diary and 14-day actigraphy assessment. The results indicated that a higher proportion of adults with ASD met criteria for a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder compared to control adults. In particular, delayed sleep-wake phase disorder was particularly common in adults with ASD...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149963/reveal-consistent-spatial-temporal-patterns-from-dynamic-functional-connectivity-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-identification
#10
Yingying Zhu, Xiaofeng Zhu, Han Zhang, Wei Gao, Dinggang Shen, Guorong Wu
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a non-invasive way to investigate brain activity. Recently, convergent evidence shows that the correlations of spontaneous fluctuations between two distinct brain regions dynamically change even in resting state, due to the condition-dependent nature of brain activity. Thus, quantifying the patterns of functional connectivity (FC) in a short time period and changes of FC over time can potentially provide valuable insight into both individual-based diagnosis and group comparison...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149288/attention-orienting-in-response-to-non-conscious-hierarchical-arrows-individuals-with-higher-autistic-traits-differ-in-their-global-local-bias
#11
Robin Laycock, Daniel Chan, Sheila G Crewther
One aspect of the social communication impairments that characterize autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include reduced use of often subtle non-verbal social cues. People with ASD, and those with self-reported sub-threshold autistic traits, also show impairments in rapid visual processing of stimuli unrelated to social or emotional properties. Hence, this study sought to investigate whether perceptually non-conscious visual processing is related to autistic traits. A neurotypical sample of thirty young adults completed the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire and a Posner-like attention cueing task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123912/detecting-communicative-intent-in-a-computerised-test-of-joint-attention
#12
Nathan Caruana, Genevieve McArthur, Alexandra Woolgar, Jon Brock
The successful navigation of social interactions depends on a range of cognitive faculties-including the ability to achieve joint attention with others to share information and experiences. We investigated the influence that intention monitoring processes have on gaze-following response times during joint attention. We employed a virtual reality task in which 16 healthy adults engaged in a collaborative game with a virtual partner to locate a target in a visual array. In the Search task, the virtual partner was programmed to engage in non-communicative gaze shifts in search of the target, establish eye contact, and then display a communicative gaze shift to guide the participant to the target...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009723/adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review-of-outcomes-social-attainment-and-interventions
#13
Kenneth K Poon, Dalvin J K Sidhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the increasing incidence of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, there is a need to develop programs to support them throughout their lifespan but research in adulthood support is still scarce. This article aims to provide an up-to-date review of the research on the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), social attainments, and efforts to improve their outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: The core social communication impairments continue into adulthood among persons with ASD, but the restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior and activities have received less attention...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001334/coping-strategies-of-taiwanese-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
Wei-Chih Chin, Kuo-Yu Chao, Hsueh-Ling Chang, Hsin-Mei Li, Sue-Hsien Chen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the coping experiences of children with autism spectrum disorders in Taiwan. BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorders are faced with daily social and living challenges, which can cause stress. Chinese culture emphasises discipline and obedience, which may influence coping strategies of children with autism spectrum disorders in Taiwan. DESIGN: This qualitative study employed an exploratory descriptive design...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976783/-diagnostics-and-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-older-adults-a-study-by-experts
#15
B Hitzert, R Schmidt, H M Geurts, S P J van Alphen
Empirical research into the diagnostics and treatment of older adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is very limited; so far, only 17 studies have been published. ASD, however, is not confined to child and adult psychiatry. Increasingly, ASD is being identified and treated within the domain of geriatric psychiatry.<br/> AIM: To investigate diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ASD in older adults, and to obtain insight into how these aspects are related to ageing.<br/> METHOD: Delphi techniques were employed via rounds of questionnaires put to experts; consensus was considered to have been achieved when a minimum of two-thirds of the experts 'agreed' or 'fully agreed' to a statement on a five-point scale...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940924/evidence-based-interventions-for-increasing-work-participation-for-persons-with-various-disabilities
#16
Diane L Smith, Katie Atmatzidis, Marisa Capogreco, Dominic Lloyd-Randolfi, Victoria Seman
Title I of the Americans With Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination in employment; however, 26 years later, employment rates for persons with disabilities hover at 34%. This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions to increase employment for people with various disabilities. Forty-six articles met the inclusion criteria for evidence-based interventions. The majority of studies assessed interventions for persons with mental health disabilities. Strong evidence was found for ongoing support and work-related social skills training prior to and during competitive employment for persons with mental health disabilities...
December 1, 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929316/assessing-understanding-and-supporting-students-with-autism-at-school-contemporary-science-practice-and-policy
#17
Janine P Stichter, T Chris Riley-Tillman, Shane R Jimerson
Over the past 3 decades, there has been an unprecedented increase in students identified as eligible for special education as a result of students meeting criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The increasing number of students with ASD in the schools presents significant challenges to teachers, school psychologists, and other school professionals working with this population. Although there is considerable research addressing assessment, identification, and support services for children with ASD, there is a need for further research focused on these topics within the school context...
December 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926378/automated-segmentation-of-white-matter-fiber-bundles-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-and-a-new-density-based-clustering-algorithm
#18
Tahereh Kamali, Daniel Stashuk
OBJECTIVE: Robust and accurate segmentation of brain white matter (WM) fiber bundles assists in diagnosing and assessing progression or remission of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism and depression. Supervised segmentation methods are infeasible in most applications since generating gold standards is too costly. Hence, there is a growing interest in designing unsupervised methods. However, most conventional unsupervised methods require the number of clusters be known in advance which is not possible in most applications...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919678/individual-differences-in-high-level-biological-motion-tasks-correlate-with-autistic-traits
#19
Jeroen J A van Boxtel, Yujia Peng, Junzhu Su, Hongjing Lu
Human actions are rich in social cues and play an essential role in interacting with the social environment. Hence, the perception of biological motion (i.e., movement elicited by humans and other animals) is considered to be an important gauge of a person's social cognition capacities. It has been well-documented that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulties in social interactions. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in biological motion perception relate to the degree of autistic traits among people in the typically-developing population...
December 17, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891068/can-mouse-imaging-studies-bring-order-to-autism-connectivity-chaos
#20
Adam Liska, Alessandro Gozzi
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has consistently highlighted impaired or aberrant functional connectivity across brain regions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. However, the manifestation and neural substrates of these alterations are highly heterogeneous and often conflicting. Moreover, their neurobiological underpinnings and etiopathological significance remain largely unknown. A deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiological cascade leading to aberrant connectivity in ASD can greatly benefit from the use of model organisms where individual pathophysiological or phenotypic components of ASD can be recreated and investigated via approaches that are either off limits or confounded by clinical heterogeneity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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