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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458075/lateral-inhibition-in-the-autism-spectrum-an-ssvep-study-of-visual-cortical-lateral-interactions
#1
Abigail Dickinson, Rosanna Gomez, Myles Jones, Vance Zemon, Elizabeth Milne
Circuit level brain dysfunction has been suggested as a common mechanism through which diverse genetic risk factors and neurobiological sequelae lead to the core features of autism spectrum disorder (Geschwind 2009; Port et al. 2014). An important mediator of circuit level brain activity is lateral inhibition, and a number of authors have suggested that lateral inhibition may be atypical in ASD. However, evidence regarding putative atypical lateral connections in ASD is mixed. Here we employed a steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm to further investigate lateral connections within a group of high functioning adults with ASD...
February 16, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455555/employment-status-is-related-to-sleep-problems-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-no-comorbid-intellectual-impairment
#2
Emma K Baker, Amanda L Richdale, Agnes Hazi
Both sleep problems and unemployment are common in adults with autism spectrum disorder; however, little research has explored this relationship in this population. This study aimed to explore factors that may be associated with the presence of an International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition defined sleep disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder (IQ > 80). A total of 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder and 36 controls were included in the study. Participants completed a 14-day actigraphy assessment and questionnaire battery...
February 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449954/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-tracer-18-f-fpeb-displays-increased-binding-potential-in-postcentral-gyrus-and-cerebellum-of-male-individuals-with-autism-a-pilot-pet-study
#3
S Hossein Fatemi, Dean F Wong, James R Brašić, Hiroto Kuwabara, Anil Mathur, Timothy D Folsom, Suma Jacob, George M Realmuto, José V Pardo, Susanne Lee
Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is first manifested during early childhood. Postmortem experiments have identified significantly elevated expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in cerebellar vermis and prefrontal cortex of individuals with autism. Methods: In the current study we employed the mGluR5 tracer [ 18 F]-3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([ 18 F]-FPEB) to quantify mGluR5 binding in vivo in adults with autism vs...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447214/high-efficiency-classification-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Genyuan Li, Olivia Lee, Herschel Rabitz
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a wide-ranging collection of developmental diseases with varying symptoms and degrees of disability. Currently, ASD is diagnosed mainly with psychometric tools, often unable to provide an early and reliable diagnosis. Recently, biochemical methods are being explored as a means to meet the latter need. For example, an increased predisposition to ASD has been associated with abnormalities of metabolites in folate-dependent one carbon metabolism (FOCM) and transsulfuration (TS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441662/differential-vocational-rehabilitation-service-patterns-and-outcomes-for-transition-age-youth-with-autism
#5
Cahit Kaya, Cheryl Hanley-Maxwell, Fong Chan, Timothy Tansey
BACKGROUND: It is important to investigate receipt of vocational rehabilitation (VR) services, service patterns and outcomes for youth with autism, so that limited public resources can be used more efficiently. METHOD: This study used chi-squared automatic interaction detector, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to investigate relationships between demographic variables, receipt of VR services and employment outcomes for transition-age youth (TAY) with Autism...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436887/machine-learning-in-autistic-spectrum-disorder-behavioral-research-a-review-and-ways-forward
#6
Fadi Thabtah
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that retards acquisition of linguistic, communication, cognitive, and social skills and abilities. Despite being diagnosed with ASD, some individuals exhibit outstanding scholastic, non-academic, and artistic capabilities, in such cases posing a challenging task for scientists to provide answers. In the last few years, ASD has been investigated by social and computational intelligence scientists utilizing advanced technologies such as machine learning to improve diagnostic timing, precision, and quality...
February 13, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427782/transcriptional-and-splicing-dysregulation-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-valproic-acid-rat-model-of-autism
#7
Ruoxin Zhang, Jinlong Zhou, Junrong Ren, Siqi Sun, Yuanyuan Di, Hanyu Wang, Xiaoqin An, Kexin Zhang, Junfeng Zhang, Zhaoqiang Qian, Meimei Shi, Yanning Qiao, Wei Ren, Yingfang Tian
Gene-environmental interaction could be the major cause of autism. The aim of the current study is to detect the effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles and alternatively spliced genes in the prefrontal cortex in rat models of autism. Female rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg valproic acid at day 12.5 post-conception, and controls were injected with saline. Only male offspring were employed in the current study. RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptome in the prefrontal cortex of VPA-exposed rats...
February 7, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423135/altered-reward-system-reactivity-for-personalized-circumscribed-interests-in-autism
#8
Gregor Kohls, Ligia Antezana, Maya G Mosner, Robert T Schultz, Benjamin E Yerys
Background: Neurobiological research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has paid little attention on brain mechanisms that cause and maintain restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Evidence indicates an imbalance in the brain's reward system responsiveness to social and non-social stimuli may contribute to both social deficits and RRBIs. Thus, this study's central aim was to compare brain responsiveness to individual RRBI (i.e., circumscribed interests), with social rewards (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408312/meta-analysis-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature-characterizing-auditory-mismatch-negativity-in-individuals-with-autism
#9
REVIEW
Sophie Schwartz, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Helen Tager-Flusberg
A number of past studies have used mismatch negativity (MMN) to identify auditory processing deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our meta-analysis compared MMN responses for individuals with ASD and typically developing controls (TD). We analyzed 67 experiments across 22 publications that employed passive, auditory-based MMN paradigms with ASD and TD participants. Most studies lacked design characteristics that would lead to an accurate description of the MMN. Variability between experiments measuring MMN amplitude was smaller when limited to studies that counterbalanced stimuli...
February 2, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405653/spatial-navigation-from-same-and-different-directions-the-role-of-executive-functions-memory-and-attention-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Melanie Ring, Sebastian B Gaigg, Olivier de Condappa, Jan M Wiener, Dermot M Bowler
To resolve some of the inconsistencies in existing research into spatial navigation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we tested two large age- and ability-matched groups of ASD and typically developing (TD) participants for their spatial navigation abilities in a route learning task, which has been shown to shed light on the strategies participants employ when navigating complex environments. Participants studied a route through a virtual maze by watching a short video of a first-person perspective navigating a maze...
February 5, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385847/comparing-the-effectiveness-of-two-app-based-number-lines-to-teach-price-comparison-to-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Pei-Lin Weng, Emily C Bouck
PURPOSE: A number line consisting of Arabic numerals is a commonly used instructional tool for teaching price comparison. However, typical number lines lack concrete visual cues, which may benefit students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who have not yet mastered the representation of Arabic numerals. METHOD: This study investigated the effects of additional visual cues (i.e., dots) by comparing two types of app-based number line conditions: number lines with and without dots...
February 1, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374522/inequity-aversion-is-observed-in-common-marmosets-but-not-in-marmoset-models-of-autism-induced-by-prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid
#12
Miyuki Yasue, Akiko Nakagami, Keiko Nakagaki, Noritaka Ichinohe, Nobuyuki Kawai
Humans and various nonhuman primates respond negatively to inequity not in their favor (i.e., inequity aversion), when inequity between two individuals is introduced. Common marmosets, a highly prosocial species, further discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges, and those who did not. Conversely, marmoset models of autism, induced via prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA marmosets), did not discriminate. Interestingly, previous studies of inequity aversion in marmosets have produced negative results, or were limited to males...
January 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373119/nuclear-excluded-autism-associated-phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-mutations-dysregulate-neuronal-growth
#13
Catherine J Fricano-Kugler, Stephanie A Getz, Michael R Williams, Ashley A Zurawel, Tyrone DeSpenza, Paul W Frazel, Meijie Li, Alistair J O'Malley, Erika L Moen, Bryan W Luikart
BACKGROUND: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) negatively regulates downstream protein kinase B signaling, resulting in decreased cellular growth and proliferation. PTEN is mutated in a subset of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the mechanism by which specific point mutations alter PTEN function is largely unknown. Here, we assessed how ASD-associated single-nucleotide variations in PTEN (ASD-PTEN) affect function. METHODS: We used viral-mediated molecular substitution of human PTEN into Pten knockout mouse neurons and assessed neuronal morphology to determine the functional impact of ASD-PTEN...
December 2, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370550/the-transition-from-university-completion-to-employment-for-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Andrew Cashin
A scoping review of articles published from 2000 to 2017 was conducted with the aim to identify what had been discussed and researched related to the transition from completion of university to employment for students with ASD. The review also included identification of published data on the type of degrees studied by university students with ASD. A paucity of discussion and no specific research was identified related to the aims of the review.
January 25, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341821/deuterium-tetrabenazine-for-tardive-dyskinesia
#15
Michael A Cummings, George J Proctor, Stephen M Stahl
Tardive dyskinesia remains a significant, potentially stigmatizing or crippling adverse effect for any patient treated with an antipsychotic medication. While second- and third-generation antipsychotics have exhibited lower annual incidence rates for tardive dyskinesia than classic or first-generation agents, 3.9% versus 5.5%, the estimated incidence rate is only modestly lower. When coupled with the fact that second- and third-generation antipsychotic medications have come to be employed in treating a wider range of disorders (e...
January 2018: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313185/comparing-attention-to-socially-relevant-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-developmental-coordination-disorder
#16
Emma Sumner, Hayley C Leonard, Elisabeth L Hill
Difficulties with social interaction have been reported in both children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), although these disorders have very different diagnostic characteristics. To date, assessment of social skills in a DCD population has been limited to paper-based assessment or parent report. The present study employed eye tracking methodology to examine how children attend to socially-relevant stimuli, comparing 28 children with DCD, 28 children with ASD and 26 typically-developing (TD) age-matched controls (aged 7-10)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286586/cognitive-enhancement-therapy-for-adult-autism-spectrum-disorder-results-of-an-18-month-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Shaun M Eack, Susan S Hogarty, Deborah P Greenwald, Maralee Y Litschge, Shannondora A Porton, Carla A Mazefsky, Nancy J Minshew
Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to treating core cognitive deficits in adults with autism, but rigorously controlled trials of comprehensive interventions that target both social and non-social cognition over a sufficient period of time to impact functioning are lacking. This study examined the efficacy of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) for improving core cognitive and employment outcomes in adult autism. Verbal adult outpatients with autism spectrum disorder (N = 54) were randomized to an 18-month, single-blind trial of CET, a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer-based neurocognitive training with group-based training in social cognition, or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) comparison focused on psychoeducation and condition management...
December 29, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281320/sensory-behaviors-in-minimally-verbal-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-how-and-when-do-caregivers-respond
#18
Clare Harrop, Nicole Tu, Rebecca Landa, Ann Kasier, Connie Kasari
Sensory behaviors are widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the impact of these behaviors on families remains largely unknown. This study explored how caregivers of minimally verbal children with ASD responded to their child's sensory behaviors. Using a mixed-methods approach, we examined two variables for each endorsed child behavior: (1) Did the caregiver respond/try to change the behavior? and (2) What response did they employ? Caregivers did not differ in the frequency of responses to hypo- or hyper-responsive behaviors but employed different responses...
January 2018: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278772/metric-learning-with-spectral-graph-convolutions-on-brain-connectivity-networks
#19
Sofia Ira Ktena, Sarah Parisot, Enzo Ferrante, Martin Rajchl, Matthew Lee, Ben Glocker, Daniel Rueckert
Graph representations are often used to model structured data at an individual or population level and have numerous applications in pattern recognition problems. In the field of neuroscience, where such representations are commonly used to model structural or functional connectivity between a set of brain regions, graphs have proven to be of great importance. This is mainly due to the capability of revealing patterns related to brain development and disease, which were previously unknown. Evaluating similarity between these brain connectivity networks in a manner that accounts for the graph structure and is tailored for a particular application is, however, non-trivial...
December 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241371/capitalizing-on-technology-for-developing-communication-skills-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-single-case-study
#20
Veena Mohan, Suja Kurian Kunnath, Vineetha Sara Philip, Lakshmi Santha Mohan, Neethu Thampi
PURPOSE: In this case study, we discuss the application of a patient-centred clinical approach that led to the use of an assisted communication platform to combat severe communicative deficit in a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Initial assessment at four years of age revealed that the patient had rudimentary communication skills, with significant sensory integration dysfunction manifested as oral, olfactory, and tactile seeking behaviours; self-stimulatory behaviour; and complete dependence on caregiver for activities of daily living...
December 15, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
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