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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224188/an-evaluation-of-a-social-skills-intervention-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disabilities-preparing-for-employment-in-ireland-a-pilot-study
#1
Edith Walsh, Jennifer Holloway, Helena Lydon
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are faced with significant barriers relating to employment opportunities and workplace participation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Walker social skills curriculum: the ACCESS program and video modeling to increase social communication skills necessary for workplace inclusion. Participants attended two sessions (i.e., 3 h) per week across a period of 20 weeks. A multiple-probe design was used to demonstrate social skills outcomes across three broad curricular areas (i...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216746/employing-a-fixed-lean-multiple-schedule-in-the-treatment-of-challenging-behavior-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Shaji S Haq, Wendy Machalicek, S Andrew Garbacz, Christine Drew
Despite its utility, there is limited applied research on employing fixed-lean (FL) schedules of reinforcement in treatment packages to address challenging behavior. One potential reason is that abrupt shifts to terminal schedules of reinforcement have been associated with immediate increases in challenging behavior before subsiding to clinically acceptable levels. The purpose of the present study was to (a) provide evidence demonstrating the utility of a FL multiple schedule (MS) in the treatment of challenging behavior in applied settings, (b) examine the potential effects of alternative stimuli on challenging behavior during a FL MS, and (c) assess the social validity of this treatment package with participants and caregivers...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214134/a-response-to-papatola-and-lustig-s-paper-on-navigating-a-managed-care-peer-review-guidance-for-clinicians-using-applied-behavior-analysis-in-the-treatment-of-children-on-the-autism-spectrum
#3
Julie Kornack, Brandon Herscovitch, Ashley L Williams
In their 2016 article, "Navigating a Managed Care Peer Review: Guidance for Clinicians Using Applied Behavior Analysis [ABA] in the Treatment of Children on the Autism Spectrum," Papatola and Lustig provide an overview of the managed care process, discuss the medical necessity of ABA, and offer guidance to clinicians on how to navigate the managed care peer review process. Given that the authors are employed by a large international health insurance carrier and conduct peer reviews on behalf of that organization, this response seeks to provide guidance from both the clinical and public policy perspectives that reflect best practices in the field of autism treatment...
December 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214128/a-clinic-based-assessment-for-evaluating-job-related-social-skills-in-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism
#4
Dorothea C Lerman, Bridgette White, Carolyn Grob, Courtney Laudont
Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties obtaining and maintaining employment, yet little research has evaluated methods for assessing and improving critical vocational skills. In this study, we evaluated an assessment of job-related social skills for individuals with ASD by arranging conditions that simulated on-the-job experiences in a clinic setting. The experimenter contrived situations to assess a variety of social skills, including asking for help, asking for more materials, and responding to corrective feedback...
December 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197168/dissociation-between-executed-and-imagined-bimanual-movements-in-autism-spectrum-conditions
#5
Alessandro Piedimonte, Massimiliano Conson, Alessandro Frolli, Stefania Bari, Francesco Della Gatta, Marco Rabuffetti, Roberto Keller, Anna Berti, Francesca Garbarini
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterized by social-communicative deficits and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Altered motor coordination is also observed and a dysfunction of motor imagery has been recently reported on implicit tasks. However, no information on explicit motor imagery abilities is available in ASC. Here, we employed a spatial bimanual task to concurrently assess motor coordination and explicit motor imagery in autism. A secondary objective of the study was to evaluate these abilities across two populations of ASC, namely adolescents and adults with ASC...
December 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196072/social-involvement-issues-in-patients-with-becker-muscular-dystrophy-a-questionnaire-survey-of-subjects-from-a-patient-registry
#6
Madoka Mori-Yoshimura, Yukio Mizuno, Sumiko Yoshida, Narihiro Minami, Naohiro Yonemoto, Fumi Takeuchi, Ichizo Nishino, Miho Murata, Shin'ichi Takeda, Yuji Takahashi, En Kimura
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) and developmental problems, school life, employment, and mental problems. We aimed to clarify whether BMD is a risk factor for developmental disorders, problematic behavior, psychiatric diseases, and other social difficulties in school life and employment. METHODS: Adults with genetically or immunohistochemically confirmed BMD from the Registry of Muscular Dystrophy in Japan (REMUDY) were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding patient history, school life, employment, and mental problems...
November 29, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191242/copy-number-variation-meta-analysis-reveals-a-novel-duplication-at-9p24-associated-with-multiple-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#7
Joseph T Glessner, Jin Li, Dai Wang, Michael March, Leandro Lima, Akshatha Desai, Dexter Hadley, Charlly Kao, Raquel E Gur, Nadine Cohen, Patrick M A Sleiman, Qingqin Li, Hakon Hakonarson
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders represent a wide spectrum of heterogeneous yet inter-related disease conditions. The overlapping clinical presentations of these diseases suggest a shared genetic etiology. We aim to identify shared structural variants spanning the spectrum of five neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: We investigated copy number variations (CNVs) in five cohorts, including schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disease (BD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression, from 7849 cases and 10,799 controls...
November 30, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170937/commentary-on-social-skills-training-curricula-for-individuals-with-asd-social-interaction-authenticity-and-stigma
#8
Kristen Bottema-Beutel, Haerin Park, So Yoon Kim
By teaching social rules thought to be necessary for social competence, social skills training (SST) curricula aim to improve indicators of well-being for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as the attainment of meaningful friendships. However, several recent meta-analyses indicate that SST curricula may fall short of these goals. We offer an explanation for these potentially null effects by illustrating how the content of these curricula diverge from empirical evidence derived from disciplines that take social interaction as their object of study...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168090/using-virtual-interactive-training-agents-vita-with-adults-with-autism-and-other-developmental-disabilities
#9
Shanna L Burke, Tammy Bresnahan, Tan Li, Katrina Epnere, Albert Rizzo, Mary Partin, Robert M Ahlness, Matthew Trimmer
Conversational virtual human (VH) agents are increasingly used to support role-play experiential learning. This project examined whether a Virtual Interactive Training Agent (ViTA) system would improve job interviewing skills in individuals with autism and developmental disabilities (N = 32). A linear mixed model was employed to evaluate adjusted least square mean differences of means scores on the Marino Interview Assessment Scale (MIAS) across different time points. The mean score of MIAS over all questions increased between the first ViTA session and the final face-to-face interview...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166775/individualized-levels-system-and-systematic-stimulus-pairing-to-reduce-multiply-controlled-aggression-of-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Kayla R Randall, Joseph M Lambert, Mary P Matthews, Nealetta J Houchins-Juarez
Research has shown that physical aggression is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Interventions for multiply controlled aggression may be complex and difficult to implement with fidelity. As a result, the probability of treatment efficacy for this class of behavior may suffer. We designed an individualized levels system to reduce the physical aggression of an 11-year-old female with ASD. We then employed a systematic stimulus pairing procedure to facilitate generalization. Results suggest individualized levels systems can suppress multiply controlled aggression and that systematic stimulus pairing is an effective way to transfer treatment effects from trained therapists to caregivers...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158888/initial-evidence-that-non-clinical-autistic-traits-are-associated-with-lower-income
#11
William J Skylark, Simon Baron-Cohen
Among non-clinical samples, autistic traits correlate with a range of educational and social outcomes. However, previous work has not investigated the relationship between autistic traits and income, a key determinant of socio-economic status and well-being. In five studies (total N = 2491), we recruited participants without a diagnosis of autism from the general US population via an online platform and administered the short-form Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) as well as asked a range of demographic questions...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154648/nimble-negotiators-how-theory-of-mind-tom-interconnects-with-persuasion-skills-in-children-with-and-without-tom-delay
#12
Candida C Peterson, Virginia Slaughter, Henry M Wellman
Persuasion is an essential social skill. Yet its development and underpinnings are poorly understood. In 2 studies, a total of 167 children aged 3 to 12 years took theory of mind (ToM) tests and participated in unscripted, seminaturalistic persuasive conversations. Children were typically developing (TD) or had deafness or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). High-level, informationally rich persuasive arguments increased with age in all groups in both studies, as did ToM. In both studies, ToM scores predicted persuasion skill over and above age, language ability, and deafness/ASD status...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152993/program-experiences-of-adults-with-autism-their-families-and-providers-findings-from-a-focus-group-study
#13
Kaitlin H Koffer Miller, Mary Mathew, Stacy L Nonnemacher, Lindsay L Shea
A growing number of individuals with autism spectrum disorder are aging into adulthood. In the United States, Medicaid is the primary payer for services for adults with autism spectrum disorder, yet there are few funded programs that provide dedicated supports to this population. This study examined the experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder in two Medicaid-funded programs in Pennsylvania through focus groups. Researchers conducted 20 focus groups with a total of 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder, 32 family members, 32 direct care staff, and 20 program administrators...
February 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144422/atypical-processing-of-novel-distracters-in-a-visual-oddball-task-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Irma Khachidze, Manuel F Casanova
Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target items at frontal and parietal sites. The task tested the hypothesis that children with autism are abnormally orienting attention to distracters probably due to impaired habituation to novelty. We predicted a lower selectivity in early ERPs to target, frequent non-target, and rare distracters...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118128/a-valence-free-definition-of-sociality-as-any-violation-of-inter-individual-independence
#15
Peggy Mason, Haozhe Shan
Well over 90% of studies in biomedical sciences are performed on single animals. While knowledge of the genetics, development and physiology of single individuals accrues, an understanding of the biological mechanisms by which individuals interact has barely budged. Yet many of society's greatest problems derive from an inability of humans to get along with each other. Studies in social neuroscience are primarily observational and rarely employ subjects who physically interact. Thus, social interaction represents a largely unexplored frontier of biology...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112736/varcards-an-integrated-genetic-and-clinical-database-for-coding-variants-in-the-human-genome
#16
Jinchen Li, Leisheng Shi, Kun Zhang, Yi Zhang, Shanshan Hu, Tingting Zhao, Huajing Teng, Xianfeng Li, Yi Jiang, Liying Ji, Zhongsheng Sun
A growing number of genomic tools and databases were developed to facilitate the interpretation of genomic variants, particularly in coding regions. However, these tools are separately available in different online websites or databases, making it challenging for general clinicians, geneticists and biologists to obtain the first-hand information regarding some particular variants and genes of interest. Starting with coding regions and splice sties, we artificially generated all possible single nucleotide variants (n = 110 154 363) and cataloged all reported insertion and deletions (n = 1 223 370)...
November 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107812/proteolytic-maturation-of-drosophila-neuroligin-3-by-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-converting-enzyme-in-the-nervous-system
#17
Jun Wu, Nana Tao, Yao Tian, Guanglin Xing, Huihui Lv, Junhai Han, Chengqi Lin, Wei Xie
BACKGROUND: The functions of autism-associated Neuroligins (Nlgs) are modulated by their post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage. A previous study has shown that there are different endogenous forms of DNlg3 in Drosophila, indicating it may undergo proteolytic processing. However, the molecular mechanism underlying DNlg3 proteolytic processing is unknown. Here, we report a novel proteolytic mechanism that is essential for DNlg3 maturation and function in the nervous system...
October 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090595/increasing-object-substitution-symbolic-play-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Gabrielle T Lee, Hua Feng, Sheng Xu, Shao-Ju Jin
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may not develop symbolic play skills, so such skills need to be taught specifically. We report an experiment regarding a procedure targeting "object-substitution" symbolic play skills. The "object-substitution" symbolic play behavior occurred when the child labeled a common object with the name of a substitute and used the object to perform a play action (e.g., As she put a bowl on her head, she called it a hat). A multiple probe across behaviors design was employed with five children (four boys and one girl, aged 3 to 6 years) with ASD...
October 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071564/an-ecosystem-approach-to-employment-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
David B Nicholas, Wendy Mitchell, Carolyn Dudley, Margaret Clarke, Rosslynn Zulla
Relatively little is yet known about employment readiness and elements that promote access to, and the retention of, employment for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper posits elements within the ecosystem of employment and ASD. The ecosystem approach locates employment among persons with ASD as inextricably linked with broader community resources, family support, workplace capacity building (e.g., employer, co-workers) and policy. Application of the approach is offered through process evaluation data yielded from an ecosystem-informed job readiness program entitled, 'EmploymentWorks Canada'...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052463/hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-cross-sectional-developmental-trajectories
#20
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has only been investigated using "cool"-cognitive-EF tasks. Little is known about the development of "hot"-affective-EF and whether it follows a similar developmental pathway. This study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to examine the developmental changes in cool (working memory, inhibition, and planning) and hot EF (delay discounting and affective decision-making) of ASD participants (n = 79) and controls (n = 91) relative to age and IQ, shedding more light on the hot-cool EF organization...
October 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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