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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009723/adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review-of-outcomes-social-attainment-and-interventions
#1
Kenneth K Poon, Dalvin J K Sidhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the increasing incidence of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, there is a need to develop programs to support them throughout their lifespan but research in adulthood support is still scarce. This article aims to provide an up-to-date review of the research on the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), social attainments, and efforts to improve their outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: The core social communication impairments continue into adulthood among persons with ASD, but the restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior and activities have received less attention...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001334/coping-strategies-of-taiwanese-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Wei-Chih Chin, Kuo-Yu Chao, Hsueh-Ling Chang, Hsin-Mei Li, Sue-Hsien Chen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the coping experiences of children with autism spectrum disorders in Taiwan. BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorders are faced with daily social and living challenges, which can cause stress. Chinese culture emphasizes discipline and obedience, which may influence coping strategies of children with autism spectrum disorders in Taiwan. DESIGN: This qualitative study employed an exploratory descriptive design...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976783/-diagnostics-and-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-older-adults-a-study-by-experts
#3
B Hitzert, R Schmidt, H M Geurts, S P J van Alphen
Empirical research into the diagnostics and treatment of older adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is very limited; so far, only 17 studies have been published. ASD, however, is not confined to child and adult psychiatry. Increasingly, ASD is being identified and treated within the domain of geriatric psychiatry.<br/> AIM: To investigate diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ASD in older adults, and to obtain insight into how these aspects are related to ageing.<br/> METHOD: Delphi techniques were employed via rounds of questionnaires put to experts; consensus was considered to have been achieved when a minimum of two-thirds of the experts 'agreed' or 'fully agreed' to a statement on a five-point scale...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940924/evidence-based-interventions-for-increasing-work-participation-for-persons-with-various-disabilities-a-systematic-review
#4
Diane L Smith, Katie Atmatzidis, Marisa Capogreco, Dominic Lloyd-Randolfi, Victoria Seman
Title I of the Americans With Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination in employment; however, 26 years later, employment rates for persons with disabilities hover at 34%. This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions to increase employment for people with various disabilities. Forty-six articles met the inclusion criteria for evidence-based interventions. The majority of studies assessed interventions for persons with mental health disabilities. Strong evidence was found for ongoing support and work-related social skills training prior to and during competitive employment for persons with mental health disabilities...
December 9, 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929316/assessing-understanding-and-supporting-students-with-autism-at-school-contemporary-science-practice-and-policy
#5
Janine P Stichter, T Chris Riley-Tillman, Shane R Jimerson
Over the past 3 decades, there has been an unprecedented increase in students identified as eligible for special education as a result of students meeting criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The increasing number of students with ASD in the schools presents significant challenges to teachers, school psychologists, and other school professionals working with this population. Although there is considerable research addressing assessment, identification, and support services for children with ASD, there is a need for further research focused on these topics within the school context...
December 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926378/automated-segmentation-of-white-matter-fiber-bundles-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-and-a-new-density-based-clustering-algorithm
#6
Tahereh Kamali, Daniel Stashuk
OBJECTIVE: Robust and accurate segmentation of brain white matter (WM) fiber bundles assists in diagnosing and assessing progression or remission of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism and depression. Supervised segmentation methods are infeasible in most applications since generating gold standards is too costly. Hence, there is a growing interest in designing unsupervised methods. However, most conventional unsupervised methods require the number of clusters be known in advance which is not possible in most applications...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919678/individual-differences-in-high-level-biological-motion-tasks-correlate-with-autistic-traits
#7
Jeroen J A van Boxtel, Yujia Peng, Junzhu Su, Hongjing Lu
Human actions are rich in social cues and play an essential role in interacting with the social environment. Hence, the perception of biological motion (i.e., movement elicited by humans and other animals) is considered to be an important gauge of a person's social cognition capacities. It has been well-documented that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulties in social interactions. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in biological motion perception relate to the degree of autistic traits among people in the typically-developing population...
December 17, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891068/can-mouse-imaging-studies-bring-order-to-autism-connectivity-chaos
#8
Adam Liska, Alessandro Gozzi
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has consistently highlighted impaired or aberrant functional connectivity across brain regions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. However, the manifestation and neural substrates of these alterations are highly heterogeneous and often conflicting. Moreover, their neurobiological underpinnings and etiopathological significance remain largely unknown. A deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiological cascade leading to aberrant connectivity in ASD can greatly benefit from the use of model organisms where individual pathophysiological or phenotypic components of ASD can be recreated and investigated via approaches that are either off limits or confounded by clinical heterogeneity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890046/investigation-of-training-and-support-needs-in-rural-and-remote-disability-and-mainstream-service-providers-implications-for-an-online-training-model
#9
Genevieve Johnsson, Rachel Kerslake, Sarah Crook, Corinne Cribb
Objectives It is known that there are difficulties in recruiting and retaining practitioners in rural and remote communities and that access to support and professional development can be key in breaking this cycle. Technology provides a possible solution not only for increasing access to these opportunities, but also in building community capacity to support children with autism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the current learning and support needs within rural and remote professionals prior to setting up a model of support...
November 28, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827406/heterogeneity-of-executive-functions-among-comorbid-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#10
Dina R Dajani, Maria M Llabre, Mary Beth Nebel, Stewart H Mostofsky, Lucina Q Uddin
Executive functions (EFs) are used to set goals, plan for the future, inhibit maladaptive responses, and change behavior flexibly. Although some studies point to specific EF profiles in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - prevalent and often highly comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders - others have not differentiated them. The objective of the current study was to identify distinct profiles of EF across typically developing (TD) children and children with ASD and ADHD...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816931/underlying-role-of-mitochondrial-mutagenesis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-a-disease-and-current-approaches-for-translational-research
#11
Maria Paraskevaidi, Pierre L Martin-Hirsch, Maria Kyrgiou, Francis L Martin
Mitochondrial diseases have been extensively investigated over the last three decades, but many questions regarding their underlying aetiologies remain unanswered. Mitochondrial dysfunction is not only responsible for a range of neurological and myopathy diseases but also considered pivotal in a broader spectrum of common diseases such as epilepsy, autism and bipolar disorder. These disorders are a challenge to diagnose and treat, as their aetiology might be multifactorial. In this review, the focus is placed on potential mechanisms capable of introducing defects in mitochondria resulting in disease...
November 5, 2016: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807755/an-evaluation-of-a-behaviorally-based-social-skills-group-for-individuals-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Justin B Leaf, Jeremy A Leaf, Christine Milne, Mitchell Taubman, Misty Oppenheim-Leaf, Norma Torres, Donna Townley-Cochran, Ronald Leaf, John McEachin, Paul Yoder
In this study we evaluated a social skills group which employed a progressive applied behavior analysis model for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A randomized control trial was utilized; eight participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group and seven participants were randomly assigned to a waitlist control group. The social skills group consisted of 32, 2 h sessions. Teachers implemented a variety of behaviorally based procedures. A blind evaluator measured participants' behavior immediately prior to intervention, immediately following intervention, and during 16 and 32-week maintenance probes...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801721/unmet-health-services-needs-among-us-children-with-developmental-disabilities-associations-with-family-impact-and-child-functioning
#13
Olivia J Lindly, Alison E Chavez, Katharine E Zuckerman
OBJECTIVE: To determine associations of unmet needs for child or family health services with (1) adverse family financial and employment impacts and (2) child behavioral functioning problems among US children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD), and/or intellectual disability (ID). METHOD: This was a secondary analysis of parent-reported data from the 2009 to 2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs linked to the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services...
November 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799474/mirdnmr-a-gene-centered-database-of-background-de-novo-mutation-rates-in-human
#14
Yi Jiang, Zhongshan Li, Zhenwei Liu, Denghui Chen, Wanying Wu, Yaoqiang Du, Liying Ji, Zi-Bing Jin, Wei Li, Jinyu Wu
De novo germline mutations (DNMs) are the rarest genetic variants proven to cause a considerable number of sporadic genetic diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders, epileptic encephalopathy, schizophrenia, congenital heart disease, type 1 diabetes, and hearing loss. However, it is difficult to accurately assess the cause of DNMs and identify disease-causing genes from the considerable number of DNMs in probands. A common method to this problem is to identify genes that harbor significantly more DNMs than expected by chance, with accurate background DNM rate (DNMR) required...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793771/lithium-increases-synaptic-glua2-in-hippocampal-neurons-by%C3%A2-elevating-the-%C3%AE-catenin-protein
#15
Mobeen Farooq, Seonil Kim, Sunny Patel, Latika Khatri, Takuya Hikima, Margaret E Rice, Edward B Ziff
Lithium (Li(+)) is a drug widely employed for treating bipolar disorder, however the mechanism of action is not known. Here we study the effects of Li(+) in cultured hippocampal neurons on a synaptic complex consisting of δ-catenin, a protein associated with cadherins whose mutation is linked to autism, and GRIP, an AMPA receptor (AMPAR) scaffolding protein, and the AMPAR subunit, GluA2. We show that Li(+) elevates the level of δ-catenin in cultured neurons. δ-catenin binds to the ABP and GRIP proteins, which are synaptic scaffolds for GluA2...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775428/initial-clinical-guidelines-for-co-occurring-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-gender-dysphoria-or-incongruence-in-adolescents
#16
John F Strang, Haley Meagher, Lauren Kenworthy, Annelou L C de Vries, Edgardo Menvielle, Scott Leibowitz, Aron Janssen, Peggy Cohen-Kettenis, Daniel E Shumer, Laura Edwards-Leeper, Richard R Pleak, Norman Spack, Dan H Karasic, Herbert Schreier, Anouk Balleur, Amy Tishelman, Diane Ehrensaft, Leslie Rodnan, Emily S Kuschner, Francie Mandel, Antonia Caretto, Hal C Lewis, Laura G Anthony
Evidence indicates an overrepresentation of youth with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and gender dysphoria (GD). The clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with this co-occurrence is often complex, related to the developmental aspects of ASD. There are no guidelines for clinical care when ASD and GD co-occur; however, there are clinicians and researchers experienced in this co-occurrence. This study develops initial clinical consensus guidelines for the assessment and care of adolescents with co-occurring ASD and GD, from the best clinical practices of current experts in the field...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753278/research-needs-and-priorities-for-transition-and-employment-in-autism-considerations-reflected-in-a-special-interest-group-at-the-international-meeting-for-autism-research
#17
David B Nicholas, Sandra Hodgetts, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Leann E Smith, Paul Shattuck, Jeremy R Parr, Olivia Conlon, Tamara Germani, Wendy Mitchell, Lori Sacrey, Margot E Stothers
Research related to supports for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is under-developed. As an example, system and service development to support successful transition to adulthood and meaningful vocation for adults has received relatively little research scrutiny until recently, with practitioners and program developers lacking evidence-informed approaches guiding service delivery. A Special Interest Group (SIG) was convened at the International Meeting for Autism Research in May 2014 and May 2015, with a focus on transitional and vocational issues in ASD...
October 17, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739909/a-comparison-of-families-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-family-daily-routines-service-usage-and-stress-levels-by-regionality
#18
Tomomi McAuliffe, Sharmila Vaz, Torbjörn Falkmer, Reinie Cordier
PURPOSE: To explore whether family routines, service usage, and stress levels in families of children with autism spectrum disorder differ as a function of regionality. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data was undertaken from 535 surveys. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate differences between families living in densely populated (DP) areas and less densely populated (LDP) areas. RESULTS: Families living in LDP areas were found to: (1) have reduced employment hours (a two-parent household: Exp (B) = 3...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706122/a-systematic-review-of-the-association-between-allergic-asthma-and-autism
#19
Alessandro Tonacci, Lucia Billeci, Liliana Ruta, Gennaro Tartarisco, Giovanni Pioggia, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder represents a burdensome condition in early childhood, with a number of risk factors proposed to explain its pathogenesis, most of which without a reliable scientific basis. Allergic asthma is likely to be one of the possible comorbilities of autism. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In this paper, the relationship between autism and allergic asthma was analyzed through a systematic literature review, conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701827/beneficial-effects-of-co-ultramicronized-palmitoylethanolamide-luteolin-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism-and-in-a-case-report-of-autism
#20
Bartolomeo Bertolino, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
AIMS: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition defined by social communication deficits and repetitive restrictive behaviors. Association of the fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) with the flavonoid luteolin displays neuroprotective and antiinflammatory actions in different models of central nervous system pathologies. We hypothesized that association of PEA with luteolin might have therapeutic utility in ASD, and we employed a well-recognized autism animal model, namely sodium valproate administration, to evaluate cognitive and motor deficits...
January 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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