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Autism AND employment

David B Nicholas, Sandra Hodgetts, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Leann E Smith, Paul Shattuck, Jeremy R Parr, Olivia Conlon, Tamara Germani, Wendy Mitchell, Lori Sacrey, Margot E Stothers
Research related to supports for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is under-developed. As an example, system and service development to support successful transition to adulthood and meaningful vocation for adults has received relatively little research scrutiny until recently, with practitioners and program developers lacking evidence-informed approaches guiding service delivery. A Special Interest Group (SIG) was convened at the International Meeting for Autism Research in May 2014 and May 2015, with a focus on transitional and vocational issues in ASD...
October 17, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Tomomi McAuliffe, Sharmila Vaz, Torbjörn Falkmer, Reinie Cordier
PURPOSE: To explore whether family routines, service usage, and stress levels in families of children with autism spectrum disorder differ as a function of regionality. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data was undertaken from 535 surveys. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate differences between families living in densely populated (DP) areas and less densely populated (LDP) areas. RESULTS: Families living in LDP areas were found to: (1) have reduced employment hours (a two-parent household: Exp (B) = 3...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Alessandro Tonacci, Lucia Billeci, Liliana Ruta, Gennaro Tartarisco, Giovanni Pioggia, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder represents a burdensome condition in early childhood, with a number of risk factors proposed to explain its pathogenesis, most of which without a reliable scientific basis. Allergic asthma is likely to be one of the possible comorbilities of autism. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In this paper, the relationship between autism and allergic asthma was analyzed through a systematic literature review, conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Bartolomeo Bertolino, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
AIMS: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition defined by social communication deficits and repetitive restrictive behaviors. Association of the fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) with the flavonoid luteolin displays neuroprotective and antiinflammatory actions in different models of central nervous system pathologies. We hypothesized that association of PEA with luteolin might have therapeutic utility in ASD, and we employed a well-recognized autism animal model, namely sodium valproate administration, to evaluate cognitive and motor deficits...
October 4, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Paulo Tan, Erna Alant
This study employed an A-B singled subject design to explore the extent to which a peer-mediated intervention supported a first-grade student with autism's usage both in purpose and frequency of a speech-generating device (SGD) during mathematics activities. The intervention involved teaching a peer without a disability to encourage the student with autism to use the SGD during partnered mathematics activities. Our analysis involved visual and descriptive examination of trends and patterns over time, and comparison of means between and within phases...
October 3, 2016: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Ángel Romero-Martínez, Luis Moya-Albiol
Caring for an offspring diagnosed with a psychological chronic disorder is used in research as a model of chronic stress. Indeed, it is usually associated with disturbances in the salivary cortisol (Csal) levels of the caregiver. An imbalance between salivary testosterone (Tsal) and Csal levels is a marker of proneness to social aggression. Given this, we aimed to establish whether the salivary testosterone/cortisol (Tsal/Csal) ratio response to acute stress could be employed as a marker of proneness to anger in informal caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum (ASD)...
2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Alana J McVey, Bridget K Dolan, Kirsten S Willar, Sheryl Pleiss, Jeffrey S Karst, Christina L Casnar, Christina Caiozzo, Elisabeth M Vogt, Nakia S Gordon, Amy Vaughan Van Hecke
Young adults with ASD experience difficulties with social skills, empathy, loneliness, and social anxiety. One intervention, PEERS® for Young Adults, shows promise in addressing these challenges. The present study replicated and extended the original study by recruiting a larger sample (N = 56), employing a gold standard ASD assessment tool, and examining changes in social anxiety utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. Results indicated improvements in social responsiveness (SSIS-RS SS, p = ...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
D Sarrouilhe, C Dejean
The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to be multifactorial and to involve genetic and environmental components. Environmental chemical exposures are increasingly understood to be important in causing neurotoxicity in fetuses and newborns. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States suggest a substantial increase in ASD prevalence, only partly explicable by factors such as diagnostic substitution. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous xenoestrogen widely employed in a variety of consumer products including plastic and metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and fillings, medical equipment and thermal receipts...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Joseph M Lambert, Bailey A Copeland, Erica L Karp, Crystal I Finley, Nealetta J Houchins-Juarez, Jennifer R Ledford
Individuals with developmental disabilities successfully participate in fewer recreation activities, including sports activities, than their typically developing peers. Although a functional basketball-playing repertoire might increase social opportunities and physical health for these individuals, no research has outlined a behavior-analytic strategy for teaching this sport. In our study, we taught a 13-year-old male diagnosed with autism to play basketball. During phase 1, we employed discrete-trial training to establish proficiency with nine fundamental basketball skills (i...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Eliane Deschrijver, Jan R Wiersema, Marcel Brass
Next to social problems, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often report severe sensory difficulties. Altered processing of touch is however a stronger mediator of social symptoms' severity than altered processing of for instance vision or audition. Why is this the case? We reasoned that sensory difficulties may be linked to social problems in ASD through insufficient self-other distinction centred on touch. We investigated by means of EEG whether the brain of adults with ASD adequately signals when a tactile consequence of an observed action does not match own touch, as compared to the brain of matched controls...
September 9, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Carly B Gilson, Erik W Carter
The employment outcomes for young adults with autism or intellectual disability (ID) lag far behind those of their peers without disabilities. Most postsecondary education programs for students with disabilities incorporate internship experiences to foster employment skills. However, the proximity of job coaches may inadvertently hinder social opportunities and independence. We used a multiple-probe, single-case experimental design across three college students with autism or ID to examine the effects of a coaching package on task engagement and social interactions...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Ning Liu, Sarit Cliffer, Anjali H Pradhan, Amy Lightbody, Scott S Hall, Allan L Reiss
Impaired facial processing may contribute to social dysfunction in certain individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prior studies show that electroencephalogram-based and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based neurofeedback might help some individuals with ASD learn to modulate regional brain activity and thus reduce symptoms. Here, we report for the first time the feasibility of employing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based neurofeedback training in children with ASD. We developed a method to study physiological self-regulation of oxy-hemoglobin using real-time feedback...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
Anna Anzulewicz, Krzysztof Sobota, Jonathan T Delafield-Butt
Autism is a developmental disorder evident from infancy. Yet, its clinical identification requires expert diagnostic training. New evidence indicates disruption to motor timing and integration may underpin the disorder, providing a potential new computational marker for its early identification. In this study, we employed smart tablet computers with touch-sensitive screens and embedded inertial movement sensors to record the movement kinematics and gesture forces made by 37 children 3-6 years old with autism and 45 age- and gender-matched children developing typically...
2016: Scientific Reports
Darren Hedley, Mirko Uljarević, Lauren Cameron, Santoshi Halder, Amanda Richdale, Cheryl Dissanayake
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder face significant challenges entering the workforce; yet research in this area is limited and the issues are poorly understood. In this systematic review, empirical peer-reviewed studies on employment programmes, interventions and employment-related outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder over 18 years with and without intellectual disability were identified and evaluated. The review was prefaced by a summary of previous systematic reviews in the area...
August 18, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Blythe A Corbett, Karen L Bales, Deanna Swain, Kevin Sanders, Tamara A R Weinstein, Louis J Muglia
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show marked impairment in social functioning and poor adaptation to new and changing contexts, which may be influenced by underlying regulatory processes. Oxytocin (OT) and cortisol are key neuromodulators of biological and behavioral responses, show a synergistic effect, and have been implicated in the neuropathological profile in ASD. However, they are rarely investigated together. The purpose of the pilot study was to evaluate the relationship between cortisol and OT in children with ASD under baseline and physiological stress (hydrocortisone challenge) conditions...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Anne V Kirby, Grace T Baranek, Leslie Fox
To generate an evidence-based understanding of longitudinal predictors of social outcomes (i.e., employment, social relationships/participation, independent living) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we conducted a systematic literature review of publications since 2000. Twelve publications deriving from eight study samples fit inclusion/exclusion criteria for the review. In these publications, statistically significant predictors of social outcomes fell into five categories: (a) personal characteristics, (b) individual functioning, (c) family context, (d) services, and (e) other factors (i...
April 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
R Constance Wiener, Rini Vohra, Usha Sambamoorthi, S Suresh Madhavan
Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the burdens of caregivers on perception of the need and receipt of preventive dental care for a subset of children with special health care needs-children with Autism Spectrum disorder, developmental disability and/or mental health conditions (CASD/DD/MHC). Methods The authors used the 2009-2010 National Survey of CSHCN. The survey included questions addressing preventive dental care and caregivers' financial, employment, and time-related burdens. The associations of these burdens on perceptions and receipt of preventive dental care use were analyzed with bivariate Chi square analyses and multinomial logistic regressions for CASD/DD/MHC (N = 16,323)...
July 27, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Karson T F Kung, Debra Spencer, Vickie Pasterski, Sharon Neufeld, Vivette Glover, Thomas G O'Connor, Peter C Hindmarsh, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, Melissa Hines
BACKGROUND: There is a marked male preponderance in autism spectrum conditions. The extreme male brain theory and the fetal androgen theory of autism suggest that elevated prenatal testosterone exposure is a key contributor to autistic traits. The current paper reports findings from two separate studies that test this hypothesis. METHODS: A parent-report questionnaire, the Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST), was employed to measure autistic traits in both studies...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
E Kale Edmiston, Scott D Blain, Blythe A Corbett
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social behavior. One possible explanation for social communication deficits in ASD could be differences in biological systems that support responses to environmental stimuli. If so, it is unclear if differences in the arousal response to social stimuli in ASD are due to reduced interest in social information, or to an increased stress response. The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis facilitates arousal and the stress response to sensory input, including social stimuli...
July 15, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Zhen Zheng, Tingting Zhu, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu
OBJECTIVE: Glutamate plays an important role in brain development, neuronal migration, differentiation, survival and synaptogenesis. Recent studies have explored the relationship between blood glutamate levels and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the findings are inconsistent. We undertook the first systematic review with a meta-analysis of studies examining blood glutamate levels in ASD compared with controls. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published before March 2016...
2016: PloS One
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