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Autism AND Violence

É Cappe, N Poirier, É Boujut, N Nader-Grosbois, C Dionne, A Boulard
INTRODUCTION: Autism and related disorders are grouped into the category of « Autism Spectrum Disorder » (ASD) in the DSM-5. This appellation reflects the idea of a dimensional representation of autism that combines symptoms and characteristics that vary in severity and intensity. Despite common characteristics, there are varying degrees in intensity and in the onset of symptoms, ranging from a disability that can be very heavy with a total lack of communication and major disorders associated with the existence of a relative autonomy associated, sometimes, with extraordinary intellectual abilities...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
F Declercq, R Meganck, K Audenaert
Although evidence with respect to its prevalence is mixed, it is clear that fathers perpetrate a serious proportion of filicide. There also seems to be a consensus that paternal filicide has attracted less research attention than its maternal counterpart and is therefore less well understood. National registries are a very rich source of data, but they generally provide limited information about the perpetrator as psychiatric, psychological and behavioral data are often lacking. This paper presents a fully documented case of a paternal filicide...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Psychology
Claudia Trudel-Fitzgerald, Ying Chen, Ankura Singh, Olivia I Okereke, Laura D Kubzansky
OBJECTIVES: To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) on factors that influence mental and physical health. METHODS: Narrative review of all published articles using data from the NHS, the NHS II, and the Growing Up Today Study focusing on mental health conditions (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety) and psychosocial resources and stressors (e.g., job strain, interpersonal violence, social relationships, sexual orientation) between 1990 and 2016...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Alexander Westphal
Comorbidities of autism spectrum disorder are discussed as an introduction to the argument that, although ASD may modify presentation, it does not confer any protection against other disorder, including the negative effects of trauma (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder). Dr. Im's hypotheses are discussed, and a case example of childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is raised to give clinical support to his hypotheses. CDD is a rare form of ASD that is defined by late onset, a traumatic prodrome, onset of behaviors including some with similarities to PTSD, and aggression...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Lori L Hauser
Im draws a parallel between the neurobiology of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that of trauma survivors, to explain why individuals with ASD may be more vulnerable to trauma as a risk factor for violence. This commentary raises questions about how we use this information in a forensic context, including its potential misuses. It urges caution in not overstating the data before we have a more nuanced understanding of how our neural circuitry influences specific behaviors and mental states, while not allowing the science to advance faster than we can harness it, overstepping its bounds in decisions we make regarding fairness and justice...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
David S Im
In examining contributors to violence among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one factor that has received little attention is a history of psychological trauma. This study's purpose was to explore the possible mechanisms for an association between trauma and violence in persons with ASD. The literature regarding the neurobiology and theoretical underpinnings of ASD is reviewed and compared with the literature on the neurobiology and theoretical underpinnings of trauma as a risk factor for violence in individuals without ASD...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
C S Allely, P Wilson, H Minnis, L Thompson, E Yaksic, C Gillberg
A small body of literature has suggested that, rather than being more likely to engage in offending or violent behavior, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may actually have an increased risk of being the victim rather than the perpetrator of violence (Sobsey, Wells, Lucardie, & Mansell, 1995 ). There is no evidence that people with ASD are more violent than those without ASD (Im, 2016). There is nevertheless a small subgroup of individuals with ASD who exhibit violent offending behaviours and our previous work has suggested that other factors, such as adverse childhood experiences, might be important in this subgroup (Allely, Minnis, Thompson, Wilson, & Gillberg, 2014 )...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Psychology
Jonatan Hedlund, Thomas Masterman, Joakim Sturup
Previous studies have shown decreasing child homicide rates in many countries - in Sweden mainly due to a drop in filicide-suicides. This study examines the rate of child homicides during 21 years, with the hypothesis that a decline might be attributable to a decrease in the number of depressive filicide offenders (as defined by a proxy measure). In addition, numerous characteristics of child homicide are presented. All homicide incidents involving 0-14-year-old victims in Sweden during 1992-2012 (n = 90) were identified in an autopsy database...
April 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
David S Im
INTRODUCTION: For the past two decades, researchers have been using various approaches to investigate the relationship, if any, between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and violence. The need to clarify that relationship was reinforced by the tragic mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, in December 2012 by an individual diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome. The purpose of this article is (1) to provide an updated review of the literature on the association between ASD and violence, and (2) to examine implications for treating, and for preventing violence by, individuals with ASD...
January 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Mark T Palermo, Stefan Bogaerts
Predictability of dangerousness in association with mental disorders remains elusive, outside of a few relatively well-established risk factors for the prognostication of violence, such as male sex, the presence of a psychotic disorder, and comorbid substance abuse. In clinical practice, inquiry into the presence of aggressive or violent ideation, in the form of ideas of homicide or suicide, is part of a standard mental status examination. Nonetheless, fantasy life, when it concerns harm toward others, may not be as reliable an indicator of imminent danger as it may be in the case of self-harm...
October 28, 2015: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Osman Sabuncuoglu, Mustafa Yasin Irmak, Nagehan Ucok Demir, Duygu Murat, Can Tumba, Yuksel Yilmaz
Children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) may have serious behavioral problems such as aggression, self-injury, and violence. However, the literature on ASD either overrules any correlation between aggression and ASD or maintains the fact that the efforts to link them have so far been inconclusive. Although severe forms of violence are extremely rare in children with autism, there are a few cases reported in the literature with significant harm to siblings. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with ASD who caused the death of his sibling by throwing her out of the window...
2015: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Christina Nicolaidis, Clarissa Calliope Kripke, Dora Raymaker
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by differences in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Skills and challenges can change depending on environmental stimuli, supports, and stressors. Quality of life can be improved by the use of accommodations, assistive technologies, therapies to improve adaptive function or communication, caregiver training, acceptance, access, and inclusion. This article focuses on the identification of ASD in adults, referrals for services, the recognition of associated conditions, strategies and accommodations to facilitate effective primary care services, and ethical issues related to caring for autistic adults...
September 2014: Medical Clinics of North America
Erik Søndenaa, Sissel Berge Helverschou, Kari Steindal, Kirsten Rasmussen, Britta Nilson, Jim Aage Nøttestad
The increased awareness of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) over the last few decades as well as the potential association between ASD and offending behaviors has spurred a need for increased research in this area. In order to explore any possible relationship between ASD and violent or sexual crime the present study examines all forensic examination reports over a 10-yr. period in Norway where the charged persons were diagnosed with ASD and charged with either a violent (N = 21) or a sexual (N = 12) offense...
August 2014: Psychological Reports
Jonathan McGuire, Robyn Langdon, Martin Brüne
INTRODUCTION: Disordered moral behaviour and understanding of moral rules were described early in the literature on schizophrenia; however, moral cognition has received scant attention in spite of a large literature focused on social cognitive impairments and violent behaviour in schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a narrative synthesis of the literature on violence, moral judgement and schizophrenia. RESULTS: Initial empirical research into moral cognition in schizophrenia did not fully account for the basic- and social-cognitive deficits now known to characterise schizophrenia...
2014: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Jeffrey A Cohen, Thomas A Dickerson, Joanne Matthews Forbes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
0: Albany Law Review
Wendy Wen, Shi Wu Wen
On average, males have a stronger preference for physical systems and machines over interpersonal interactions; they have lower average levels of cognitive empathy or social cognition than females; and they have higher rates of 'extreme' intelligence when it comes to abstract concepts such as those found in mathematics and sciences. All three traits are also commonly associated with individuals with an autism spectrum disorder or ASD; clearly, it is not coincidental that incidence rates of autism are reportedly four times higher in males than in females...
May 2014: Medical Hypotheses
Peter Doehring, Brian Reichow, Tamara Palka, Cara Phillips, Louis Hagopian
Severe problem behaviors such as aggression, self-injury, and property destruction can result in injury, and require specialized and expensive treatment. This article reviews outcome research published since 1995 that used behavioral techniques to decrease severe problem behaviors among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and/or intellectual disability. Many relatively simple interventions were reported to significantly reduce severe problem behavior, which offers hope for practitioners. Nonetheless, these studies also reveal a risk for injury and a need for specialized assessment and placement, careful tracking, and high-quality treatment that few agencies could likely replicate without increases in training and support...
January 2014: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Masami Sasaki
For a long time autism spectrum and developmental disorders have not been well understood. Treatment and education for children with this disorders have been inappropriate in many ways. Although this fact was not obvious until many such children began to demonstrate secondary emotional disturbances including social withdrawal, social aggression, delinquency, domestic violence and momicide. This discourse describes advances in research and practice of clinical and psycho-neurological for autism spectrum in recent years...
May 2010: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
Lee E Wachtel, Edward Shorter
In the recent series of mass murders in Connecticut, Colorado, Norway and elsewhere, a pattern appears to emerge: young men whose social isolation borders on autism apparently become prey to psychotic ideation, and under its influence commit horrific violence. We argue that in some of these tragic cases two concomitant diagnoses may be at play, namely autism and psychosis. Autism itself is not an intrinsically violent disorder, and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are no more prone to violent behaviors than the general population...
September 2013: Medical Hypotheses
Lotta Arborelius, Uno Fors, Anna-Karin Svensson, Kristina Sygel, Marianne Kristiansson
BACKGROUND: Assessment of risk of future violence has developed from reliance on static indicators towards a more dynamic approach. In the latter context, however, the offender is seldom confronted with real life situations. AIMS: The aim of this study is to evaluate a computer-based system - Reactions on Display, which presents human interactions based on real-life situations - for its effectiveness in distinguishing between potentially violent offenders with mental disorder and a healthy comparison group...
February 2013: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
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