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Autism AND nArcolepsy

Maria Yamasaki, Taku Miyagawa, Hiromi Toyoda, Seik-Soon Khor, Xiaoxi Liu, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Yukiko Kano, Takafumi Shimada, Toshiro Sugiyama, Hisami Nishida, Nagisa Sugaya, Mamoru Tochigi, Takeshi Otowa, Yuji Okazaki, Hisanobu Kaiya, Yoshiya Kawamura, Akinori Miyashita, Ryozo Kuwano, Kiyoto Kasai, Hisashi Tanii, Tsukasa Sasaki, Yutaka Honda, Makoto Honda, Katsushi Tokunaga
In humans, narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that is characterized by sleepiness, cataplexy and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep abnormalities. Essential hypersomnia (EHS) is another type of sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness without cataplexy. A human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II allele, HLA-DQB1*06:02, is a major genetic factor for narcolepsy. Almost all narcoleptic patients are carriers of this HLA allele, while 30-50% of EHS patients and 12% of all healthy individuals in Japan carry this allele...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Attila Szakács, Tove Hallböök, Pontus Tideman, Niklas Darin, Elisabet Wentz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate psychiatric comorbidity and the cognitive profile in children and adolescents with narcolepsy in western Sweden and the relationship of these problems to H1N1 vaccination. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight patients were included in the study. DESIGN: We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study to investigate psychiatric comorbidity using a test battery of semistructured interviews generating Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition diagnoses, including the Development and Well-Being Assessment and the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder rating scale...
April 2015: Sleep
Joel Reiter, Dennis Rosen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep problems in adolescents are very common and negatively impact the quality of their health and lives, yet often go undiagnosed. This review is meant to familiarize pediatricians with some of the more commonly encountered sleep disorders in this age group, and to review their diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings reinforce the ubiquity of insufficient and poor-quality sleep in teens and their consequences on physical and mental health, cognition, and behavior...
August 2014: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Xiaoxiao Xu, Alan B Wells, David R O'Brien, Arye Nehorai, Joseph D Dougherty
Recent advances have substantially increased the number of genes that are statistically associated with complex genetic disorders of the CNS such as autism and schizophrenia. It is now clear that there will likely be hundreds of distinct loci contributing to these disorders, underscoring a remarkable genetic heterogeneity. It is unclear whether this genetic heterogeneity indicates an equal heterogeneity of cellular mechanisms for these diseases. The commonality of symptoms across patients suggests there could be a functional convergence downstream of these loci upon a limited number of cell types or circuits that mediate the affected behaviors...
January 22, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Suresh Kotagal
Dyssomnias are sleep disorders associated with complaints of insomnia or hypersomnia. The daytime sleepiness of narcolepsy is treated by a combination of planned daytime naps, regular exercise medications such as modafinil, or salts of methylphenidate, or amphetamine. Cataplexy that accompanies narcolepsy is treated with anticholinergic agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or sodium oxybate. Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities such as autism have sleep initiation and maintenance difficulties on a multifactorial basis, with favorable response to melatonin in some patients...
December 2012: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Mark W Mahowald, Michel A Cramer Bornemann, Carlos H Schenck
Sleep is clearly not only a whole-brain or global phenomenon, but can also be a local phenomenon. This accounts for the fact that the primary states of being (wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and components of these states may appear in various combinations, with fascinating clinical consequences. Examples include: sleep inertia, narcolepsy, sleep paralysis, lucid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorder, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, out-of-body experiences, and reports of alien abduction...
2011: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Jolanta Wasilewska
The Congress of the International Pediatric Sleep Association joint meeting with Pediatric Sleep Medicine Conference was held in Rome on December 3-5, 2010. It was chaired by the president of IPSA, prof. O. Bruni. About 400 participants taking part in 20 sessions could listen to lectures delivered by the most prominent specialists in pediatric sleep medicine. The presented issues related to sleep development, sleep-disordered breathing, abnormal behaviors and movements during sleep (restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, bruxism), epilepsy, narcolepsy, insomnia, infant apnea, arousals and SIDS, sleep problems in children with other diseases (cancer, autism, ADHD, obesity), pharmacological treatment of pediatric sleep disorders, sleep habits, sleep education programs for children and families...
February 2011: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Shaila Bokkala, Katherine Napalinga, Narsimha Pinninti, Karen S Carvalho, Ignacio Valencia, Agustin Legido, Sanjeev V Kothare
Periodic limb movements of sleep are clinically underdiagnosed in children. Polysomnography is the most accurate diagnostic test. There is a paucity of information regarding polysomnography findings in children. We evaluated the prevalence and correlates of pediatric periodic limb movements detected by polysomnography. Periodic limb movements of sleep were identified in 77 of 982 polysomnograms, with a prevalence of 7.8% and male predominance (47 boys; 30 girls). Mean age was 9.4 +/- 4.2 years (1-19 years) (body mass index, 24...
July 2008: Pediatric Neurology
Alzbeta Talarovicova, Lucia Krskova, Alexander Kiss
The amygdala is a complex structure playing primary role in the processing and memorizing of emotional reactions. The amygdalae send impulses to the hypothalamus for activation of the sympathetic nervous system, to the reticular nucleus for increasing reflexes, to the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve for facial expressions of fear, and to the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus for activation of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine release. The amygdala plays a key role in what has been called the "general-purpose defense response control network" and reacts in response to unpleasant sights, sensations, or smells...
November 2007: Endocrine Regulations
Lisa J Meltzer, Jodi A Mindell
Pediatric sleep disorders are common, affecting approximately 25% to 40% of children and adolescents. Although there are several different types of sleep disorders that affect youth, each disorder can have a significant impact on daytime functioning and development, including learning, growth, behavior, and emotion regulation. Researchers are only beginning to uncover the interaction between sleep and psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, including depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism...
December 2006: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
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