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Autism AND hypersomnia

Michael H Smolensky, Ramon C Hermida, Alain Reinberg, Linda Sackett-Lundeen, Francesco Portaluppi
Biological processes are organized in time as innate rhythms defined by the period (τ), phase (peak [Φ] and trough time), amplitude (A, peak-trough difference) and mean level. The human time structure in its entirety is comprised of ultradian (τ < 20 h), circadian (20 h > τ < 28 h) and infradian (τ > 28 h) bioperiodicities. The circadian time structure (CTS) of human beings, which is more complicated than in lower animals, is orchestrated and staged by a brain central multioscillator system that includes a prominent pacemaker - the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus...
2016: Chronobiology International
Maria Yamasaki, Taku Miyagawa, Hiromi Toyoda, Seik-Soon Khor, Xiaoxi Liu, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Yukiko Kano, Takafumi Shimada, Toshiro Sugiyama, Hisami Nishida, Nagisa Sugaya, Mamoru Tochigi, Takeshi Otowa, Yuji Okazaki, Hisanobu Kaiya, Yoshiya Kawamura, Akinori Miyashita, Ryozo Kuwano, Kiyoto Kasai, Hisashi Tanii, Tsukasa Sasaki, Yutaka Honda, Makoto Honda, Katsushi Tokunaga
In humans, narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that is characterized by sleepiness, cataplexy and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep abnormalities. Essential hypersomnia (EHS) is another type of sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness without cataplexy. A human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II allele, HLA-DQB1*06:02, is a major genetic factor for narcolepsy. Almost all narcoleptic patients are carriers of this HLA allele, while 30-50% of EHS patients and 12% of all healthy individuals in Japan carry this allele...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Suresh Kotagal
Dyssomnias are sleep disorders associated with complaints of insomnia or hypersomnia. The daytime sleepiness of narcolepsy is treated by a combination of planned daytime naps, regular exercise medications such as modafinil, or salts of methylphenidate, or amphetamine. Cataplexy that accompanies narcolepsy is treated with anticholinergic agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or sodium oxybate. Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities such as autism have sleep initiation and maintenance difficulties on a multifactorial basis, with favorable response to melatonin in some patients...
December 2012: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
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