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Autism AND Swimming

Arnaud Cressant, Veronique Dubreuil, Jing Kong, Thorsten Manfred Kranz, Francoise Lazarini, Jean-Marie Launay, Jacques Callebert, Jan Sap, Dolores Malaspina, Sylvie Granon, Sheila Harroch
RATIONALE: The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRG has been genetically associated with psychiatric disorders and is a ligand for members of the contactin family, which are themselves linked to autism spectrum disorders. OBJECTIVE: Based on our finding of a phosphatase-null de novo mutation in PTPRG associated with a case of sporadic schizophrenia, we used PTPRG knockout (KO) mice to model the effect of a loss-of-function mutation. We compared the results with loss-of-function in its close paralogue PTPRZ, previously associated with schizophrenia...
December 26, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Jenna L N Sprowles, Jillian R Hufgard, Arnold Gutierrez, Rebecca A Bailey, Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) block the serotonin (5-HT) reuptake transporter (SERT) and increase synaptic 5-HT. 5-HT is also important in brain development; hence when SSRIs are taken during pregnancy there exists the potential for these drugs to affect CNS ontogeny. Prenatal SSRI exposure has been associated with an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and peripheral 5-HT is elevated in some ASD patients. Perinatal SSRI exposure in rodents has been associated with increased depression and anxiety-like behavior, decreased sociability, and impaired learning in the offspring, behaviors often seen in ASD...
November 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Yuanchuan Wang, Hongxiu Zhong, Chonggang Wang, Dongxu Gao, Yulin Zhou, Zhenghong Zuo
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious debilitating mental illness with complex symptoms and multi-factorial pathogenesis. Although the pathogenesis of ASD remains unclear, etiology is thought to involve complex, multigenic interactions and possible environmental contributions. In the present study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to investigate whether maternal exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF, 5μg/L), lead (Pb, 20μg/L) and their mixture (5 μg/L WSF+20 μg/L Pb) could induce autism-like behavior in larvae...
August 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Lisa Mische Lawson, Lauren Foster
Obesity is a public health concern for the population in general and for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically. The purpose of this study was to understand relationships between sensory patterns, obesity, and physical activity engagement of children with ASD (N = 77) sampled from a specialized community-based swimming program. This retrospective correlational study analyzed program data. Results show that almost half (42.2%) of the children were overweight or obese, and sensory avoiding behaviors were related to higher body mass index (BMI)...
September 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Torrey L S Truszkowski, Eric J James, Mashfiq Hasan, Tyler J Wishard, Zhenyu Liu, Kara G Pratt, Hollis T Cline, Carlos D Aizenman
BACKGROUND: Fragile X Syndrome is the leading monogenetic cause of autism and most common form of intellectual disability. Previous studies have implicated changes in dendritic spine architecture as the primary result of loss of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), but recent work has shown that neural proliferation is decreased and cell death is increased with either loss of FMRP or overexpression of FMRP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of loss of FMRP on behavior and cellular activity...
August 8, 2016: Neural Development
Emily Bremer, Michael Crozier, Meghann Lloyd
The purpose of this review was to systematically search and critically analyse the literature pertaining to behavioural outcomes of exercise interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder aged ⩽16 years. This systematic review employed a comprehensive peer-reviewed search strategy, two-stage screening process and rigorous critical appraisal, which resulted in the inclusion of 13 studies. Results demonstrated that exercise interventions consisting individually of jogging, horseback riding, martial arts, swimming or yoga/dance can result in improvements to numerous behavioural outcomes including stereotypic behaviours, social-emotional functioning, cognition and attention...
January 28, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Megan Eversole, Diane M Collins, Amol Karmarkar, Lisa Colton, Jill Phillips Quinn, Rita Karsbaek, Jessica Reinken Johnson, Nicolle Patricia Callier, Claudia L Hilton
Enjoyment is a fundamental component of activity participation. This study compared leisure activity enjoyment experienced by typically developing children (TD; n = 64) and those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 67) from age 6 to 13. The TD children enjoyed formal and physical activities significantly more than the children with ASD. Symptom severity was negatively related to enjoyment of overall, formal, physical and social activities. Older children with ASD enjoyed overall, informal, recreational, and self-improvement activities significantly less than younger children, but no differences were seen across TD age groups...
January 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Robert A Kozol, Holly N Cukier, Bing Zou, Vera Mayo, Silvia De Rubeis, Guiqing Cai, Anthony J Griswold, Patrice L Whitehead, Jonathan L Haines, John R Gilbert, Michael L Cuccaro, Eden R Martin, James D Baker, Joseph D Buxbaum, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Julia E Dallman
Despite significant progress in the genetics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), how genetic mutations translate to the behavioral changes characteristic of ASD remains largely unknown. ASD affects 1-2% of children and adults, and is characterized by deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and social interactions, as well as the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or stereotyped interests. ASD is clinically and etiologically heterogeneous, with a strong genetic component. Here, we present functional data from syngap1 and shank3 zebrafish loss-of-function models of ASD...
July 15, 2015: Human Molecular Genetics
Emily J Jaehne, Thomas S Klarić, Simon A Koblar, Bernhard T Baune, Martin D Lewis
The transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 4 (Npas4), which regulates the formation of inhibitory synapses on excitatory neurons, has been suggested as a candidate gene for neurological and psychiatric conditions such as bipolar depression, autism spectrum and cognitive disorders. A mouse model of Npas4 deficiency has been developed to investigate any role in these disorders. Behavioural characterisation of Npas4(-/-), Npas4(+/-) and Npas4(+/+) mice has been conducted using the open field, elevated zero maze (EZM), Y-maze, sociability test and forced swim test (FST) to investigate a range of behaviours...
March 15, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Yu-Zhu Hong, Xue-Jun Zhang, Lin Hong, Qian-Ru Huang, Qiang Wu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture stimulation of "Changqiang" (GV 1) on learning-memory ability and gap junction-related protein expression in the prefrontal cortex in autism rats. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were equally randomized into control, model, GV 1 and non-acupoint groups. For establishing autism model, Valproate acid (VPA) sodium (600 mg/kg) was given (i. p.) to pregnancy rats whose intimate filial generation was confirmed to be successful autism by eye-open tests, swimming test and Morris water maze swimming tasks...
June 2014: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Kate L Weidner, Diego F Buenaventura, Kathryn K Chadman
Evidence from clinical studies suggests that abnormal activity of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) contributes to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A genetically modified line of mice over-expressing a BDNF transgene in forebrain neurons was used to investigate if this mutation leads to changes in behavior consistent with ASD. The mice used in these experiments were behaviorally tested past 5 months of age when spontaneous seizures were evident. These seizures were not observed in age-matched wildtype (WT) mice or younger mice from this transgenic line...
July 15, 2014: Behavioural Brain Research
J Brielmaier, J M Senerth, J L Silverman, P G Matteson, J H Millonig, E DiCicco-Bloom, J N Crawley
Engrailed-2 (En2) is a homeobox transcription factor that regulates neurodevelopmental processes including neuronal connectivity and elaboration of monoaminergic neurons in the ventral hindbrain. We previously reported abnormalities in brain noradrenergic concentrations in En2 null mutant mice that were accompanied by increased immobility in the forced swim test, relevant to depression. An EN2 genetic polymorphism has been associated with autism spectrum disorders, and mice with a deletion in En2 display social abnormalities and cognitive deficits that may be relevant to multiple neuropsychiatric conditions...
March 2014: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Vitor Bortolo de Rezende, Daniela Valadão Rosa, Clarissa Martinelli Comim, Luiz Alexandre Viana Magno, Ana Lucia Severo Rodrigues, Paula Vidigal, Andreas Jeromin, João Quevedo, Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva
Sensing and regulating intracellular levels of calcium are essential for proper cellular function. In neurons, calcium sensing plays important roles in neuronal plasticity, neurotransmitter release, long-term synapse modification and ion channel activity. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a member of the highly conserved neuronal calcium sensor family. Although NCS-1 has been associated with psychiatric conditions including autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, it is unclear which role NCS-1 plays in behavior...
May 10, 2014: Physiology & Behavior
Estelle Amoros, Alexandra Tzvetkovitch
Nursing practices with autistic children in child psychiatry can be approached through the experience of a body-centred therapy group. The support favours creativity, holding, vocal interaction, team work around the clinical aspect, multi-disciplinary perspectives and exchanges with the parents. An example of a workshop in a swimming pool in which holding is particularly important.
January 2014: Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture
Shirin Babri, Mohammad-Hossein Doosti, Ali-Akbar Salari
There is converging evidence that prenatal maternal infection can increase the risk of occurrence of neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, autism, anxiety and depression in later life. Experimental studies have shown conflicting effects of prenatal maternal immune activation on anxiety-like behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development in offspring. We investigated the effects of maternal immune activation during pregnancy on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in pregnant mice and their offspring to determine whether these effects are dependent on strain...
March 2014: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Xue-Jun Zhang, Qiang Wu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) at Changqiang (GV 1) or Baihui (GV 20) on autism based on molecular biology. METHODS: The autism model was established by intraperitoneal injection of sodium valproate (VPA) in Wistar pregnant rats. Forty young rats with autism were selected and randomly divided into a model group, a non-acupoint group, an electroacupuncture at "Changqiang" (GV 1) (EAGV 1 for short) group and an electroacupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) (EAGV 20 for short) group...
July 2013: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
John Jacob Cannell
No medication exists to treat the core symptoms of autism. However, some children spontaneously improve and have optimal outcomes. Parents of autistic children who have access to swimming pool have reported summertime improvement in symptoms to me. A Japanese case report found the same summer times improvements. If the cause of that summertime improvement could be identified, it may lead to effective treatment. Vitamin D is highly seasonal with a summertime surfeit and a wintertime deficit. The hypotheses that the increased prevalence in the diagnosis of autism is due to better detection imply that parents, teachers and physicians of the 1950s, 60s, and 70s missed this non subtle diagnosis, an unlikely scenario...
August 2013: Medical Hypotheses
Yeshayahu Hutzler, Mali Oz, Sharon Barak
Based on social-learning and self-determination motivational theories, the purpose of this study was to determine the sources of motivation in youth and young adults with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO) competitions and those of typically developed (TD) age- and activity-matched athletes. A convenience sample of 63 SO (25 females and 38 males) and 59 TD (16 females and 43 males) athletes was retrieved through communication with local club coaches. Three sub-groups of SO athletes were identified based on disability, including non specified intellectual disability (NSID=39), Down syndrome (DS=17), and Autism (Aut=7)...
July 2013: Research in Developmental Disabilities
A Alachkar, D Jiang, M Harrison, Y Zhou, G Chen, Y Mao
Neuroplasticity depends on the precise timing of gene expression, which requires accurate control of mRNA stability and rapid elimination of abnormal mRNA. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is an RNA surveillance mechanism that ensures the speedy degradation of mRNAs carrying premature termination codons (PTCs). This mechanism relies on several key Exon Junction Complex (EJC) factors to distinguish PTCs from normal stop codons. NMD degrades not only aberrant transcripts carrying PTCs, but also normal transcripts harboring a normal stop codon [1]...
July 2013: Current Molecular Medicine
Yiyu Cai, Noel K H Chia, Daniel Thalmann, Norman K N Kee, Jianmin Zheng, Nadia M Thalmann
The recent proliferation of virtual reality (VR) technology applications in the autism therapy to promote learning and positive behavior among such children has produced optimistic results in developing a variety of skills and abilities in them. Dolphin-assisted therapy has also become a topic of public and research interest for autism intervention and treatment. This paper will present an innovative design and development of a Virtual Dolphinarium for potential autism intervention. Instead of emulating the swimming with dolphins, our virtual dolphin interaction program will allow children with autism to act as dolphin trainers at the poolside and to learn (nonverbal) communication through hand gestures with the virtual dolphins...
March 2013: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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