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Autism AND sports

Julie Lounds Taylor, Ryan E Adams, Somer L Bishop
In this study, we examined how unstructured (e.g., spending time with friends or co-workers) and structured (e.g., attending social events at a place of workshop, sports teams) social participation changed from before to after high school for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as the longitudinal and concurrent relations between social participation and internalizing symptoms. Participants included 36 families of youth with ASD who were all in their last year of high school at the first time point of data collection, and who were out of high school for an average of 9 months at the second time point...
October 14, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Sean Healy, Justin A Haegele, Michelle Grenier, Jeanette M Garcia
The primary purposes of this study were to compare (a) physical activity participation, screen-time habits, obesity, and (b) reported reasons for lack of participation in sport, between a nationally representative sample of Irish children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participation in moderate to vigorous activity, light activity, and sports was significantly lower among the group with ASD. On examination of screen time variables, no significant differences were seen between groups. However, time spent watching TV was higher among children with ASD...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Joseph M Lambert, Bailey A Copeland, Erica L Karp, Crystal I Finley, Nealetta J Houchins-Juarez, Jennifer R Ledford
Individuals with developmental disabilities successfully participate in fewer recreation activities, including sports activities, than their typically developing peers. Although a functional basketball-playing repertoire might increase social opportunities and physical health for these individuals, no research has outlined a behavior-analytic strategy for teaching this sport. In our study, we taught a 13-year-old male diagnosed with autism to play basketball. During phase 1, we employed discrete-trial training to establish proficiency with nine fundamental basketball skills (i...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Christian Ryan, Philip Furley, Kathleen Mulhall
Typically developing children are able to judge who is winning or losing from very short clips of video footage of behaviour between active match play across a number of sports. Inferences from "thin slices" (short video clips) allow participants to make complex judgments about the meaning of posture, gesture and body language. This study extends the use of the thin slice research paradigm to children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested 38 children with ASD, in two age groups: 15 participants aged 5-8 years and 23 participants aged 9-13 years...
September 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Karen Caeyenberghs, Tom Taymans, Peter H Wilson, Guy Vanderstraeten, Hadi Hosseini, Hilde van Waelvelde
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit motor clumsiness (Developmental Coordination Disorder, DCD), i.e. they struggle with everyday tasks that require motor coordination like dressing, self-care, and participating in sport and leisure activities. Previous studies in these neurodevelopmental disorders have demonstrated functional abnormalities and alterations of white matter microstructural integrity in specific brain regions. These findings suggest that the global organization of brain networks is affected in DCD and ASD and support the hypothesis of a 'dys-connectivity syndrome' from a network perspective...
July 2016: Developmental Science
Forouzan Rafie, Abdollah Ghasemi, Azadeh Zamani Jam, Shahin Jalali
BACKGROUND: Motor skill impairment has been reported in many studies of autistic adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of selected physical exercise on Perceptual- motor skills in adolescents with autism. METHODS: Twenty adolescents with autism that were under special education in Tehran based on their Childhood Autism Rating Scale scores (CARS) and level of abilities were selected. Measurement tool was Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP)...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Edoardo G F Rosso
While physical activity (PA) is often overwhelming for people with ASD, appropriate engagement strategies can result in increased motivation to participate and associated physical and psychosocial benefits. In this framework, the multi-sport Supporting Success program aims to inform good-practice coaching strategies for community coaches to engage with adolescents with ASD in order to foster socialisation. The project employs a community development approach and a Participatory Action Research (PAR) design...
July 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Stephanie M McCoy, John M Jakicic, Bethany Barone Gibbs
Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were more likely to be overweight and obese, and less likely to engage in regular PA versus typically developing adolescents (p's < 0.05). Increased odds for overweight and obesity were attenuated after adjustment for PA...
July 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Elizabeth B Torres, Robert W Isenhower, Jillian Nguyen, Caroline Whyatt, John I Nurnberger, Jorge V Jose, Steven M Silverstein, Thomas V Papathomas, Jacob Sage, Jonathan Cole
There is a critical need for new analytics to personalize behavioral data analysis across different fields, including kinesiology, sports science, and behavioral neuroscience. Specifically, to better translate and integrate basic research into patient care, we need to radically transform the methods by which we describe and interpret movement data. Here, we show that hidden in the "noise," smoothed out by averaging movement kinematics data, lies a wealth of information that selectively differentiates neurological and mental disorders such as Parkinson's disease, deafferentation, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia from typically developing and typically aging controls...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Alireza Salehi, Neda Hashemi, Mohammad Hadi Imanieh, Mahboobeh Saber
Chiropractic is a complementary medicine that has been growing increasingly in different countries over recent decades. It addresses the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the neuromusculoskeletal system disorders and their effects on the whole body health. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of chiropractic in the treatment of different diseases. To gather data, scientific electronic databases, such as Cochrane, Medline, Google Scholar, and Scirus were searched and all systematic reviews in the field of chiropractic were obtained...
October 2015: International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery
Maciej Mularczyk, Angelika Ziętek-Czeszak, Zbigniew Ziętek
INTRODUCTION: Studies on many populations have shown that the length of the second finger (2D) compared to the fourth (4D), expressed as the finger length ratio (2D:4D), might be characteristic for sexual dimorphism. It was also found that the values of 2D:4D differ significantly between examined populations. It is thought that the value of 2D:4D is determined in early foetal life under the influence of genetic factors and the strong influence of sex hormones. It has been proven that the values of 2D:4D are related to, for instance, sexual orientation, and artistic and sporting ability...
2014: Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis
Wenche Langfjord Mangerud, Ottar Bjerkeset, Stian Lydersen, Marit Sæbø Indredavik
BACKGROUND: Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. METHODS: A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13-18 years who participated in the CAP survey, Norway, were compared to 8173 adolescents aged 13-19 years who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Young-HUNT 3, Norway...
2014: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
James A Blackman, Mark R Conaway
Data from the 2009-2010 US National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs were examined to determine the health, developmental and behavioral status of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to assess how well pediatric health care providers were preparing them for transition to adult health care services. Adolescents with CP had no higher rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, anxiety, oppositional or conduct disorders, or autism spectrum than a comparison group. However, those with CP participated less in sports, clubs, or other organized activities (P < ...
April 2014: Clinical Pediatrics
Joseph D T Ndika, Vera Lusink, Claudine Beaubrun, Warsha Kanhai, Cristina Martinez-Munoz, Cornelis Jakobs, Gajja S Salomons
Interconversion between phosphocreatine and creatine, catalyzed by creatine kinase is crucial in the supply of ATP to tissues with high energy demand. Creatine's importance has been established by its use as an ergogenic aid in sport, as well as the development of intellectual disability in patients with congenital creatine deficiency. Creatine biosynthesis is complemented by dietary creatine uptake. Intracellular transport of creatine is carried out by a creatine transporter protein (CT1/CRT/CRTR) encoded by the SLC6A8 gene...
January 10, 2014: Gene
Margo B Holm, Joanne M Baird, Young Joo Kim, Kuwar B Rajora, Delma D'Silva, Lin Podolinsky, Carla Mazefsky, Nancy Minshew
We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70% of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63% of the behaviors during Withdrawal...
April 2014: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Catherine A Miltenberger, Marjorie H Charlop
A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in sessions designed facilitate their acquisition of the athletic skills required by the targeted games. During Phase II, rules training, the children were instructed on the rules of the targeted games...
January 2014: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Yeshayahu Hutzler, Mali Oz, Sharon Barak
Based on social-learning and self-determination motivational theories, the purpose of this study was to determine the sources of motivation in youth and young adults with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO) competitions and those of typically developed (TD) age- and activity-matched athletes. A convenience sample of 63 SO (25 females and 38 males) and 59 TD (16 females and 43 males) athletes was retrieved through communication with local club coaches. Three sub-groups of SO athletes were identified based on disability, including non specified intellectual disability (NSID=39), Down syndrome (DS=17), and Autism (Aut=7)...
July 2013: Research in Developmental Disabilities
L Centelles, C Assaiante, K Etchegoyhen, M Bouvard, C Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in social interaction and verbal and non verbal reciprocal communication. Face and gaze direction, which participate in non verbal communication, are described as atypical in ASD. Also body movements carry multiple social cues. Under certain circumstances, for instance when seeing two persons from far, they constitute the only support that allows the grasping of a social content. Here, we investigated the contribution of whole-body motion processing in social understanding...
June 2012: L'Encéphale
Hélène Cottenceau, Sylvie Roux, Romuald Blanc, Pascal Lenoir, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Catherine Barthélémy
Relationships are of great importance during adolescence. Because of their social, communication and behavioral impairments, adolescents with Asperger's syndrome (AS) or high functioning autism (HFA) probably suffer from considerable impairment of their quality of life when facing their peers in school. Nevertheless, only one recent study has been published on this subject, indicating a lower health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than in healthy controls...
May 2012: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
E Lemonnier
The term "dyspraxia" was coined by Julian de Ajuriaguerra and Mira Stambak in 1964. This clinical term was treated very differently according to which explanatory model was adopted. Nowadays, it is used to refer to developmental coordination disorder in view of its neuro-developmental origin. In any case, the actual clinical situations vary and are often complex. In our opinion, it is first necessary to examine the differential diagnosis: apraxia in children caused by lesions, dysgraphia, simply delayed motor development, non-verbal learning disability syndrome, hemispheric specialisation deficits, pervasive developmental disorders (autisms, Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and other pervasive developmental disorders), mixed specific developmental disorders, multiple developmental disorder, and children with high potential...
August 2010: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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