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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340876/biomaterials-and-regenerative-medicine-in-urology
#1
N F Davis, E M Cunnane, M R Quinlan, J J Mulvihill, N Lawrentschuk, D M Bolton, M T Walsh
Autologous gastrointestinal tissue is the gold standard biomaterial for urinary tract reconstruction despite its long-term neuromechanical and metabolic complications. Regenerative biomaterials have been proposed as alternatives; however many are limited by a poor host derived regenerative response and deficient supportive elements for effective tissue regeneration in vivo. Urological biomaterials are sub-classified into xenogenic extracellular matrices (ECMs) or synthetic polymers. ECMs are decellularised, biocompatible, biodegradable biomaterials derived from animal organs...
January 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340096/crispr-cas9-mediated-reversibly-immortalized-mouse-bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells-bmscs-retain-multipotent-features-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs
#2
Xue Hu, Li Li, Xinyi Yu, Ruyi Zhang, Shujuan Yan, Zongyue Zeng, Yi Shu, Chen Zhao, Xingye Wu, Jiayan Lei, Yasha Li, Wenwen Zhang, Chao Yang, Ke Wu, Ying Wu, Liping An, Shifeng Huang, Xiaojuan Ji, Cheng Gong, Chengfu Yuan, Linghuan Zhang, Wei Liu, Bo Huang, Yixiao Feng, Bo Zhang, Rex C Haydon, Hue H Luu, Russell R Reid, Michael J Lee, Jennifer Moriatis Wolf, Zebo Yu, Tong-Chuan He
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells that can undergo self-renewal and differentiate into multi-lineages. Bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) represent one of the most commonly-used MSCs. In order to overcome the technical challenge of maintaining primary BMSCs in long-term culture, here we seek to establish reversibly immortalized mouse BMSCs (imBMSCs). By exploiting CRISPR/Cas9-based homology-directed-repair (HDR) mechanism, we target SV40T to mouse Rosa26 locus and efficiently immortalize mouse BMSCs (i...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340040/identifying-the-dynamics-of-actin-and-tubulin-polymerization-in-ipscs-and-in-ipsc-derived-neurons
#3
Valentina Magliocca, Stefania Petrini, Tiziana Franchin, Rossella Borghi, Alessia Niceforo, Zeinab Abbaszadeh, Enrico Bertini, Claudia Compagnucci
The development of the nervous system requires cytoskeleton-mediated processes coordinating self-renewal, migration, and differentiation of neurons. It is not surprising that many neurodevelopmental problems and neurodegenerative disorders are caused by deficiencies in cytoskeleton-related genes. For this reason, we focus on the cytoskeletal dynamics in proliferating iPSCs and in iPSC-derived neurons to better characterize the underpinnings of cytoskeletal organization looking at actin and tubulin repolymerization studies using the cell permeable probes SiR-Actin and SiR-Tubulin...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337181/a-non-canonical-bcor-prc1-1-complex-represses-differentiation-programs-in-human-escs
#4
Zheng Wang, Micah D Gearhart, Yu-Wei Lee, Ishan Kumar, Bulat Ramazanov, Yan Zhang, Charles Hernandez, Alice Y Lu, Nils Neuenkirchen, Jingjing Deng, Jiaqi Jin, Yuval Kluger, Thomas A Neubert, Vivian J Bardwell, Natalia B Ivanova
Polycomb group proteins regulate self-renewal and differentiation in many stem cell systems. When assembled into two canonical complexes, PRC1 and PRC2, they sequentially deposit H3K27me3 and H2AK119ub histone marks and establish repressive chromatin, referred to as Polycomb domains. Non-canonical PRC1 complexes retain RING1/RNF2 E3-ubiquitin ligases but have unique sets of accessory subunits. How these non-canonical complexes recognize and regulate their gene targets remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the BCL6 co-repressor (BCOR), a member of the PRC1...
January 8, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336465/breast-cancer-stem-like-cells-are-sensitized-to-tamoxifen-induction-of-self-renewal-inhibition-with-enforced-let-7c-dependent-on-wnt-blocking
#5
Xin Sun, Chongwen Xu, Guodong Xiao, Jinying Meng, Jichang Wang, Shou-Ching Tang, Sida Qin, Ning Du, Gang Li, Hong Ren, Dapeng Liu
Let-7 microRNAs have been reported to have tumor suppressive functions; however, the effect of Let-7 when used in combination with chemotherapies is uncertain, but may have potential for use in clinical practice. In this study, we used RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry analysis, immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, luciferase assays, cell sorting analysis and xenografted tumor model to explore the role of Let-7 in the chemotherapy sensitivity of breast cancer stem cells...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335608/n6-methyladenosine-rna-modification-regulates-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-self-renewal-through-histone-modifications
#6
Yang Wang, Yue Li, Minghui Yue, Jun Wang, Sandeep Kumar, Robert J Wechsler-Reya, Zhaolei Zhang, Yuya Ogawa, Manolis Kellis, Gregg Duester, Jing Crystal Zhao
Internal N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is widespread in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and is catalyzed by heterodimers of methyltransferase-like protein 3 (Mettl3) and Mettl14. To understand the role of m6A in development, we deleted Mettl14 in embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) in a mouse model. Phenotypically, NSCs lacking Mettl14 displayed markedly decreased proliferation and premature differentiation, suggesting that m6A modification enhances NSC self-renewal. Decreases in the NSC pool led to a decreased number of late-born neurons during cortical neurogenesis...
January 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335529/transient-scute-activation-via-a-self-stimulatory-loop-directs-enteroendocrine-cell-pair-specification-from-self-renewing-intestinal-stem-cells
#7
Jun Chen, Na Xu, Chenhui Wang, Pin Huang, Huanwei Huang, Zhen Jin, Zhongsheng Yu, Tao Cai, Renjie Jiao, Rongwen Xi
The process through which multiple types of cell-lineage-restricted progenitor cells are specified from multipotent stem cells is unclear. Here we show that, in intestinal stem cell lineages in adult Drosophila, in which the Delta-Notch-signalling-guided progenitor cell differentiation into enterocytes is the default mode, the specification of enteroendocrine cells (EEs) is initiated by transient Scute activation in a process driven by transcriptional self-stimulation combined with a negative feedback regulation between Scute and Notch targets...
January 15, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335071/adequate-concentration-of-b-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-3-bcl3-is-required-for-pluripotency-and-self-renewal-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-via-downregulation-of-nanog-transcription
#8
Songhwa Kang, Jisoo Yun, Da Yeon Kim, Seok Yun Jung, Yeon Ju Kim, Ji Hye Park, Seung Taek Ji, Woong Bi Jang, Joungsung Ha, Jae Ho Kim, Sang Hong Baek, Sang-Mo Kwon
B cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) plays a pivotal role in immune homeostasis, cellular proliferation, and cell survival, as a co-activator or co-repressor of transcription of the NF-κB family. Recently, it was reported that Bcl3 positively regulates pluripotency genes, including Oct4, in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). However, the role of Bcl3 in the maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal activity is not fully established. Here, we report the dynamic regulation of the proliferation, pluripotency, and self-renewal of mESCs by Bcl3 via an influence on Nanog transcriptional activity...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334988/epidermal-wnt-signalling-regulates-transcriptome-heterogeneity-and-proliferative-fate-in-neighbouring-cells
#9
Arsham Ghahramani, Giacomo Donati, Nicholas M Luscombe, Fiona M Watt
BACKGROUND: Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling regulates self-renewal and lineage selection within the mammalian epidermis. Although the transcriptional response of keratinocytes that receive a Wnt signal is well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which keratinocytes in proximity to the Wnt-receiving cell are co-opted to undergo a change in cell fate. RESULTS: To address this, we perform single-cell RNA-sequencing on mouse keratinocytes co-cultured with and without beta-catenin-activated neighbouring cells...
January 15, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333091/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-mirna-19b-20a-92a-on-gastric-cancer-stem-cells-and-the-related-mechanism
#10
Qianwen Shao, Jing Xu, Xin Guan, Bing Zhou, Wei Wei, Rong Deng, Dongzhen Li, Xinyu Xu, Haitao Zhu
We aimed to analyze the in vitro and in vivo effects of miRNA-19b/20a/92a on gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) and the related mechanism. GCSCs were cultured until adherence and differentiation, and subjected to miRNA microarray analysis to find and to verify miRNA deletion. Cells stably expressing lentivirus carrying miRNA-19b/20a/92a were constructed by transfection. The relationship between miRNA-19b/20a/92a and renewal of GCSCs was studied by the tumor sphere assay, and that between miRNA-19b/20a/92a and their proliferation was explored with MTT and colony formation assays...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331736/dysfunctional-telomeres-and-hematological-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Elena Fiorini, Andrea Santoni, Simona Colla
Telomere biology disorders, which are characterized by telomerase activity haploinsufficiency and accelerated telomere shortening, most commonly manifest as degenerative diseases. Tissues with high rates of cell turnover, such as those in the hematopoietic system, are particularly vulnerable to defects in telomere maintenance genes that eventually culminate in bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes, in which the BM cannot produce sufficient new blood cells. Here, we review how telomere defects induce degenerative phenotypes across multiple organs, with particular focus on how they impact the hematopoietic stem and progenitor compartment and affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation...
January 4, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330298/stemness-is-enhanced-in-gastric-cancer-by-a-set-pp2a-e2f1-axis
#12
Shuhei Enjoji, Ryotaro Yabe, Shunya Tsuji, Kazuhiro Yoshimura, Hideyoshi Kawasaki, Masashi Sakurai, Yusuke Sakai, Hiroko Takenouchi, Shigefumi Yoshino, Shoichi Hazama, Hiroaki Nagano, Hiroko Oshima, Masanobu Oshima, Michael P Vitek, Tetsuya Matsuura, Yoshitaka Hippo, Tatsuya Usui, Takashi Ohama, Koichi Sato
Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chemotherapies against gastric cancer often fail, with cancer recurrence due potentially to the persistence of cancer stem cells. This unique subpopulation of cells in tumors possess the ability to self-renew and de-differentiate. These cancer stem cells are critical for initiation, maintenance, metastasis, and relapse of cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms supporting cancer stemness remain largely unknown...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327674/insoluble-microenvironment-facilitating-the-generation-and-maintenance-of-pluripotency
#13
Xiaofang Chen, Jiaqi Li, Yan Huang, Peng Liu, Yubo Fan
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold enormous potential as a tool to generate cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since the initial report of iPSCs in 2006, many different methods have been developed in order to enhance the safety and efficiency of this technology. Recent studies indicate that the extracellular signals can promote the production of iPSCs, and even replace the Yamanaka factors. Noticeably, abundant evidences suggest that the insoluble microenvironment, including the culture substrate and neighboring cells, directly regulates the expression of core pluripotency genes and the epigenetic modification of the chromatins, hence impact the reprogramming dynamics...
January 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#14
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326381/b1a-b-cells-require-autophagy-for-metabolic-homeostasis-and-self-renewal
#15
Alexander J Clarke, Thomas Riffelmacher, Daniel Braas, Richard J Cornall, Anna Katharina Simon
Specific metabolic programs are activated by immune cells to fulfill their functional roles, which include adaptations to their microenvironment. B1 B cells are tissue-resident, innate-like B cells. They have many distinct properties, such as the capacity to self-renew and the ability to rapidly respond to a limited repertoire of epitopes. The metabolic pathways that support these functions are unknown. We show that B1 B cells are bioenergetically more active than B2 B cells, with higher rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and depend on glycolysis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325444/redox-paradox-a-novel-approach-to-therapeutics-resistant-cancer
#16
Luksana Chaiswing, William H St Clair, Daret K St Clair
Cancer cells that are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy are a major problem limiting the success of cancer therapy. Aggressive cancer cells depend on elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to proliferate, self-renew, and metastasize. As a result, these aggressive cancers maintain high basal levels of ROS compared to normal cells. The prominence of the redox state in cancer cells led us to consider whether increasing the redox state to the condition of oxidative stress could be used as a successful adjuvant therapy for aggressive cancers...
January 12, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324934/stem-cells-therapy-the-future-in-the-management-of-systemic-sclerosis-a-case-report
#17
Jung In Song, Silvanie Volz, Maria Eirini Liodaki, Peter Mailänder, Konstantinos Kalousis
OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder of unknown etiology, with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and chronic and often progressive course. The diffuse cutaneous form of SSc (dcSSc) is characterized by thickening of the skin (scleroderma) and distinctive involvement of multiple internal organs. Patients with limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) generally have long-standing Raynaud's phenomenon before other manifestations of SSc appear. Over the last decade the Interest of adipose-derived cell therapy in regenerative medicine has increased continuously...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323720/tfcp2l1-safeguards-the-maintenance-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#18
Hongwei Sun, Yu You, Mengmeng Guo, Xiaohu Wang, Yan Zhang, Shoudong Ye
Tfcp2l1 is a transcription factor critical for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) maintenance. However, its role in human ESCs (hESCs) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the functions of Tfcp2l1 in controlling hESC activity and showed that Tfcp2l1 is functionally important in the maintenance of hESC identity. Tfcp2l1 expression is highly enriched in hESCs and dramatically decreases upon differentiation. Forced expression of Tfcp2l1 promoted hESC self-renewal. Functional analysis of the mutant forms of Tfcp2l1 revealed that both the CP2- and SAM-like domains are indispensable for Tfcp2l1 to maintain the undifferentiated state of hESCs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323290/clonal-analysis-of-lineage-fate-in-native-haematopoiesis
#19
Alejo E Rodriguez-Fraticelli, Samuel L Wolock, Caleb S Weinreb, Riccardo Panero, Sachin H Patel, Maja Jankovic, Jianlong Sun, Raffaele A Calogero, Allon M Klein, Fernando D Camargo
Haematopoiesis, the process of mature blood and immune cell production, is functionally organized as a hierarchy, with self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitor cells sitting at the very top. Multiple models have been proposed as to what the earliest lineage choices are in these primitive haematopoietic compartments, the cellular intermediates, and the resulting lineage trees that emerge from them. Given that the bulk of studies addressing lineage outcomes have been performed in the context of haematopoietic transplantation, current models of lineage branching are more likely to represent roadmaps of lineage potential than native fate...
January 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323140/loss-of-a20-in-bm-mscs-regulates-the-th17-treg-balance-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
Zhuan Feng, Yue Zhai, Zhaohui Zheng, Lijie Yang, Xing Luo, Xiwen Dong, Qing Han, Jin Jin, Zhi-Nan Chen, Ping Zhu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent cells that are self-renewable and possess the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages. Several studies demonstrated that MSCs could regulate a Th17/Treg balance and could be a potential therapeutic target for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). A20 is highly expressed in many cell types after the stimulation of TNF-α, where it may inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. However, the expression of A20 in BM-MSCs in RA is not fully understood. In our study, we found that A20 was decreased in RA patients' bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs), and with more IL-6 secretion, the balance of Th17/Treg was broken...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
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