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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938627/prostate-tumor-overexpressed-1-ptov1-promotes-docetaxel-resistance-and-survival-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells
#1
Verónica Cánovas, Yolanda Puñal, Valentina Maggio, Enric Redondo, Mercedes Marín, Begoña Mellado, Mireia Olivan, Matilde Lleonart, Jacques Planas, Juan Morote, Rosanna Paciucci
Metastatic prostate cancer is presently incurable. The oncogenic protein PTOV1, first described in prostate cancer, was reported as overexpressed and significantly correlated with poor survival in numerous tumors. Here, we investigated the role of PTOV1 in prostate cancer survival to docetaxel and self-renewal ability. Transduction of PTOV1 in docetaxel-sensitive Du145 and PC3 cells significantly increased cell survival after docetaxel exposure and induced docetaxel-resistance genes expression (ABCB1, CCNG2 and TUBB2B)...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938607/hgfl-mediated-ron-signaling-supports-breast-cancer-stem-cell-phenotypes-via-activation-of-non-canonical-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#2
Sasha J Ruiz-Torres, Nancy M Benight, Rebekah A Karns, Elyse E Lower, Jun-Lin Guan, Susan E Waltz
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which drive tumor progression, recurrence, and metastasis, are considered a major challenge for breast cancer treatments, thus the discovery of novel pathways regulating BCSC maintenance remains essential to develop new strategies to effectively target this population and combat disease mortality. The HGFL-RON signaling is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is associated with increased breast cancer progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Here, we report that overexpression of RON/MST1R and HGFL/MST1 in cell lines and primary tumors increases BCSC self-renewal, numbers, and tumorigenic potential after syngeneic transplantation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937680/salinomycin-kills-cancer-stem-cells-by-sequestering-iron-in-lysosomes
#3
Trang Thi Mai, Ahmed Hamaï, Antje Hienzsch, Tatiana Cañeque, Sebastian Müller, Julien Wicinski, Olivier Cabaud, Christine Leroy, Amandine David, Verónica Acevedo, Akihide Ryo, Christophe Ginestier, Daniel Birnbaum, Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret, Patrice Codogno, Maryam Mehrpour, Raphaël Rodriguez
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subset of cells within tumours that exhibit self-renewal properties and the capacity to seed tumours. CSCs are typically refractory to conventional treatments and have been associated to metastasis and relapse. Salinomycin operates as a selective agent against CSCs through mechanisms that remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that a synthetic derivative of salinomycin, which we named ironomycin (AM5), exhibits a more potent and selective activity against breast CSCs in vitro and in vivo, by accumulating and sequestering iron in lysosomes...
October 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936466/mouse-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-isolation-and-culture
#4
Xiao Liu, Luosheng Tang, Yongqing Liu
Müller cells are the major supportive and protective glial cells across the retina. Unlike in fish, they have lost the capacity to regenerate the retina in mammals. But, mammalian Müller cells still retain certain retinal stem cell properties with various degree of self-renewal and differentiation potentials, and thereby held a merit in cell-based therapies for treating retinal degeneration diseases. In our laboratory, we use an enzymatic procedure to isolate, purify, and culture mouse Müller cells.
August 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935704/the-splicing-co-factor-barricade-tat-sf1-is-required-for-cell-cycle-and-lineage-progression-in-drosophila-neural-stem-cells
#5
Monika K Abramczuk, Thomas R Burkard, Vivien Rolland, Victoria Steinmann, Peter Duchek, Yanrui Jiang, Sebastian Wissel, Heinrich Reichert, Juergen A Knoblich
Stem cells need to balance self-renewal and differentiation for correct tissue development and homeostasis. Defects in this balance can lead to developmental defects or tumor formation. In recent years, mRNA splicing has emerged as one important mechanism regulating cell fate decisions. Here we address the role of the evolutionary conserved splicing co-factor Barricade (Barc)/Tat-SF1/CUS2 in Drosophila neural stem cell (neuroblast) lineage formation. We show that Barc is required for the generation of neurons during Drosophila brain development by ensuring correct neural progenitor proliferation and differentiation...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935668/chemical-reprogramming-of-mouse-embryonic-and-adult-fibroblast-into-endoderm-lineage
#6
Shangtao Cao, Shengyong Yu, Yan Chen, Xiaoshang Wang, Chunhua Zhou, Yuting Liu, Junqi Kuang, He Liu, Dongwei Li, Jing Ye, Yue Qing, Shilong Chu, Linlin Wu, Lin Guo, Yinxiong Li, Xiaodong Shu, Jiekai Chen, Jing Liu, Duanqing Pei
We report here an approach to redirect somatic cell fate under chemically defined conditions without transcription factors. We start by converting mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to epithelial-like cells (ciELC) with chemicals and growth factors. Subsequent cell fate mapping reveals a robust induction of SOX17 in the resulting ELCs that can be further reprogrammed to endodermal progenitor cells (ciEPC). Interestingly, these cells can self-renew in vitro and further differentiate into albumin-producing hepatocytes that can rescue mice from acute live injury...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935568/genetically-engineered-oncolytic-newcastle-disease-virus-mediates-cytolysis-of-prostate-cancer-stem-like-cells
#7
Raghunath Shobana, Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam, Adria Allen, Moanaro Biswas, Nammalwar Sriranganathan
Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising novel approach that overcomes the limitations posed by radiation and chemotherapy. In this study, the oncolytic efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) BC-KLQL-GFP, against prostate cancer stem-like/tumor initiating cells was evaluated. Xenograft derived prostaspheres (XPS) induced tumor more efficiently than monolayer cell derived prostaspheres (MCPS) in nude mice. Primary and secondary XPS show enhanced self-renewal and clonogenic potential compared to MCPS...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935149/molecular-aspects-of-cancer-chemopreventive-and-therapeutic-efficacies-of-tea-and-tea-polyphenols
#8
REVIEW
Subhayan Sur, Chinmay Kumar Panda
The natural dietary product tea (Camellia sinensis) and its bioactive polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and theaflavin (TF) demonstrated potential anticancer effects in different preclinical and clinical studies. The aim of the present review was to understand the molecular mechanisms of the tea and tea polyphenol-mediated cancer prevention and therapy. In the setting of in vivo cancer prevention studies, administration of the tea and tea polyphenols at preinitiation stages only showed partial prevention, whereas continuous administration showed potential effect in restriction of carcinogenesis in the body's multiple organs at early premalignant stages throughout the experiment...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934885/from-bench-to-bedside-current-advancement-on-large-scale-production-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Varitsara Bunpetch, Haoyu Wu, Shufang Zhang, Hong Wei Ouyang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the primary cell source in cell therapy and regenerative medicine due to its extraordinary self-renewing capacity and multilineage differentiation potential. Clinical trials involving MSCs are being conducted in a range of human diseases and the number of registered cases is continuously increasing. However, a wide gap exists between the number of MSCs obtainable from the donor site and the number required for implantation to damage tissues, and also between MSC scalability and MSC phenotype stability...
September 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933777/generation-and-use-of-a-humanized-bone-marrow-ossicle-niche-for-hematopoietic-xenotransplantation-into-mice
#10
Andreas Reinisch, David Cruz Hernandez, Katharina Schallmoser, Ravindra Majeti
Xenotransplantation is frequently used to study normal and malignant hematopoiesis of human cells. However, conventional mouse xenotransplantation models lack essential human-specific bone-marrow (BM)-microenvironment-derived survival, proliferation, and self-renewal signals for engraftment of normal and malignant blood cells. As a consequence, many human leukemias and other hematologic disorders do not robustly engraft in these conventional models. Here, we describe a complete workflow for the generation of humanized ossicles with an accessible BM microenvironment that faithfully recapitulates normal BM niche morphology and function...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932245/electromagnetic-fields-for-the-regulation-of-neural-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Mengchu Cui, Hongfei Ge, Hengli Zhao, Yongjie Zou, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Localized magnetic fields (MFs) could easily penetrate the scalp, skull, and meninges, thus inducing an electrical current in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is primarily used in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for inducing specific effects on different regions or cells that play roles in various brain activities. Studies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have led to novel attractive therapeutic approaches. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in adult human brain are able to self-renew and possess multidifferential ability to maintain homeostasis and repair damage after acute central nervous system...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931748/participation-of-bmi-1-protein-in-cancer
#12
Agnieszka Zaczek, Paweł Jóźwiak, Anna Krześlak
BMI-1 (B-lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1) protein is a constituent of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) that via ubiquitination of histone H2A affects expression of many genes. BMI-1 is involved in cellular processes such as DNA repair, proliferation, growth, senescence and apoptosis. BMI-1 plays a key role in biology of stem cells including cancer stem cells by regulation of their self-renewal and differentiation. Accumulating evidence has revealed that overexpression of BMI-1 in many human cancers correlates with disease progression and therapy failure...
September 20, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931212/temozolomide-resistant-human-brain-tumor-stem-cells-are-susceptible-to-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-and-double-deleted-vaccinia-virus-in-vitro
#13
Bin Jiang, Xueqing Lun, Xiaoguang Hao, Yihua Wang, Xin Yin, Dezhang Huang, Wei He, Zhigang Wang
BACKGROUND: Malignant glioma still has a poor prognosis and remains incurable. Although temozolomide (TMZ) has demonstrated antitumor activity, its use recently has been halted because of some patients' resistance to this drug. New treatments are desperately needed. An oncolytic virus (virotherapy) is being developed as a novel cancer therapy. We have previously reported that recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV-ΔM51) and double deleted Vaccinia Virus (vvDD) infected and killed glioma cell lines in vitro and prolonged survival in animal glioma models...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930561/immune-ligands-for-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-ctls-in-cancer-stem-cells-cscs
#14
Ioannis A Voutsadakis
   The immune system has come to the forefront of cancer therapeutics in recent years with the success of immune blockade inhibitors in a variety of cancers whose list is increasing with a quick pace. Despite the efficacy of these drugs across a significant part of the cancer spectrum, responses are still seen only in a minority of patients, that implies that most patients are refractory or promptly develop resistance to these agents. Mechanisms of this resistance are important to decipher as this knowledge may lead to the introduction of additional therapies or manipulations to modulate resistance...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928476/bisphenol-a-affects-on-the-functional-properties-and-proteome-of-testicular-germ-cells-and-spermatogonial-stem-cells-in-vitro-culture-model
#15
Polash Chandra Karmakar, Hyun-Gu Kang, Yong-Hee Kim, Sang-Eun Jung, Md Saidur Rahman, Hee-Seok Lee, Young-Hyun Kim, Myung-Geol Pang, Buom-Yong Ryu
The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is well known for its adverse effect on male fertility. Growing evidence suggests that BPA may interact with testicular germ cells and cause infertility as a result of its estrogenic activity. Objective of current in vitro study was to investigate the proliferation, survivability and stemness properties of mouse testicular germ cells exposed to BPA, and to evaluate possible expression of cellular proteome. Our results showed that germ cell viability and proliferation were not affected by low concentrations (0...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928281/engrailed-acts-with-nejire-to-control-decapentaplegic-expression-in-the-drosophila-ovarian-stem-cell-niche
#16
Lichao Luo, Chia Keng Siah, Yu Cai
Homeostasis of adult tissues is maintained by a small number of stem cells, which are sustained by their niches. In the Drosophila female germline stem cell (GSC) niche, Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is the primary factor that promotes GSC self-renewal. However, the mechanism regulating dpp expression in the niche is largely unknown. Here, we identify a 2.0 kb fragment located in a 5' cis-regulatory region of the dpp locus containing enhancer activity that drives its expression in the niche. This region is distinct from a previously characterized 3' cis-regulatory enhancer responsible for dpp expression in imaginal discs...
September 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927110/characteristics-of-primary-side-population-cervical-cancer-cells
#17
Zhen-Tong Wei, Xiao-Wei Yu, Jia-Xue He, Yan Liu, Song-Ling Zhang
The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize side population (SP) cells in primary cervical cancer. A primary culture was successfully established, and the SP cells were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Subsequently, in vitro analysis of clonogenic capacity by soft agar assay and in vivo analysis of tumorigenicity were performed. The isolated SP cells accounted for ~4.73% of the total primary culture cells. The SP cells had a decreased proliferation rate and an increased distribution in G0/G1 compared with non-SP (NSP) cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927075/tumor-initiating-cells-contribute-to-radiation-resistance-in-primary-human-renal-clear-cell-carcinomas-by-activating-the-dna-damage-checkpoint-response
#18
Bo Li, Yong-Ju Gao, Xin-Yu Wu, Jing Cui, Ye Long, Jun-Ling Xu, De-Gang Ding
The use of radiotherapy in patients with clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is predominantly limited to palliation of metastases or control of local growth, because ccRCC cells readily develop radioresistance. The mechanisms underlying ccRCC resistance remain elusive. The present study demonstrated that ccRCC cells that survive fractionated radiation treatment display tumor-initiating cell (TIC) characteristics, such as high self-renewal and tumorigenic capacities, and overexpress stemness genes. ccRCC cells that survived fractionated radiation exhibited increased activation of the DNA damage checkpoint response and G2/M phase arrest compared with sham-irradiated cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925404/ing5-activity-in-self-renewal-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-via-calcium-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone-pathways
#19
F Wang, A Y Wang, C Chesnelong, Y Yang, A Nabbi, S Thalappilly, V Alekseev, K Riabowol
Stem cell-like brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) cause recurrence of glioblastomas, with BTIC 'stemness' affected by epigenetic mechanisms. The ING family of epigenetic regulators (ING1-5) function by targeting histone acetyltransferase (HAT) or histone deacetylase complexes to the H3K4me3 mark to alter histone acetylation and subsequently, gene expression. Here we find that ectopic expression of ING5, the targeting subunit of HBO1, MOZ and MORF HAT complexes increases expression of the Oct4, Olig2 and Nestin stem cell markers, promotes self-renewal, prevents lineage differentiation and increases stem cell pools in BTIC populations...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920078/notch1-activation-depletes-the-pool-of-side-population-stem-cells-in-atl
#20
Xue Tao Bai, Chien-Hung Yeh, Christophe Nicot
BACKGROUND: HTLV-I infection is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a malignancy characterized by a high rate of disease relapse and poor survival. Previous studies reported the existence of side population (SP) cells in HTLV-I Tax transgenic mouse models. These studies showed that these ATL-like derived SP cells have both self-renewal and leukemia renewal capacity and represent Cancer Stem Cells (CSC)/Leukemia-Initiating Cells (LIC). Since CSC/LIC are resistant to conventional therapies, a better characterization is needed...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Sciences
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