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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528696/reprogramming-of-dermal-fibroblasts-into-osteo-chondrogenic-cells-with-elevated-osteogenic-potency-by-defined-transcription-factors
#1
Yinxiang Wang, Ming-Hoi Wu, May Pui Lai Cheung, Mai Har Sham, Haruhiko Akiyama, Danny Chan, Kathryn S E Cheah, Martin Cheung
Recent studies using defined transcription factors to convert skin fibroblasts into chondrocytes have raised the question of whether osteo-chondroprogenitors expressing SOX9 and RUNX2 could also be generated during the course of the reprogramming process. Here, we demonstrated that doxycycline-inducible expression of reprogramming factors (KLF4 [K] and c-MYC [M]) for 6 days were sufficient to convert murine fibroblasts into SOX9(+)/RUNX2(+) cellular aggregates and together with SOX9 (S) promoted the conversion efficiency when cultured in a defined stem cell medium, mTeSR...
May 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527696/essential-roles-of-g9a-in-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-tooth-development
#2
Taichi Kamiunten, Hisashi Ideno, Akemi Shimada, Yoshinori Arai, Tatsuo Terashima, Yasuhiro Tomooka, Yoshiki Nakamura, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Hiroshi Kimura, Yoichi Shinkai, Makoto Tachibana, Akira Nifuji
Teeth develop through interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues mediated by a signaling network comprised of growth factors and transcription factors However, little is known about how epigenetic modifiers affect signaling pathways and thereby regulate tooth formation. We previously reported that the histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase (MTase) G9a is specifically enriched in the tooth mesenchyme during mouse development. In this study, we investigated the functions of G9a in tooth development using G9a conditional knockout (KO) mice...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518000/comparison-of-simulated-microgravity-and-hydrostatic-pressure-for-chondrogenesis-of-hasc
#3
Liliana F Mellor, Andrew J Steward, Rachel C Nordberg, Michael A Taylor, Elizabeth G Loboa
BACKGROUND: Cartilage tissue engineering is a growing field due to the lack of regenerative capacity of native tissue. The use of bioreactors for cartilage tissue engineering is common, but the results are controversial. Some studies suggest that microgravity bioreactors are ideal for chondrogenesis, while others show that mimicking hydrostatic pressure is crucial for cartilage formation. A parallel study comparing the effects of loading and unloading on chondrogenesis has not been performed...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515008/localization-and-distribution-of-gonadal-proteins-in-the-oviparous-lizard-sceloporus-aeneus-squamata-phrynosomatidae
#4
Antonio-Rubio Nivia Rocio, Villagrán-SantaCruz Maricela, Moreno-Mendoza Norma
Among vertebrates, several specific proteins are involved in the function and development of gonads. Several genes such as SOX9, FOXL2, DDX4, IFITM3, and DPPA3, are active during embryonic differentiation and maintain their expression in adult tissues, playing important roles in the function and development of the line cell, where these are produced. Among reptiles, molecular mechanisms for sex differentiation have been analyzed in turtles, crocodiles, and some lizards, while in adult stages such studies are scarce...
May 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514714/calcitonin-protects-chondrocytes-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-apoptosis-and-inflammatory-response-through-mapk-wnt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#5
Lai-Bo Zhang, Zhen-Tao Man, Wei Li, Wei Zhang, Xian-Quan Wang, Shui Sun
Calcitonin (CT) is an anti-absorbent, which has long been used for treatment of osteoporosis. However, little information is available about the effects of CT on osteoarthritis (OA). This study was mainly aimed to explore the effects of CT on the treatment of OA, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Chondrocytes were isolated from immature mice and then were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT, small interfering (si) RNA against bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and/or the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathway...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512649/purification-and-characterization-of-schwann-cells-from-adult-human-skin-and-nerve
#6
Jo Anne Stratton, Ranjan Kumar, Sarthak Sinha, Prajay Shah, Morgan Stykel, Yuval Shapira, Rajiv Midha, Jeff Biernaskie
Despite its modest capacity for regeneration, peripheral nervous system injury often results in significant long-term disability. Supplementing peripheral nervous system injury with autologous Schwann cells (SCs) may serve to rejuvenate the postinjury environment to enhance regeneration and ultimately improve functional outcomes. However, human nerve-derived SC (hN-SC) collection procedures require invasive surgical resection. Here, we describe the characterization of SCs from adult human skin (hSk-SCs) of four male donors ranging between 27 and 46 years old...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507152/embryonic-transcription-factor-sox9-drives-breast-cancer-endocrine-resistance
#7
Rinath Jeselsohn, MacIntosh Cornwell, Matthew Pun, Gilles Buchwalter, Mai Nguyen, Clyde Bango, Ying Huang, Yanan Kuang, Cloud Paweletz, Xiaoyong Fu, Agostina Nardone, Carmine De Angelis, Simone Detre, Andrew Dodson, Hisham Mohammed, Jason S Carroll, Michaela Bowden, Prakash Rao, Henry W Long, Fugen Li, Mitchell Dowsett, Rachel Schiff, Myles Brown
The estrogen receptor (ER) drives the growth of most luminal breast cancers and is the primary target of endocrine therapy. Although ER blockade with drugs such as tamoxifen is very effective, a major clinical limitation is the development of endocrine resistance especially in the setting of metastatic disease. Preclinical and clinical observations suggest that even following the development of endocrine resistance, ER signaling continues to exert a pivotal role in tumor progression in the majority of cases...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506998/fgf10-sox9-are-essential-for-establishment-of-distal-progenitor-cells-during-salivary-gland-development
#8
Lemonia Chatzeli, Marcia Gaete, Abigail S Tucker
Salivary glands are formed by branching morphogenesis with epithelial progenitors forming a network of ducts and acini (secretory cells). During this process, epithelial progenitors specialise into distal (tips of the gland) and proximal (the stalk region) identities that produce the acini and higher order ducts respectively. Little is known about the factors that regulate progenitor expansion and specialisation in the different parts of the gland. Here we show that Sox9 is involved in establishing the identity of the distal compartment before the initiation of branching morphogenesis...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502669/biomimetic-tendon-extracellular-matrix-composite-gradient-scaffold-enhances-ligament-to-bone-junction-reconstruction
#9
Huanhuan Liu, Long Yang, Erchen Zhang, Rui Zhang, Dandan Cai, Shouan Zhu, Jisheng Ran, Varitsara Bunpetch, Youzhi Cai, Boon Chin Heng, Yejun Hu, Xuesong Dai, Xiao Chen, Hongwei Ouyang
Management of ligament/tendon-to-bone-junction healing remains a formidable challenge in the field of orthopedic medicine to date, due to deficient vascularity and multi-tissue transitional structure of the junction. Numerous strategies have been employed to improve ligament-bone junction healing, including delivery of stem cells, bioactive factors, and synthetic materials, but these methods are often inadequate at recapitulating the complex structure-function relationships at native tissue interfaces. Here, we developed an easily-fabricated and effective biomimetic composite to promote the regeneration of ligament-bone junction by physically modifying the tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) into a Random-Aligned-Random composite using ultrasound treatment...
May 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499502/sesamin-encouraging-effects-on-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-amniotic-fluid-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Suteera Narakornsak, Sirinda Aungsuchawan, Peeraphan Pothacharoen, Runchana Markmee, Waleephan Tancharoen, Tanongsak Laowanitwattana, Chawapon Thaojamnong, Lamaiporn Peerapapong, Nonglak Boonma, Witoon Tasuya, Junjira Keawdee, Naree Poovachiranon
Worldwide, the most recognized musculoskeletal degenerative disease is osteoarthritis (OA). Sesamin, a major abundant lignan compound present in Sesamun Indicum Linn, has been described for its various pharmacological effects and health benefits. However, the promoting effects of sesamin on chondrogenic differentiation have not yet been observed. Herein, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sesamin on cell cytotoxicity and the potent supporting effects on chondrogenic differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAF-MSCs)...
May 9, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496037/mono-butyl-phthalate-induced-mouse-testis-injury-is-associated-with-oxidative-stress-and-down-regulated-expression-of-sox9-and-dazl
#11
Junting Du, Di Xiong, Qian Zhang, Xiaoxiao Li, Xudong Liu, Huihui You, Shumao Ding, Xu Yang, Junlin Yuan
Mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) has reproductive toxicity but the related mechanisms have not been fully elucidated in vivo. We exposed male Balb/c mice to MBP by gavage at doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg for 14 days, and then evaluated the testicular alterations at the histological and molecular levels. MBP reduced mouse sperm count along with sperm malformation and seminiferous tubule degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. MBP dosed at 200 mg/kg significantly increased reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in mouse testes...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486778/efficacy-of-thermoresponsive-photocrosslinkable-hydrogels-derived-from-decellularized-tendon-and-cartilage-extracellular-matrix-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#12
Benjamin B Rothrauff, Luca Coluccino, Riccardo Gottardi, Luca Ceseracciu, Silvia Scaglione, Luca Goldoni, Rocky S Tuan
Tissue engineering using adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a promising approach for cartilage repair, is highly dependent on the nature of the matrix scaffold. Thermoresponsive, photocrosslinkable hydrogels were fabricated by functionalizing pepsin-soluble decellularized tendon and cartilage extracellular matrices (ECM) with methacrylate groups. Methacrylated gelatin hydrogels served as controls. When seeded with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cultured in chondrogenic medium, methacrylated ECM hydrogels experienced less cell-mediated contraction, as compared against non-methacrylated ECM hydrogels...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485543/andrographolide-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-of-chondrosarcoma-by-targeting-tcf-1-sox9-axis
#13
Huan-Tian Zhang, Jie Yang, Gui-Hong Liang, Xue-Juan Gao, Yuan Sang, Tao Gui, Zu-Jian Liang, Man-Seng Tam, Zhen-Gang Zha
Chondrosarcoma is the second most malignant bone tumor with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Thus, development of more effective treatments has become urgent. Recently, natural compounds derived from medicinal plants have emerged as promising therapeutic options via targeting multiple key cellular molecules. Andrographolide (Andro) is such a compound, which has previously been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in several human cancers. However, the molecular mechanism through which Andro exerts its anti-cancer effect on chondrosarcoma remains to be elucidated...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481047/enhanced-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-stem-cells-using-an-optimized-electrospun-nanofibrous-plla-peg-scaffolds-loaded-with-glucosamine
#14
Samaneh Mirzaei, Akbar Karkhaneh, Masoud Soleimani, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Hasti Seyyed Zonouzi, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz
Recently, tissue engineering has become one of the most important approaches in medical research for the treatment of injuries and lesions. In the present study, Poly (L-lactide) acid (PLLA), and Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) with different ratios and PEG molecular weights were used in order to produce appropriate nanofibrous scaffolds using the electrospinning technique for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Glucosamine was also incorporated into the polymeric scaffolds to enhance the biological properties...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472794/prostaglandin-d2-regulates-sox9-nuclear-translocation-during-gonadal-sex-determination-in-tammar-wallaby-macropus-eugenii
#15
Yu Chen, Hongshi Yu, Andrew J Pask, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree
Sex determination and sexual differentiation pathways are highly conserved between marsupials and eutherians. There are 2 different pathways of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) synthesis: prostaglandin D synthase (PTGDS) and haematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS). PGD2 regulates the subcellular localization of SOX9 during gonadal sexual differentiation. To investigate the function of PGD2 in the tammar gonad, we cultured undifferentiated male gonads in the presence of the HPGDS inhibitor HQL-79 and female gonads with exogenous PGD2 to mimic activation of the PTGDS-PGD2 pathway...
May 5, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472341/in-mammalian-foetal-testes-sox9-regulates-expression-of-its-target-genes-by-binding-to-genomic-regions-with-conserved-signatures
#16
Massilva Rahmoun, Rowena Lavery, Sabine Laurent-Chaballier, Nicolas Bellora, Gayle K Philip, Moïra Rossitto, Aleisha Symon, Eric Pailhoux, Florence Cammas, Jessica Chung, Stefan Bagheri-Fam, Mark Murphy, Vivian Bardwell, David Zarkower, Brigitte Boizet-Bonhoure, Philippe Clair, Vincent R Harley, Francis Poulat
In mammalian embryonic gonads, SOX9 is required for the determination of Sertoli cells that orchestrate testis morphogenesis. To identify genetic networks directly regulated by SOX9, we combined analysis of SOX9-bound chromatin regions from murine and bovine foetal testes with sequencing of RNA samples from mouse testes lacking Sox9. We found that SOX9 controls a conserved genetic programme that involves most of the sex-determining genes. In foetal testes, SOX9 modulates both transcription and directly or indirectly sex-specific differential splicing of its target genes through binding to genomic regions with sequence motifs that are conserved among mammals and that we called 'Sertoli Cell Signature' (SCS)...
May 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469782/heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-a1-interacts-with-microrna-34a-to-promote-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Xianglong Meng, Jiawen Cui, Yunsheng Wang, Xinuo Zhang, Dongyue Li, Yong Hai, Hongwu Du
The mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) shows potential in degenerative disc disease (DDD) treatment. However, little is known about the function of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) in modulating the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. This study aimed to investigate the role of hnRNPA1 in the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs and potential mechanisms. Mouse MSCs C3H10 and chondrogenic ATDC5 cells were used to quantify hnRNPA1 expression. The hnRNPA1 overexpression vectors were transfected into C3H10 cells, cell viability and chondrogenic factors expressions were assessed by MTT assay, qPCR and Western blot, respectively...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468559/pediatric-mesenchymal-hamartomas-of-the-liver-can-show-both-foregut-and-hindgut-phenotype
#18
Hao Wu, William Ferguson, Eumenia Castro, Milton Finegold, Kalyani Patel
Cystic epithelium in mesenchymal hamartoma (MH) is typically biliary type. Mucinous differentiation of the epithelium and increased hepatocellular component may pose a diagnostic challenge. We studied MH in 7 children (6 M, 1 F; age 4 months to 8 years, median 1 year). Resected tumors varied from 3.0 to 17.0 cm. All tumors showed biliary epithelium in the cystic component with strong and diffuse reactivity for CK7 and CK19. Expression of CK20 and CDX2 was additionally seen in 2 tumors, rare/focal in 1, and diffuse with mucinous differentiation in the other...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467017/peripheral-blood-aspirates-overexpressing-igf-i-via-raav-gene-transfer-undergo-enhanced-chondrogenic-differentiation-processes
#19
Janina Frisch, Patrick Orth, Ana Rey-Rico, Jagadeesh Kumar Venkatesan, Gertrud Schmitt, Henning Madry, Dieter Kohn, Magali Cucchiarini
Implantation of peripheral blood aspirates induced towards chondrogenic differentiation upon genetic modification in sites of articular cartilage injury may represent a powerful strategy to enhance cartilage repair. Such a single-step approach may be less invasive than procedures based on the use of isolated or concentrated MSCs, simplifying translational protocols in patients. In this study, we provide evidence showing the feasibility of overexpressing the mitogenic and pro-anabolic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in human peripheral blood aspirates via rAAV-mediated gene transfer, leading to enhanced proliferative and chondrogenic differentiation (proteoglycans, type-II collagen, SOX9) activities in the samples relative to control (reporter rAAV-lacZ) treatment over extended periods of time (at least 21 days, the longest time-point evaluated)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465325/epithelial-src-homology-region-2-domain-containing-phosphatase-1-restrains-intestinal-growth-secretory-cell-differentiation-and-tumorigenesis
#20
Caroline Leblanc, Marie-Josée Langlois, Geneviève Coulombe, Vanessa Vaillancourt-Lavigueur, Christine Jones, Julie C Carrier, François Boudreau, Nathalie Rivard
Shp-1 (Src homology region 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1) is a phosphatase that is highly expressed in hematopoietic and epithelial cells. Whereas its function is largely characterized in hematopoietic cells, its role in epithelial cells, such as intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), is not well known. Here, we generated mice with an IEC-specific deletion of Shp-1 (Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1; Shp-1(IEC-KO)). We showed that the loss of epithelial Shp-1 leads to an intestinalomegaly that is associated with an increase in epithelial cell proliferation and size...
May 2, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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