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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336567/sox9-is-an-astrocyte-specific-nuclear-marker-in-the-adult-brain-outside-the-neurogenic-regions
#1
Wei Sun, Adam Cornwell, Jiashu Li, Sisi Peng, M Joana Osorio, Nadia Aalling Su Wanga, Abdellatif Benraiss, Nanhong Lou, Steven A Goldman, Maiken Nedergaard
Astrocytes have in recent years become the focus of intense experimental interest, yet markers for their definitive identification remain both scarce and imperfect. Astrocytes may be recognized as such by their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1)quaporin-4 (AQP4)ldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1)nd other proteins. Yet these proteins may all be regulated both developmentally and functionally, restricting their utility...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336546/barrett-s-metaplasia-develops-from-cellular-reprograming-of-esophageal-squamous-epithelium-due-to-gastroesophageal-reflux
#2
Carlos D Minacapelli, Manisha Bajpai, Xin Geng, Christina L Cheng, Abhishek A Chouthai, Rhonda F Souza, Stuart Jon Spechler, Kiron M Das
OBJECTIVE: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) clinically predisposes to columnar Barrett's metaplasia (BM) in the distal esophagus. We demonstrate evidence supporting cellular origin of BM from reprograming or trans-commitment of resident normal esophageal squamous (NES) epithelial cells in response to acid and bile exposure using an in vitro cell culture model. DESIGN: The hTERT-immortalized NES cell line, NES-B10T, was exposed 5 min/day to Acid and Bile (A+B) mixture for 30 weeks...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332167/controlled-release-of-vanadium-from-a-composite-scaffold-stimulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-osteochondrogenesis
#3
S D Schussler, K Uske, P Marwah, F W Kemp, J D Bogden, S S Lin, Treena Livingston Arinzeh
Large bone defects often require the use of autograft, allograft, or synthetic bone graft augmentation; however, these treatments can result in delayed osseous integration. A tissue engineering strategy would be the use of a scaffold that could promote the normal fracture healing process of endochondral ossification, where an intermediate cartilage phase is later transformed to bone. This study investigated vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAC), an insulin mimetic, combined with a fibrous composite scaffold, consisting of polycaprolactone with nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate, as a potential bone tissue engineering scaffold...
March 22, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332126/klotho-suppresses-high-phosphate-induced-osteogenic-responses-in-human-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells-through-inhibition-of-sox9
#4
Fei Li, Qingzhou Yao, Lihua Ao, Joseph C Cleveland, Nianguo Dong, David A Fullerton, Xianzhong Meng
Elevated level of blood phosphate (Pi) associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor of aortic valve calcification. Aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) display osteogenic responses to high Pi although the underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. Sox9 is a pro-chondrogenic factor and may play a role in ectopic tissue calcification. Circulating and kidney levels of Klotho are reduced in patients with CKD. We hypothesized that Sox9 mediates high Pi-induced osteogenic responses in human AVICs and that Klotho inhibits the responses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329676/lineage-biased-stem-cells-maintain-estrogen-receptor-positive-and-negative-mouse-mammary-luminal-lineages
#5
Chunhui Wang, John R Christin, Maja H Oktay, Wenjun Guo
Delineating the mammary differentiation hierarchy is important for the study of mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. Mammary luminal cells are considered a major origin of human breast cancers. However, how estrogen-receptor-positive (ER(+)) and ER(-) luminal cells are developed and maintained remains poorly understood. The prevailing model suggests that a common stem/progenitor cell generates both cell types. Through genetic lineage tracing in mice, we find that SOX9-expressing cells specifically contribute to the development and maintenance of ER(-) luminal cells and, to a lesser degree, basal cells...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327634/scleraxis-is-required-for-maturation-of-tissue-domains-for-proper-integration-of-the-musculoskeletal-system
#6
Yuki Yoshimoto, Aki Takimoto, Hitomi Watanabe, Yuji Hiraki, Gen Kondoh, Chisa Shukunami
Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is expressed persistently in tendons/ligaments, but transiently in entheseal cartilage. In this study, we generated a novel Scx(Cre) knock-in (KI) allele, by in-frame replacement of most of Scx exon 1 with Cre recombinase (Cre), to drive Cre expression using Scx promoter and to inactivate the endogenous Scx. Reflecting the intensity and duration of endogenous expression, Cre-mediated excision occurs in tendinous and ligamentous tissues persistently expressing Scx...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323899/lawsonia-intracellularis-exploits-%C3%AE-catenin-wnt-and-notch-signalling-pathways-during-infection-of-intestinal-crypt-to-alter-cell-homeostasis-and-promote-cell-proliferation
#7
Yang W Huan, Rebecca J Bengtsson, Neil MacIntyre, Jack Guthrie, Heather Finlayson, Sionagh H Smith, Alan L Archibald, Tahar Ait-Ali
Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. L. intracellularis infection causes extensive intestinal crypt cell proliferation and inhibits secretory and absorptive cell differentiation. However, the affected host upstream cellular pathways leading to PE are still unknown. β-catenin/Wnt signalling is essential in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and self-renewal capacity, while Notch signalling governs differentiation of secretory and absorptive lineage specification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323209/sox9-a-genomic-view-of-tissue-specific-expression-and-action
#8
Aleisha Symon, Vincent Harley
The SOX9 transcription factor controls cell differentiation of many cell types among vertebrates. The SOX9 gene locus is large and complex and contains various tissue-specific enhancers. Individual enhancers direct specific expression of SOX9 in chondrocytes, Sertoli cells and cranial neural crest cells. Human SOX9 mutations can lead to either the complete Campomelic Dysplasia syndrome, or isolated clinical features, depending upon whether the mutation occurs in the coding region or in regulatory regions. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation has helped to define SOX9 control of target gene expression at the genome wide level in hair follicle stem cells and in chondrocytes where SOX9 binds at super-enhancers...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317246/brain-gene-expression-is-influenced-by-incubation-temperature-during-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius-development
#9
Maria Michela Pallotta, Mimmo Turano, Raffaele Ronca, Marcello Mezzasalma, Agnese Petraccioli, Gaetano Odierna, Teresa Capriglione
Sexual differentiation (SD) during development results in anatomical, metabolic, and physiological differences that involve not only the gonads, but also a variety of other biological structures, such as the brain, determining differences in morphology, behavior, and response in the breeding season. In many reptiles, whose sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, such as the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, embryos incubated at different temperatures clearly differ in the volume of brain nuclei that modulate behavior...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299491/effects-of-androgen-receptor-mutation-on-testicular-histopathology-of-patient-having-complete-androgen-insensitivity
#10
Ihtisham Bukhari, Guangyuan Li, Liu Wang, Furhan Iqbal, Huan Zhang, Jiansheng Zhu, Hui Liu, Xiangdong Fang, Nasser M Al-Daghri, Howard J Cooke, Yuanwei Zhang, Xiaohua Jiang
Androgens are required for normal male sex differentiation and development of male secondary sexual characteristics. Mutations in AR gene are known to cause defects in male sexual differentiation. In current study, we enrolled a 46,XY phenotypically female patient bearing testes in inguinal canal. DNA sequencing of the AR gene detected a missense mutation C.1715A > G (p. Y572C) in exon 2 which is already known to cause complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). We focused on the effects of this mutation on the testicular histopathology of the patient...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295277/lipopolysaccharide-can-modify-differentiation-and-immunomodulatory-potential-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-via-erk1-2-signaling
#11
Tamara Kukolj, Drenka Trivanović, Ivana Okić Djordjević, Slavko Mojsilović, Jelena Krstić, Hristina Obradović, Srdja Janković, Juan Francisco Santibanez, Aleksandra Jauković, Diana Bugarski
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a pertinent deleterious factor in oral microenvironment for cells which are carriers of regenerative processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the emerging in vitro effects of LPS (E.coli) on human periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) functions and associated signaling pathways. We demonstrated that LPS did not affect immunophenotype, proliferation, viability and cell cycle of PDLSCs. However, LPS modified lineage commitment of PDLSCs inhibiting osteogenesis by downregulating Runx2, ALP and Ocn mRNA expression, while stimulating chondrogenesis and adipogenesis by upregulating Sox9 and PPARγ mRNA expression...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289615/importance-of-floating-chondrons-in-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#12
Hajar Shafaei, Hajar Bagernezhad, Hassan Bagernajad
BACKGROUND: Dedifferentiation of chondrocytes remains a major problem for cartilage tissue engineering. Chondrocytes loss differentiated phenotype in in vitro culture that is undesired for repair strategies. The chondrocyte is surrounded by a pericellular matrix (PCM), together forming the chondron. PCM has a positive effect on the maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype during culture in comparison to uncovered chondrocyte. Studies suggest that the PCM influence on functional properties of the chondrocytes...
January 2017: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287507/chondrogenic-differentiation-induction-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-by-centrifugal-gravity
#13
Yeonsue Jang, Hyerin Jung, Ji Hyeon Ju
Impaired cartilage cannot heal naturally. Currently, the most advanced therapy for defects in cartilage is the transplantation of chondrocytes differentiated from stem cells using cytokines. Unfortunately, cytokine-induced chondrogenic differentiation is costly, time-consuming, and associated with a high risk of contamination during in vitro differentiation. However, biomechanical stimuli also serve as crucial regulatory factors for chondrogenesis. For example, mechanical stress can induce chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for the repair of impaired cartilage...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286162/gli1-expression-in-cancer-stem-like-cells-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Yan Cui, Chun-Ai Cui, Zhao-Ting Yang, Wei-Dong Ni, Yu Jin, Yan-Hua Xuan
PURPOSE: Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1) is involved in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance in various tumors; however, its expression and clinical significance in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to reveal the clinical significance of Gli1 in LSCC and investigate the potential of Gli1 as a CSC marker by comparing its expression with that of other stemness-related genes in LSCC. METHODS: We assessed the expressions of Gli1, LSD1, CD44, Sox9 and Sox2 by immunohistochemistry in the tissue specimens obtained from 101 patients with LSCC...
March 9, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285099/mir-1247-blocks-sox9-mediated-regeneration-in-alcohol-and-fibrosis-associated-acute-kidney-injury-in-mice
#15
Kostiantyn Dreval, Aline de Conti, Shinji Furuya, Frederick A Beland, Ivan Rusyn, Igor P Pogribny
Excessive alcohol consumption has a significant impact on human health and is a major public health problem worldwide. One of the consequences of long-term excessive alcohol consumption is cellular injury in almost all organs and tissues, with acute kidney injury (AKI) being one of the most common pathological manifestations. In the present study, using a mouse model of alcoholic liver fibrosis-associated AKI induced by a combined treatment with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and ethanol and resembling pathological features of AKI in human alcoholic liver fibrosis, we demonstrate alterations in histone modifications in the kidneys and, importantly, in the promoter region of the over-expressed SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (Sox9) gene...
March 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281692/ibuprofen-results-in-alterations-of-human-fetal-testis-development
#16
Millissia Ben Maamar, Laurianne Lesné, Kristin Hennig, Christèle Desdoits-Lethimonier, Karen R Kilcoyne, Isabelle Coiffec, Antoine D Rolland, Cécile Chevrier, David M Kristensen, Vincent Lavoué, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Bruno Le Bizec, Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford, Rod T Mitchell, Séverine Mazaud-Guittot, Bernard Jégou
Among pregnant women ibuprofen is one of the most frequently used pharmaceutical compounds with up to 28% reporting use. Regardless of this, it remains unknown whether ibuprofen could act as an endocrine disruptor as reported for fellow analgesics paracetamol and aspirin. To investigate this, we exposed human fetal testes (7-17 gestational weeks (GW)) to ibuprofen using ex vivo culture and xenograft systems. Ibuprofen suppressed testosterone and Leydig cell hormone INSL3 during culture of 8-9 GW fetal testes with concomitant reduction in expression of the steroidogenic enzymes CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and HSD17B3, and of INSL3...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279198/sox9-transcriptionally-regulates-wnt-signaling-in-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cells-in-hypomethylated-crypts-in-the-diabetic-state
#17
Can-Ze Huang, Ji-Hao Xu, Wa Zhong, Zhong-Sheng Xia, Si-Yi Wang, Di Cheng, Jie-Yao Li, Ting-Feng Wu, Qi-Kui Chen, Tao Yu
BACKGROUND: Distinctive structures called crypts harbor intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) which generate progenitor and terminally differentiated cells in the intestinal epithelium. Mammalian IESCs and their daughter cells require the participation of DNA methylation and the transcription factor Sox9 for proliferation and differentiation. However, the association between Sox9 and DNA methylation in this process remains elusive. METHODS: The DNA methylation of small intestinal epithelial crypts in db/db mice was detected via combining methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with microarray hybridization...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277188/knockdown-of-sox9-inhibits-the-proliferation-invasion-and-emt-in-thyroid-cancer-cells
#18
Jie Huang, Li Guo
Sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 9 (SOX9) is a member of the SOX transcription factor family. Increasing evidence has reported that SOX9 plays different roles in various types of malignancies. However, the role of SOX9 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of SOX9 in PTC. Our results showed that SOX9 was upregulated in PTC tissues and cell lines. In addition, knockdown of SOX9 significantly inhibited PTC proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in TPC-1 and BCPAP cells...
January 26, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263186/loss-of-ddrgk1-modulates-sox9-ubiquitination-in-spondyloepimetaphyseal-dysplasia
#19
Adetutu T Egunsola, Yangjin Bae, Ming-Ming Jiang, David S Liu, Yuqing Chen-Evenson, Terry Bertin, Shan Chen, James T Lu, Lisette Nevarez, Nurit Magal, Annick Raas-Rothschild, Eric C Swindell, Daniel H Cohn, Richard A Gibbs, Philippe M Campeau, Mordechai Shohat, Brendan H Lee
Shohat-type spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) is a skeletal dysplasia that affects cartilage development. Similar skeletal disorders, such as spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias, are linked to mutations in type II collagen (COL2A1), but the causative gene in SEMD is not known. Here, we have performed whole-exome sequencing to identify a recurrent homozygous c.408+1G>A donor splice site loss-of-function mutation in DDRGK domain containing 1 (DDRGK1) in 4 families affected by SEMD. In zebrafish, ddrgk1 deficiency disrupted craniofacial cartilage development and led to decreased levels of the chondrogenic master transcription factor sox9 and its downstream target, col2a1...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248814/the-use-of-ancillary-stains-in-the-diagnosis-of-barrett-esophagus-and-barrett-esophagus-associated-dysplasia-recommendations-from-the-rodger-c-haggitt-gastrointestinal-pathology-society
#20
Amitabh Srivastava, Henry Appelman, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Jon M Davison, John Hart, Alyssa M Krasinskas
Barrett esophagus (BE) is a known risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Pathologists play a critical role in confirming the diagnosis of BE and BE-associated dysplasia. As these diagnoses are not always straightforward on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, numerous ancillary stains have been used in an attempt to help pathologists confirm the diagnosis. On the basis of an in-depth review of the literature, the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society provides recommendations regarding the use of ancillary stains in the diagnosis of BE and BE-associated dysplasia...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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