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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458208/the-use-of-fatty-acids-as-absorption-enhancer-for-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#1
Maliheh Ghadiri, Finbarr Canney, Cristina Pacciana, Gaia Colombo, Paul M Young, Daniela Traini
A limitation in the systemic uptake of many inhalable drugs is the restricted permeation through the pulmonary epithelial layer barrier. One strategy to bypass the epithelial layer when delivering non-permeable drugs is to alter the paracellular transport, allowing the uptake of drugs into the systemic circulation. In this study, the potential of sodium decanoate (Na dec), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as absorption enhancers has been investigated to increase pulmonary paracellular permeability by modulating epithelial cells' tight junctions...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458168/apoptosis-of-enterocytes-and-nitration-of-junctional-complex-proteins-promote-alcohol-induced-gut-leakiness-and-liver-injury
#2
Young-Eun Cho, Li-Rong Yu, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Seong-Ho Yoo, Byoung-Joon Song
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Binge alcohol causes gut leakiness, contributing to increased endotoxemia and inflammatory liver injury, although the molecular mechanisms are still elusive. This study was aimed at investigating the roles of apoptosis of enterocytes and nitration followed by degradation of intestinal tight junction (TJ) and adherent junction (AJ) proteins in binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness. METHODS: The levels of intestinal (ileum) junctional complex proteins, oxidative stress markers and apoptosis-related proteins in rodents, T84 colonic cells and autopsied human ileums were determined by immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and mass-spectral analyses...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458086/characterization-of-uniaxial-high-speed-stretch-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-the-blood-brain-barrier
#3
Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Claudia Escudero-Lourdes, Susan M Lantz, Nasya M Sturdivant, Syed Z Imam, Sumit Sarkar, William Slikker, Merle G Paule, Kartik Balachandran, Syed F Ali
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when external mechanical forces induce brain damage as result of impact, penetration or rapid acceleration/deceleration that causes deformation of brain tissue. Depending on its severity, TBI can be classified as mild, moderate or severe and can lead to blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of uniaxial high-speed stretch (HSS) at 0, 5, 10 and 15% on a pure culture of primary rat brain endothelial cells as an in vitro model of TBI to the BBB...
February 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458051/elevated-systemic-zonula-occludens-1-is-positively-correlated-with-inflammation-in-cirrhosis
#4
Ashwini Karthikeyan, Pazhanivel Mohan, Palanivel Chinnakali, Balasubramaniyan Vairappan
BACKGROUND/AIM: It has been well established that disruption of the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal permeability contribute to endotoxemia and associated liver injury in patients with cirrhosis. However, the relationship between systemic inflammation and tight junction protein in cirrhosis remain unidentified. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the blood concentrations of ZO-1 with systemic hsCRP in patients with cirrhosis and healthy individuals. METHODS: 30 cirrhotic patients and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study...
February 16, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455581/keeping-it-tight-the-relationship-between-bacterial-dysbiosis-septate-junctions-and-the-intestinal-barrier-in-drosophila
#5
Martin Resnik-Docampo, Vivien Sauer, Joseph M Schinaman, Rebecca I Clark, David W Walker, D Leanne Jones
Maladaptive changes in the intestinal flora, typically referred to as bacterial dysbiosis, have been linked to intestinal aging phenotypes, including an increase in intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation, activation of inflammatory pathways, and increased intestinal permeability1,2 . However, the causal relationships between these phenotypes are only beginning to be unravelled. We recently characterized the age-related changes that occur to septate junctions (SJ) between adjacent, absorptive enterocytes (EC) in the fly intestine...
February 19, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453757/localization-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac-and-cftr-in-the-germinal-epithelium-of-the-testis-sertoli-cells-and-spermatozoa
#6
Sachin Sharma, Aaron Hanukoglu, Israel Hanukoglu
Spermatogenesis starts within the seminiferous tubules of the testis by mitotic division of spermatogonia that produces spermatocytes. Meiotic division of these spermatocytes produces haploid spermatids that differentiate into spermatozoa. In this study, we examined the expression of ENaC and CFTR (a Cl - channel) in rat testicular sections using confocal microscopic immunofluorescence. The structural integrity of the seminiferous tubule sections was verified by precise phalloidin staining of the actin fibers located abundantly at both basal and adluminal tight junctions...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452218/tnf%C3%AE-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-to-maintain-prolonged-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#7
Yuyan Cheng, Sachi Desse, Ana Martinez, Ryan J Worthen, Richard S Jope, Eleonore Beurel
Recovery from major depressive disorder is difficult, particularly in patients who are refractory to antidepressant treatments. To examine factors that regulate recovery, we developed a prolonged learned helplessness depression model in mice. After the induction of learned helplessness, mice were separated into groups that recovered or did not recover within 4 weeks. Comparisons were made between groups in hippocampal proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Compared with mice that recovered and control mice, non-recovered mice displaying prolonged learned helplessness had greater hippocampal activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-17A, and interleukin-23, increased permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), and lower levels of the BBB tight junction proteins occludin, ZO1, and claudin-5...
February 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448044/safety-evaluation-of-a-human-chimeric-monoclonal-antibody-that-recognizes-the-extracellular-loop-domain-of-claudin-2
#8
Yosuke Hashimoto, Tomoyuki Hata, Minoru Tada, Manami Iida, Akihiro Watari, Yoshiaki Okada, Takefumi Doi, Hiroki Kuniyasu, Kiyohito Yagi, Masuo Kondoh
Claudin-2 (CLDN-2), a pore-forming tight-junction protein with a tetra-transmembrane domain, is involved in carcinogenesis and the metastasis of some cancers. Although CLDN-2 is highly expressed in the tight junctions of the liver and kidney, whether CLDN-2 is a safe target for cancer therapy remains unknown. We recently generated a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb, clone 1A2) that recognizes the extracellular domains of human and mouse CLDN-2. Here, we investigated the safety of CLDN-2-targeted cancer therapy by using 1A2 as a model therapeutic antibody...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447921/dna-demethylation-of-claudin-4-suppresses-migration-and-invasion-in-laryngeal-squamous-carcinoma-cells
#9
Yafang Liu, Kai Chang, Kexin Fu, Xinjie Dong, Xiaoshuai Chen, Jixuan Liu, Ni Cui, Jinsong Ni
Claudin-4 (CLDN4) is a member of the claudin transmembrane protein family, which consists of integral membrane proteins that are components of the epithelial cell tight junctions; these tight junctions regulate movement of solutes and ions through the paracellular space. CLDN4 is also a differentiation marker and is believed to indicate an epithelial phenotype. However, the role of CLDN4 in laryngeal squamous carcinoma is still unclear. Here, we showed that CLDN4 expression was down-regulated in laryngeal squamous carcinoma tissues and negatively correlated with Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)...
February 12, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447821/genetic-analysis-of-cldn14-in-the-chinese-population-affected-with-non-syndromic-hearing-loss
#10
Yajie Lu, Jun Yao, Qinjun Wei, Jin Xu, Guangqian Xing, Xin Cao
OBJECTIVE: The CLDN14 gene, encoding the tight junction protein Claudin-14, has been proposed as a candidate causative gene affecting autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL). Genetic analysis of nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs) in CLDN14 has been performed in different populations. The role of CLDN14 nsSNVs in contributing to hearing loss in Chinese populations would be investigated in this study. METHODS: Target screening for CLDN14 variations were conducted in 500 unrelated patients diagnosed with non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL)...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446690/perineurial-like-cells-and-ema-expression-in-the-suprachoroidal-region-of-the-human-eye
#11
Andrea R Gilbert, Patricia Chévez-Barrios, Matthew D Cykowski
The suprachoroidal region of the eye comprises vascular channels, melanocytes, and thin fibroblasts with elongated cytoplasm that are positioned directly adjacent to the densely collagenous sclera. Morphological similarities between these suprachoroidal fibroblasts and arachnoid cells and perineurial cells have been recognized, but whether these fibroblasts have a perineurial cell-like immunophenotype is not known. To further examine the relationship of these three cell types, we investigated the comparative expression of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the tight junction protein claudin-1, glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), and CD34 in suprachoroidal fibroblasts, arachnoid of the optic nerve sheath, and perineurium of ciliary nerves in eight human eye specimens...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445080/modeling-radiation-injury-induced-cell-death-and-countermeasure-drug-responses-in-a-human-gut-on-a-chip
#12
Sasan Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Rachelle Prantil-Baun, Amanda Jiang, Ratnakar Potla, Tadanori Mammoto, James C Weaver, Thomas C Ferrante, Hyun Jung Kim, Joaquim M S Cabral, Oren Levy, Donald E Ingber
Studies on human intestinal injury induced by acute exposure to γ-radiation commonly rely on use of animal models because culture systems do not faithfully mimic human intestinal physiology. Here we used a human Gut-on-a-Chip (Gut Chip) microfluidic device lined by human intestinal epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells to model radiation injury and assess the efficacy of radiation countermeasure drugs in vitro. Exposure of the Gut Chip to γ-radiation resulted in increased generation of reactive oxygen species, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation, as well as villus blunting, disruption of tight junctions, and compromise of intestinal barrier integrity...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444370/cryptosporidium-parvum-disrupts-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-via-altering-expression-of-key-tight-junction-and-adherens-junction-proteins
#13
Anoop Kumar, Ishita Chatterjee, Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Dulari Jayawardena, Shubha Priyamvada, Waddah A Alrefai, Jun Sun, Alip Borthakur, Pradeep K Dudeja
Infection with the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum (CP) causes cryptosporidiosis, a widespread diarrheal disease. Impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function and increased permeability are most commonly associated with diarrheal diseases caused by enteric infections. However, studies on barrier disruption and underlying mechanisms in cryptosporidiosis are extremely limited. Epithelial tight junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ) are important in maintaining barrier integrity. Therefore, we examined the effects of CP infection on paracellular permeability and on the expression of the major TJ and AJ proteins utilizing in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models...
February 14, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443050/a-co-culture-method-to-investigate-the-crosstalk-between-x-ray-irradiated-caco-2-cells-and-pbmc
#14
Gabriele Babini, Jacopo Morini, Sofia Barbieri, Giorgio Baiocco, Giovanni Battista Ivaldi, Marco Liotta, Paola Tabarelli de Fatis, Andrea Ottolenghi
The protocol adopted in this work aims at unraveling how X-rays perturb the functioning of the intestinal barrier, focusing on the interplay between colorectal tumor cells and the immune system. Colorectal carcinoma is among the most common type of cancer, typically treated by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Advantages of radiotherapy in targeting the tumor are well known. However, even limited exposures of healthy tissues are of great concern, particularly regarding the effects on the intestinal barrier and the immune system...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442467/intestinal-epithelial-barrier-the-target-for-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
REVIEW
Barbara Pawłowska, Beata M Sobieszczańska
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains are included in 9 pathotypes (pathovars) that present different virulence factors responsible for the patomechanism of infections they cause. As all other intestinal pathogens, E. coli exerts a significant effect on intestinal epithelium. To initiate the infection, these microorganisms have evolved countless strategies to subvert the epithelial barrier and efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. The barrier function of the intestinal epithelium is achieved by the presence of a tight junction protein network surrounding individual cells around their circumference that links neighboring cells and seals the intracellular space...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442432/investigation-of-corneal-endothelial-changes-post-selective-laser-trabeculoplasty
#16
Kate E Leahy, Michele C Madigan, Maria Sarris, Stephanie L Watson, Peter McCluskey, Andrew Jr White
IMPORTANCE: Transient corneal endothelial changes are routinely noted on slit-lamp examination immediately following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT). BACKGROUND: To determine the mechanism of the transient corneal endothelial changes observed following SLT. DESIGN: University laboratory based observational study SAMPLES: Ten corneas from six human cadaveric donors. METHODS: Corneas were treated with SLT, direct laser, or peroxide, or used as controls...
February 14, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442221/dual-stained-cervical-cytology-and-histology-with-claudin-1-and-ki67
#17
Tímea Szekerczés, Ádám Galamb, Adrienn Kocsis, Márta Benczik, Tibor Takács, Attila Martonos, Balázs Járay, András Kiss, Csaba Jeney, Miklós Nyíri, Zsuzsa Schaff, Gábor Sobel
Several biomarkers are in use to improve the sensitivity and specificity of cervical cancer screening. Previously, increased expression of tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) was detected in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions and applied for cytology screening. To improve the specificity, a double immunoreaction with CLDN1/Ki67 was developed in the recent study. Parallel p16/Ki67 (CINtec® PLUS) and CLDN1/Ki67 dual-stained cytology and histology were performed and compared. p16/Ki67 immunoreaction showed positivity in 317 out of 1596 smears with negativity in 1072 and unacceptable reactions in 207 samples...
February 13, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435150/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-induced-by-diagnostic-ultrasound-combined-with-microbubbles-in-mice
#18
Bingxia Zhao, Yihan Chen, Jinfeng Liu, Li Zhang, Jing Wang, Yali Yang, Qing Lv, Mingxing Xie
Objective: To investigate the effects of the microbubble (MB) dose, mechanism index (MI) and sonication duration on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption induced by diagnostic ultrasound combined with MBs as well as to investigate the potential molecular mechanism. Results: The extent of BBB disruption increased with MB dose, MI and sonication duration. A relatively larger extent of BBB disruption associated with minimal tissue damage was achieved by an appropriate MB dose and ultrasound exposure parameters with diagnostic ultrasound...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434653/shuganyin-decoction-improves-the-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-rat-model-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-induced-by-water-avoidance-stress
#19
Lu Lu, Liang Yan, Jianye Yuan, Qing Ye, Jiang Lin
Background: To determine the effect of Shuganyin decoction (SGD) on the intestinal barrier function in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat model induced by water-avoidance stress. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into control, water-avoidance stress (WAS) group, WAS plus Shuganyin decoction (SGD) group and WAS plus dicetel (Dicetel) group. IBS was induced in rats by subjecting them to water-avoidance stress for 7 days. On day 4 of the WAS protocol, the rats were treated for 7 consecutive days (days 4-11) with SGD, dicetel or a negative control (saline)...
2018: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434527/visualisation-of-multiple-tight-junctional-complexes-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#20
Alysia G Buckley, Kevin Looi, Thomas Iosifidis, Kak-Ming Ling, Erika N Sutanto, Kelly M Martinovich, Elizabeth Kicic-Starcevich, Luke W Garratt, Nicole C Shaw, Francis J Lannigan, Alexander N Larcombe, Graeme Zosky, Darryl A Knight, Paul J Rigby, Anthony Kicic, Stephen M Stick
Background: Apically located tight junctions in airway epithelium perform a fundamental role in controlling macromolecule migration through paracellular spaces. Alterations in their expression may lead to disruptions in barrier integrity, which subsequently facilitates entry of potential bacterial and other pathogens into the host. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that the barrier integrity of the airway in certain airway inflammatory diseases may be altered. However, there is little consensus on the way this is assessed and measured and the type of cells used to achieve this...
2018: Biological Procedures Online
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