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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636801/water-channels-and-barriers-formed-by-claudins
#1
REVIEW
Rita Rosenthal, Dorothee Günzel, Dian Theune, Carolina Czichos, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Michael Fromm
Physiological studies in leaky epithelia, like kidney proximal tubules and the small intestine, have documented water transport via both transcellular and paracellular pathways. The discovery of aquaporin water channels provided a molecular basis for transcellular water movement. In contrast, the contribution, or even existence, of a specific paracellular water pathway has been disputed for a long time, until the cation channel-forming tight junction protein claudin-2 was shown to also permit the paracellular passage of water through its pore...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636799/transcriptional-mechanisms-coordinating-tight-junction-assembly-during-epithelial-differentiation
#2
REVIEW
Felix J Boivin, Kai M Schmidt-Ott
Epithelial tissues form a selective barrier via direct cell-cell interactions to separate and establish concentration gradients between the different compartments of the body. Proper function and formation of this barrier rely on the establishment of distinct intercellular junction complexes. These complexes include tight junctions, adherens junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions. The tight junction is by far the most diverse junctional complex in the epithelial barrier. Its composition varies greatly across different epithelial tissues to confer various barrier properties...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636798/a-ccpe-based-xenon-biosensor-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-claudin-expressing-cells
#3
Anna Piontek, Christopher Witte, Honor May Rose, Miriam Eichner, Jonas Protze, Gerd Krause, Jörg Piontek, Leif Schröder
The majority of malignant tumors originate from epithelial cells, and many of them are characterized by an overexpression of claudins (Cldns) and their mislocalization out of tight junctions. We utilized the C-terminal claudin-binding domain of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (cCPE), with its high affinity to specific members of the claudin family, as the targeting unit for a claudin-sensitive cancer biosensor. To overcome the poor sensitivity of conventional relaxivity-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, we utilized the superior sensitivity of xenon Hyper-CEST biosensors...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636623/the-basolateral-vesicle-sorting-machinery-and-basolateral-proteins-are-recruited-to-the-site-of-enteropathogenic-e-coli-microcolony-growth-at-the-apical-membrane
#4
Gitte A Pedersen, Helene H Jensen, Anne-Sofie B Schelde, Charlotte Toft, Hans N Pedersen, Maj Ulrichsen, Frédéric H Login, Manuel R Amieva, Lene N Nejsum
Foodborne Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infections of the small intestine cause diarrhea especially in children and are a major cause of childhood death in developing countries. EPEC infects the apical membrane of the epithelium of the small intestine by attaching, effacing the microvilli under the bacteria and then forming microcolonies on the cell surface. We first asked the question where on epithelial cells EPEC attaches and grows. Using models of polarized epithelial monolayers, we evaluated the sites of initial EPEC attachment to the apical membrane and found that EPEC preferentially attached over the cell-cell junctions and formed microcolonies preferentially where three cells come together at tricellular tight junctions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636424/fluid-shear-stress-regulates-hepg2-cell-migration-though-time-dependent-integrin-signaling-cascade
#5
Hongchi Yu, Yang Shen, Jingsi Jin, Yingying Zhang, Tang Feng, Xiaoheng Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a subtype of malignant liver cancer with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. It is noteworthy that mechanical forces in tumor microenvironment play a pivotal role in mediating the behaviors and functions of tumor cells. As an instrumental type of mechanical forces in vivo, fluid shear stress (FSS) has been reported having potent physiologic and pathologic effects on cancer progression. However, the time-dependent mechanochemical transduction in HCC induced by FSS remains unclear...
June 21, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636192/intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-stem-cell-based-approaches-to-regenerate-the-barrier
#6
REVIEW
Fredrik E O Holmberg, Jannie Pedersen, Peter Jørgensen, Christoffer Soendergaard, Kim B Jensen, Ole H Nielsen
Disruption of normal barrier function is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, which includes increased epithelial cell death, modified mucus configuration, altered expression and distribution of tight junction-proteins, along with a decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with life-long morbidity for affected patients, and both the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally, resulting in substantial economic strain for society...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633994/t-lymphocytes-infiltration-promotes-blood-brain-barrier-injury-after-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#7
Xuan Zhang, Wei Liu, Jichao Yuan, Haitao Zhu, Yang Yang, Zexian Wen, Yaxing Chen, Lan Li, Jiangkai Lin, Hua Feng
T lymphocytes migrate into the brain after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and promote cerebral inflammation, thus exacerbating neuronal injury. However, the relationship between of T lymphocytes infiltration and blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury after ICH has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal distribution of infiltrating T lymphocytes after ICH in C57BL/6 mice by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and the accompanying change rules of BBB permeability were detected by Evans blue dye leakage and tight junction protein expression...
June 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633471/development-of-a-chicken-ileal-explant-culture-model-for-measurement-of-gut-inflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#8
Qian Zhang, Susan D Eicher, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Todd J Applegate
Gut mucosa holds a single layer of epithelial cells and the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body. Although the epithelial cell culture model is widely used to assess intestinal barrier function, it has limitations for studying cellular interactions, in particular those of the immune system. In this study, a chicken ileal explant culture model was developed for investigating short-term gut inflammatory and secretory responses in an ex vivo environment. Initially, ileal explants from broilers at 21 d of age were cultured ex vivo up to 6 h...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633196/tight-junction-strand-formation-by-claudin-10-isoforms-and-claudin-10a-10b-chimeras
#9
Susanne Milatz, Jörg Piontek, Caroline Hempel, Luca Meoli, Christoph Grohe, Anja Fromm, In-Fah M Lee, Rukeia El-Athman, Dorothee Günzel
Claudins are integral components of tight junctions (TJs) in epithelia and endothelia. When expressed in cell lines devoid of TJs, claudins are able to form TJ-like strands at contacts between adjacent cells. According to a current model of TJ strand formation, claudin protomers assemble in an antiparallel double row within the plasma membrane of each cell (cis-interaction) while binding to corresponding double rows from the neighboring cells (trans-interaction). Cis-interaction was proposed to involve two interfaces of the protomers' first extracellular segment (extracellular loop (ECL)1)...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633193/trictide-a-tricellulin-derived-peptide-to-overcome-cellular-barriers
#10
Jimmi Cording, Basak Arslan, Christian Staat, Sophie Dithmer, Susanne M Krug, Anneliese Krüger, Philipp Berndt, Ramona Günther, Lars Winkler, Ingolf E Blasig, Reiner F Haseloff
The majority of tight junction (TJ) proteins restrict the paracellular permeation of solutes via their extracellular loops (ECLs). Tricellulin tightens tricellular TJs (tTJs) and regulates bicellular TJ (bTJ) proteins. We demonstrate that the addition of recombinantly produced extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) of tricellulin opens cellular barriers. The peptidomimetic trictide, a synthetic peptide derived from tricellulin ECL2, increases the passage of ions, as well as of small and larger molecules up to 10 kDa, between 16 and 30 h after application to human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line 2...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632732/fructo-oligosaccharides-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-methionine-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
Kotaro Matsumoto, Mayuko Ichimura, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Katsuhisa Omagari, Masumi Hara, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Kentaro Kikuchi
Impairments in intestinal barrier function, epithelial mucins, and tight junction proteins have been reported to be associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides restore balance in the gastrointestinal microbiome. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function and steatohepatitis in methionine-choline-deficient mice. Three groups of 12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were studied for 3 weeks; specifically, mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet, a methionine-choline-deficient diet plus 5% fructo-oligosaccharides in water, or a normal control diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630461/antrodia-cinnamomea-reduces-obesity-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#12
C-J Chang, C-C Lu, C-S Lin, J Martel, Y-F Ko, D M Ojcius, T-R Wu, Y-H Tsai, T-S Yeh, J-J Lu, H-C Lai, J D Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, disrupted intestinal barrier and chronic inflammation. Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, anti-obesity treatments that are safe, effective and widely available would be beneficial. We examined whether the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea may reduce obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for eight weeks to induce obesity and chronic inflammation...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630428/nuclear-accumulation-of-symplekin-promotes-cellular-proliferation-and-dedifferentiation-in-an-erk1-2-dependent-manner
#13
Chen Zhang, Hai-Lei Mao, Yi Cao
Symplekin is a multifunctional protein that localizes to both tight junctions and the nucleus in polarized epithelial cells, with confirmed roles in mRNA maturation, transcriptional modulation and tight-junction assembly. However, the mechanisms governing its subcellular distribution and related functions remain unclear. In this study, we found that symplekin primarily localizes to the nuclei of cultured dedifferentiated colorectal cancer cells, and nuclear symplekin showed higher phosphorylation and binding affinity with YBX3 than its membrane fraction...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628195/heterogeneity-of-tight-junctions-in-the-thick-ascending-limb
#14
REVIEW
Markus Bleich, Vera C Wulfmeyer, Nina Himmerkus, Susanne Milatz
Renal tubular transport mechanisms are optimized to be energy efficient and tailored to local gradients and transport rates. The combined transcellular action of ion channels, transporters, and pumps, together with the paracellular pathway, enables kidney function. Monogenetic diseases and mouse models indicate that both trans- and paracellular proteins can become disease-causing candidates and may be targets for future therapeutic approaches. Recent advances in tight junction research have provided new insights into their structure, function, and regulation...
June 19, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628193/modulation-of-epithelial-cell-polarity-by-bacterial-pathogens
#15
REVIEW
Rocio Tapia, Sarah E Kralicek, Gail A Hecht
Epithelial cells constitute a physical barrier that aids in protecting the host from microbial pathogens. Polarized epithelial cells contain distinct apical and basolateral membrane domains separated by intercellular junctions, including tight junctions (TJs), which contribute to the maintenance of apical-basal polarity. Polarity complexes also contribute to the establishment of TJ formation. Several pathogens perturb epithelial TJ barrier function and structure in addition to causing a loss of apical-basal polarity...
June 19, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627704/matrix-metalloproteinase-2-and-9-contribute-to-functional-integrity-and-noise%C3%A2-induced-damage-to-the-blood-labyrinth-barrier
#16
Jun Wu, Weiju Han, Xingrui Chen, Weiwei Guo, Ke Liu, Ruoya Wang, Jishuai Zhang, Na Sai
The cochlear blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB), located in the stria vascularis, is critical for the homeostasis of cochlear solutes and ion transport. Significant disruption to the BLB occurs early during noise‑induced hearing loss. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and ‑9 are important molecules known to be capable of degrading tight junction (TJ) proteins. The TJ proteins are important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), required to maintain BLB integrity and permeability. Previous studies have demonstrated that MMP‑2 and ‑9, rich in healthy cochlea, serve an essential role in regulating the cochlear response to acoustic trauma...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626344/increased-transendothelial-transport-of-ccl3-is-insufficient-to-drive-immune-cell-transmigration-through-the-blood-brain-barrier-under-inflammatory-conditions-in-vitro
#17
Maxime De Laere, Carmelita Sousa, Megha Meena, Roeland Buckinx, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Zwi Berneman, Nathalie Cools
Many neuroinflammatory diseases are characterized by massive immune cell infiltration into the central nervous system. Identifying the underlying mechanisms could aid in the development of therapeutic strategies specifically interfering with inflammatory cell trafficking. To achieve this, we implemented and validated a blood-brain barrier (BBB) model to study chemokine secretion, chemokine transport, and leukocyte trafficking in vitro. In a coculture model consisting of a human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line and human astrocytes, proinflammatory stimulation downregulated the expression of tight junction proteins, while the expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines was upregulated...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625129/triamcinolone-acetonide-suppresses-inflammation-and-facilitates-vascular-barrier-function-in-human-retinal-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#18
Shunsuke Imai, Tomohiro Otsuka, Akira Naito, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is resulted from the retinal microvascular leakage that accompanies the breakdown of blood-retinal barrier. Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a therapeutic agent for DME, but since the detailed mechanism of action of TA is not known, part of its action was examined. METHODS: In vitro model to enhance the permeability of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) was constructed by using DME-related cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)...
June 18, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623232/the-ring-finger-and-pdz-domain-containing-protein-pdzrn3-controls-localization-of-the-mg-2-regulator-claudin-16-in-renal-tube-epithelial-cells
#19
Kana Marunaka, Chisa Furukawa, Naoko Fujii, Toru Kimura, Takumi Furuta, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Satoshi Endo, Hajime Hasegawa, Naohiko Anzai, Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Masahiko Yamaguchi, Akira Ikari
Ion exchange in the renal tubules is fundamental to the maintenance of physiological ion levels. Claudin-16 (CLDN16) regulates the paracellular reabsorption of Mg(2+) in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop in the kidney, with dephosphorylation of CLDN16 increasing its intracellular distribution and decreasing paracellular Mg(2+) permeability. CLDN16 is located in the tight junctions, but the mechanism regulating its localization is unclear. Using yeast two-hybrid systems, we found that CLDN16 binds to PDZRN3, a protein containing both RING-finger and PDZ-domains...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622455/intestinal-metabolites-are-profoundly-altered-in-the-context-of-hla-b27-expression-and-functionally-modulate-disease-in-a-rat-model-of-spondyloarthropathy
#20
Mark Asquith, Sean Davin, Patrick Stauffer, Claire Michell, Cathleen Janowitz, Phoebe Lin, Joe Ensign-Lewis, Jason M Kinchen, Dennis R Koop, Jim Rosenbaum
Objective HLA-B27 associated spondyloarthropathies are associated with an altered intestinal microbiota and bowel inflammation. Therefore, we sought to identify B27-dependent changes in both host and microbial metabolites in the HLA-B27/β2m rat and whether microbiota-derived metabolites could impact disease in this major model of spondyloarthropathy. Methods Cecal contents were collected from 6wk (pre-diseased) and 16wk (diseased) Fischer 344 HLA-B27/β2m transgenic rats and WT controls. Metabolomic profiling was performed by high-throughput gas- and liquid-chromatography-based mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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