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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538665/molecular-basis-of-alcohol-related-gastric-and-colon-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Na, Ja Young Lee
Many meta-analysis, large cohort studies, and experimental studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric and colon cancer. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), catalase or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. The acetaldehyde level in the stomach and colon is locally influenced by gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori or colonic microbes, as well as polymorphisms in the genes encoding tissue alcohol metabolizing enzymes, especially ALDH2...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537926/vitamin-d3-induces-vitamin-d-receptor-and-hdac11-binding-to-relieve-the-promoter-of-the-tight-junction-proteins
#2
Feng-Hua Liu, Shan-Shan Li, Xiao-Xi Li, Shuai Wang, Mao-Gang Li, Li Guan, Tian-Gang Luan, Zhi-Gang Liu, Zhan-Ju Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and vitamin D (VitD)-deficiency play a critical role in a large number of diseases. The histone deacetylases (HDAC) are associated with a large number of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that the interaction between VitD and HDAC is associated with the regulation of epithelial barrier functions. In this study, human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84 cells, was cultured into monolayers to be used as a model to test the epithelial barrier functions. We observed that in a VitD-deficient environment, the T84 monolayer barrier function was compromised...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535201/regulatory-t-cells-ameliorate-tissue-plasminogen-activator-induced-brain-haemorrhage-after-stroke
#3
Leilei Mao, Peiying Li, Wen Zhu, Wei Cai, Zongjian Liu, Yanling Wang, Wenli Luo, Ruth A Stetler, Rehana K Leak, Weifeng Yu, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Gang Chen, Xiaoming Hu
Delayed thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may exacerbate blood-brain barrier breakdown after ischaemic stroke and lead to lethal haemorrhagic transformation. The immune system is a dynamic modulator of stroke response, and excessive immune cell accumulation in the cerebral vasculature is associated with compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We previously reported that regulatory T cells, which function to suppress excessive immune responses, ameliorated blood-brain barrier damage after cerebral ischaemia...
May 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534944/high-mir-122-expression-promotes-malignant-phenotypes-in-ccrcc-by-targeting-occludin
#4
Kentaro Jingushi, Yuri Kashiwagi, Yuko Ueda, Kaori Kitae, Hiroaki Hase, Wataru Nakata, Kazutoshi Fujita, Motohide Uemura, Norio Nonomura, Kazutake Tsujikawa
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common neoplasm of the adult kidney, and clear cell RCC (ccRCC) represents its most common histological subtype. Although several studies have reported high expression of miR-122 in ccRCC, its physiological role remains unclear. To clarify the role of miR-122 in ccRCC, we compared miR-122 expression levels in non-cancerous tissue and ccRCC. Significant upregulation of miR-122 was observed in ccRCC specimens. Moreover, ccRCC patients with high miR-122 expression showed poor progression-free survival compared to those with low miR-122 expression...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534938/metadherin-regulates-actin-cytoskeletal-remodeling-and-enhances-human-gastric-cancer-metastasis-via-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#5
Yaqiong Du, Bojian Jiang, Shuzheng Song, Guoqing Pei, Xiaochun Ni, Jugang Wu, Shoulian Wang, Zhengyuan Wang, Jiwei Yu
Metadherin (MTDH) can be recruited to mature tight junction complexes, and it regulates mesenchymal marker protein expression in many tumors and promote cancer metastasis. This study investigated the influence of MTDH expression on gastric cancer and to elucidate the potential mechanisms by which MTDH regulates actin cytoskeletal remodeling and enhances human gastric cancer metastasis via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Relative MTDH mRNA expression levels were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), and MTDH protein expression levels and localization were evaluated via immunohistochemical (ICH) staining...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534850/exploration-of-the-esophageal-mucosal-barrier-in-non-erosive-reflux-disease
#6
Nicolaas F Rinsma, Ricard Farré, Fred J Troost, Montserrat Elizalde, Daniel Keszthelyi, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Ad A Masclee, José M Conchillo
In the absence of visible mucosal damage, it is hypothesized that the esophageal mucosal barrier is functionally impaired in patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). The aim of the present study was to perform an exploratory analysis of the mucosal barrier in NERD compared to erosive esophagitis (EE) and controls. A second aim was to explore TRPV1 gene transcription in relation to the mucosal barrier function and heartburn symptoms. In this prospective study, 10 NERD patients, 11 patients with active erosive esophagitis and 10 healthy volunteers were included...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534661/characterization-of-human-fetal-brain-endothelial-cells-reveals-barrier-properties-suitable-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-modeling-of-the-bbb-with-syngenic-co-cultures
#7
Allison M Andrews, Evan M Lutton, Lee A Cannella, Nancy Reichenbach, Roshanak Razmpour, Matthew J Seasock, Steven J Kaspin, Steven F Merkel, Dianne Langford, Yuri Persidsky, Servio H Ramirez
Endothelial cells (ECs) form the basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a physical barrier that selectively restricts transport into the brain. In vitro models can provide significant insight into BBB physiology, mechanisms of human disease pathology, toxicology, and drug delivery. Given the limited availability of primary human adult brain microvascular ECs ( aBMVECs), human fetal tissue offers a plausible alternative source for multiple donors and the opportunity to build syngenic tri-cultures from the same host...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533415/mechanistic-insight-into-the-nucleus-vacuole-junction-based-on-the-vac8p-nvj1p-crystal-structure
#8
Hanbin Jeong, Jumi Park, Hye-In Kim, Miriam Lee, Young-Joon Ko, Sanghwa Lee, Youngsoo Jun, Changwook Lee
Formation of the nucleus-vacuole junction (NVJ) is mediated by direct interaction between the vacuolar protein Vac8p and the outer nuclear endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein Nvj1p. Herein we report the crystal structure of Vac8p bound to Nvj1p at 2.4-Å resolution. Vac8p comprises a flexibly connected N-terminal H1 helix followed by 12 armadillo repeats (ARMs) that form a right-handed superhelical structure. The extended 80-Å-long loop of Nvj1p specifically binds the highly conserved inner groove formed from ARM1-12 of Vac8p...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529587/expression-of-claudin-1-4-and-7-in-thyroid-neoplasms
#9
Dinç Süren, Mustafa Yildirim, Alper Sayiner, Arsenal Sezgin Alikanoğlu, Irem Atalay, Umut Riza Gündüz, Vildan Kaya, Şeyda Gündüz, Mehmet Tahir Oruç, Cem Sezer
The distinction of thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid neoplasm, as well as the subtyping of papillary carcinoma (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), may be performed histopathologically in the majority of cases. However, in certain cases, it is difficult to histopathologically distinguish between PC and FC, as well as follicular adenoma (FA), FC and the dominant nodule of multinodular goiter (MNG-DN). The present study aimed to determine the roles of the expression levels of the tight junction proteins claudin 1, 4 and 7 in the differential diagnosis of PC, FC, FA, MNG-DN, medullary carcinoma (MC) and anaplastic carcinoma (AC)...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528740/angubindin-1-a-novel-paracellular-absorption-enhancer-acting-at-the-tricellular-tight-junction
#10
Susanne M Krug, Tomohiro Hayaishi, Daisuke Iguchi, Akihiro Watari, Azusa Takahashi, Michael Fromm, Masahiro Nagahama, Hiroyuki Takeda, Yoshiaki Okada, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Takefumi Doi, Kiyohito Yagi, Masuo Kondoh
A limiting barrier for mucosal absorption of drugs is the tight junction (TJ). TJs exist between two adjacent cells (bicellular TJ, bTJ) and at the sites where three cells meet (tricellular TJ, tTJ). We present a novel approach which employs a physiologically regulated pathway for the passage of large molecules through the tTJ. Main barrier-relevant tTJ proteins are tricellulin and angulin-1 to -3. We developed an angulin binder from Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin (Ib) whose receptor is angulin-1. An Ib fragment corresponding to amino acids 421-664 (Ib421-664) of iota-toxin proved to bind in cells expressing angulin-1 and -3, but not angulin-2...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528309/maintenance-of-claudin-3-expression-and-the-barrier-functions-of-intercellular-junctions-in-parotid-acinar-cells-via-the-inhibition-of-src-signaling
#11
Megumi Yokoyama, Takanori Narita, Hajime Sakurai, Osamu Katsumata-Kato, Hiroshi Sugiya, Junko Fujita-Yoshigaki
OBJECTIVES: Salivary acinar and duct cells show different expression patterns of claudins, which may reflect their different functions. To study the role of claudins in saliva secretion, we examined alterations in the expression patterns of cell adhesion molecules in parotid glands of γ-irradiated rats and analyzed the influence of those changes on intercellular barrier function using primary cultures of parotid acinar cells. DESIGN: Rats were γ-irradiated with doses of 5, 15 or 20Gy, and expression levels of cell adhesion molecules were examined by immunoblotting analysis...
May 15, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526636/rebamipide-ameliorates-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Sehwan Shim, Hyo-Sun Jang, Hyun-Wook Myung, Jae Kyung Myung, Jin-Kyu Kang, Min-Jung Kim, Seung Bum Lee, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Young-Woo Jin, Seung-Sook Lee, Sunhoo Park
Radiation-induced enteritis is a major side effect in cancer patients undergoing abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Radiation exposure produces an uncontrolled inflammatory cascade and epithelial cell loss leading to impaired epithelial barrier function. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of rebamipide on regeneration of the intestinal epithelia after radiation injury. The abdomens of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 13Gy of irradiation (IR) and then the mice were treated with rebamipide. Upon IR, intestinal epithelia were destroyed structurally at the microscopic level and bacterial translocation was increased...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525895/dietary-zno-nanoparticles-alters-intestinal-microbiota-and-inflammation-response-in-weaned-piglets
#13
Tian Xia, Wenqing Lai, Miaomiao Han, Meng Han, Xi Ma, Liying Zhang
The present study was carried out to determine whether low dose of zinc oxide nanoparticles (Nano-ZnO) could serve as a potential substitute of pharmacological dose of traditional ZnO in weaned piglets. 180 crossbred weaning piglets were randomly assigned to 3 treatments. Experimental animals were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 mg Zn/kg (Control), 600 mg Zn/kg (Nano-ZnO) and 2000 mg Zn/kg (ZnO) for 14 days. On day 14 after weaning, the piglets fed Nano-ZnO did not differ from those fed traditional ZnO in growth performance and jejunal morphology, while Nano-ZnO treatment could significantly alleviate the incidence of diarrhea (P < 0...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524846/concerted-regulation-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-basement-membrane-and-barrier-function-by-angiocrine-factors
#14
Ignacio Benedicto, Guillermo L Lehmann, Michael Ginsberg, Daniel J Nolan, Rohan Bareja, Olivier Elemento, Zelda Salfati, Nazia M Alam, Glen T Prusky, Pierre Llanos, Sina Y Rabbany, Arvydas Maminishkis, Sheldon S Miller, Shahin Rafii, Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan
The outer blood-retina barrier is established through the coordinated terminal maturation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), fenestrated choroid endothelial cells (ECs) and Bruch's membrane, a highly organized basement membrane that lies between both cell types. Here we study the contribution of choroid ECs to this process by comparing their gene expression profile before (P5) and after (P30) the critical postnatal period when mice acquire mature visual function. Transcriptome analyses show that expression of extracellular matrix-related genes changes dramatically over this period...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523565/blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-exacerbated-in-experimental-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-via-mmp-9-activation-and-downregulation-of-tight-junction-proteins
#15
Saurabh Dhanda, Rajat Sandhir
The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in bile duct ligation (BDL) model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Four weeks after BDL surgery, a significant increase was observed in serum bilirubin levels. Masson trichrome staining revealed severe hepatic fibrosis in the BDL rats. (99m)Tc-mebrofenin retention was increased in the liver of BDL rats suggesting impaired hepatobiliary transport. An increase in permeability to sodium fluorescein, Evans blue, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran along with increase in water and electrolyte content was observed in brain regions of BDL rats suggesting disrupted BBB...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522595/human-salivary-peptide-histatin-1-stimulates-epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-and-barrier-function
#16
Irene A van Dijk, Maria Laura Ferrando, Anne-Eva van der Wijk, Ron A Hoebe, Kamran Nazmi, Wouter J de Jonge, Przemek M Krawczyk, Jan G M Bolscher, Enno C I Veerman, Jan Stap
Histatins are multifunctional histidine-rich peptides secreted by the salivary glands and exclusively present in the saliva of higher primates, where they play a fundamental role in the protection of the oral cavity. Our previously published results demonstrated that histatin-1 (Hst1) promotes cell-substrate adhesion in various cell types and hinted that it could also be involved in cell-cell adhesion, a process of fundamental importance to epithelial and endothelial barriers. Here we explore the effects of Hst1 on cellular barrier function...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521486/fibronectin-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells-via-activation-of-calpain
#17
Cheng-Lin Li, Dan Yang, Xin Cao, Fan Wang, Duan-Yang Hong, Jing Wang, Xiang-Chun Shen, Yan Chen
Fibronectin (FN) is a primary component of the mammary mesenchymal compartment and undergoes dramatic changes during breast cancer development. Increased FN expression is associated with an invasive and metastatic breast cancer phenotype. The present study demonstrated that FN causes an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like morphological change in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. FN stimulation caused the downregulation of epithelial markers E-cadherin and tight junction protein ZO-1, and the upregulation of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520763/genome-wide-gene-expression-array-identifies-novel-genes-related-to-disease-severity-and-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#18
Yung-Che Chen, Kuang-Den Chen, Mao-Chang Su, Chien-Hung Chin, Chung-Jen Chen, Chia-Wei Liou, Ting-Wen Chen, Ya-Chun Chang, Kuo-Tung Huang, Chin-Chou Wang, Ting-Ya Wang, Jen-Chieh Chang, Yong-Yong Lin, Yi-Xin Zheng, Meng-Chih Lin, Chang-Chun Hsiao
We aimed to identify novel molecular associations between chronic intermittent hypoxia with re-oxygenation and adverse consequences in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We analyzed gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 48 patients with sleep-disordered breathing stratified into four groups: primary snoring (PS), moderate to severe OSA (MSO), very severe OSA (VSO), and very severe OSA patients on long-term continuous positive airway pressure treatment (VSOC). Comparisons of the microarray gene expression data identified eight genes up-regulated with OSA and down-regulated with CPAP treatment, and five genes down-regulated with OSA and up-regulated with CPAP treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520587/complementary-roles-of-nod2-in-hematopoietic-and-nonhematopoietic-cells-in-preventing-gut-barrier-dysfunction-dependent-on-mlck-activity
#19
Ziad Al Nabhani, Nicolas Montcuquet, Maryline Roy, Monique Dussaillant, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Frédérick Barreau
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) pathogenesis is multifactorial involving genetic and environmental factors. Loss of function mutations in the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene are the main genetic risk factor for CD. Like patients with CD, Nod2 mice are characterized by an enhanced Th1 immune response and a defective mucosal barrier function evidenced by increased intestinal permeability. We previously showed that the latter is related to hematopoietic Nod2 deficiency. Our aim was to explore the mechanisms by which Nod2 expressed in the hematopoietic and in the nonhematopoietic compartments interplay to control epithelial paracellular permeability...
May 16, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518121/two-algorithms-for-high-throughput-and-multi-parametric-quantification-of-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction-morphology
#20
Anna Castells-Nobau, Bonnie Nijhof, Ilse Eidhof, Louis Wolf, Jolanda M Scheffer-de Gooyert, Ignacio Monedero, Laura Torroja, Jeroen A W M van der Laak, Annette Schenck
Synaptic morphology is tightly related to synaptic efficacy, and in many cases morphological synapse defects ultimately lead to synaptic malfunction. The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a well-established model for glutamatergic synapses, has been extensively studied for decades. Identification of mutations causing NMJ morphological defects revealed a repertoire of genes that regulate synapse development and function. Many of these were identified in large-scale studies that focused on qualitative approaches to detect morphological abnormalities of the Drosophila NMJ...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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