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Na k atpase

Lana Shabala, Jingyi Zhang, Igor I Pottosin, Jayakumar Bose, Min Zhu, Anja Thoe Fuglsang, Ana Velarde-Buendia, Amandine Massart, Camilla B Hill, Ute Roessner, Antony Bacic, Honghong Wu, Elisa Azzarello, Camilla Pandolfi, Meixue Zhou, Charlotte Poschenrieder, Stefano Mancuso, Sergey Shabala
While the importance of cell-type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal physiological mechanisms conferring higher sensitivity of apical root cells to salinity in barley. We show that salinity application to the root apex arrests root growth in a highly tissue- and treatment-specific manner. Although salinity-induced transient net Na+ uptake was about 4-fold higher in the root apex compared with the mature zone, mature root cells accumulated more cytosolic and vacuolar Na+ suggesting that higher sensitivity of apical cells to salt is not related to either enhanced Na+ exclusion or sequestration inside the root...
October 21, 2016: Plant Physiology
Yuan-Bo Wu, Li Zhang, Wen-Ting Li, Yi Yang, Jiang-Ming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Artesunate (ART) is an antimalarial drug with potential anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to explore the potential protective role of ART in hepatic encephalopathy (HE), involving its function against ammonia toxicity. METHODS: HE rats were induced by the administration of thioacetamide (TAA, 300mg/kg/day). Spatial learning ability was tested in both Morris water and eight-arm radial maze. Rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were prepared for ammonia treatment in vitro, in line with SH-SY5Y and C6 cells...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Azam Moshtaghi, Md Lifat Rahi, Viet Tuan Nguyen, Peter B Mather, David A Hurwood
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype) addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance) ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. METHODS: To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW) crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i), reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii), performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas) and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology...
2016: PeerJ
Andrea J Morash, Sara R C Mackellar, Louise Tunnah, David A Barnett, Kilian M Stehfest, Jayson M Semmens, Suzanne Currie
Estuarine habitats are frequently used as nurseries by elasmobranch species for their protection and abundant resources; however, global climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of environmental challenges in these estuaries that may negatively affect elasmobranch physiology. Hyposmotic events are particularly challenging for marine sharks that osmoconform, and species-specific tolerances are not well known. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of an acute (48 h) ecologically relevant hyposmotic event (25...
2016: Conservation Physiology
R Onnainty, E M Schenfeld, J P Petiti, M R Longhi, A Torres, M A Quevedo, G E Granero
Here, a novel drug delivery system was developed for the hydrochlorothiazide (HCT):ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) inclusion complex loaded into chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs)[CS/HCT:ßCD NPs]. It was found, for the first time, that exposure of the intestinal mucosa to free HCT resulted in an increased and abnormal intestinal permeability associated with several injuries to the intestinal epithelium. Nevertheless, the HCT delivery system obtained ameliorated the damage of the intestinal epithelium induced by HCT...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Angélica S Reis, Mikaela Pinz, Luis Fernando B Duarte, Juliano A Roehrs, Diego Alves, Cristiane Luchese, Ethel A Wilhelm
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that quinoline compounds have attracted much attention in the field of drug development. Accordingly, 4-phenylselenyl-7-chloroquinoline (4-PSQ) is a new quinoline derivative containing selenium, which showed a potential antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic-like properties of 4-PSQ. Mice were orally pretreated with 4-PSQ (5-50 mg/kg) or vehicle, 30 min prior to the elevated plus-maze (EPM), light-dark (LDT) or open field (OFT) tests...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Luca Villa, Roberta Buono, Mara Ferrandi, Isabella Molinari, Fabio Benigni, Arianna Bettiga, Giorgia Colciago, Masami Ikehata, Elisabetta Messaggio, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia, Paolo Manunta
Warm renal ischemia performed during partial nephrectomy has been found to be associated with kidney disease. Since endogenous ouabain (EO) is a neuro-endocrine hormone involved in renal damage, we evaluated the role of EO in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We measured plasma and renal EO variations and markers of glomerular and tubular damage (nephrin, KIM-1, Kidney-Injury-Molecule-1, α1 Na-K ATPase) and the protective effect of the ouabain inhibitor, rostafuroxin. We studied five groups of rats: (1) normal; (2) infused for eight weeks with ouabain (30 µg/kg/day, OHR) or (3) saline; (4) ouabain; or (5) saline-infused rats orally treated with 100 µg/kg/day rostafuroxin for four weeks...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Young Youp Koh, Dong Yoon Lim
OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of simvastatin, one of statins, on the catecholamine (CA) secretion from the perfused model of the isolated rat adrenal gland, and also to clarify its mechanism of action. DESIGN AND METHOD: The adrenal gland was isolated and perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate. CA was measured directly by using the fluorospectrophotometer. RESULTS: Simvastatin inhibited ACh-evoked CA secretory response in a dose- and time-dependent fashion...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Shouta Sugio, Koujiro Tohyama, Shinichiro Oku, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Takeshi Yoshimura, Keigo Hikishima, Ryutaro Yano, Takahiro Fukuda, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano, Masahiko Watanabe, Masaki Fukata, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Kenji F Tanaka
Astrocytes have recently been shown to provide physiological support for various brain functions, although little is known about their involvement in white matter integrity. Several inherited infantile-onset leukoencephalopathies, such as Alexander disease and megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), implicate astrocytic involvement in the formation of white matter. Several mouse models of MLC had been generated by knocking out the Mlc1 gene; however, none of those models was reported to show myelin abnormalities prior to formation of the myelin sheath...
October 17, 2016: Glia
Mohammad Shahidullah, Amritlal Mandala, Nicholas A Delamere
Insulin has been shown to elicit changes of Na,K-ATPase activity in various tissues. Na,K-ATPase in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE) plays a role in aqueous humor secretion and changes of Na,K-ATPase activity impact the driving force. Because we detect a change of NPE Na,K-ATPase activity in response to insulin, studies were carried out to examine the response mechanism. Ouabain-sensitive rubidium (Rb) uptake by cultured NPE cells, measured as a functional index of Na,K-ATPase-mediated inward potassium transport, was found to increase in cells exposed for 5 min to insulin...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Rajesh Choudhary, Surendra H Bodakhe
AIMS: Previously we found that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) exposure substantially elevates hypertension and potentiates cataract formation. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker against cataractogenesis in the CdCl2-induced hypertensive animal model. MAIN METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley albino rats (150-180g) were randomly selected and assigned to four groups (n=6). Among the four groups, one group (normal) received 0...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
Yu Li, Min Wang, Shilei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1) protects rat brain from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the precise mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to elucidate the effect of mdivi-1 on energy metabolism and neuronal apoptosis induced by I/R in vitro. METHODS: Cultured hippocampal neurons from Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control (C), vehicle (V), I/R (I), and I/R plus mdivi-1 (M)...
October 14, 2016: Neurological Research
M Chaâbane, I Ghorbel, A Elwej, H Mnif, T Boudawara, S Ellouze Chaâbouni, N Zeghal, N Soudani
Pesticides exposure causes usually harmful effects to the environment and human health. The present study aimed to investigate the potential toxic effects of penconazole, a triazole fungicide, on the cerebrum and cerebellum of adult rats. Penconazole was administered intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats at a dose of 67 mg kg(-1) body weight every 2 days during 9 days. Results showed that penconazole induced oxidative stress in rat cerebrum and cerebellum tissues. In fact, we have found a significant increase in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and advanced oxidation protein product levels, as well as an alteration of the antioxidant status, enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and nonenzymatic (glutathione), the cholinergic function, and membrane-bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase)...
October 12, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Joshua R Hancock, Sean P Place
As we move into the Anthropocene, organisms inhabiting marine environments will continue to face growing challenges associated with changes in ocean pH (ocean acidification), dissolved oxygen (dead zones) and temperature. These factors, in combination with naturally variable environments such as the rocky intertidal zone, may create extreme physiological challenges for organisms that are already performing near their biological limits. Although numerous studies have examined the impacts of climate-related stressors on intertidal animals, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms driving adaptation to ocean acidification and how this may alter organism interactions, particularly in marine vertebrates...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Rajesh Choudhary, Surendra H Bodakhe
Previously we found that hypertension potentiates the risk the cataractogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of magnesium taurate (MgT) on hypertension and associated lenticular damages against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced hypertensive animals. Male Sprague-Dawley albino rats (150-180g) were assigned to five experimental groups (n=6). Among the five groups, normal group received 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose (10ml/kg/day, p.o.). Hypertension control group received CdCl2 (0...
October 8, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xue-Jiao Chang, Chao-Qun Zheng, Yu-Wei Wang, Chuang Meng, Xiao-Lu Xie, Hai-Peng Liu
Gradually increasing atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8...
October 7, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
E G Canli, G Atli, M Canli
Freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to Cu in differing Ca(2+) levels (15, 30 and 90 mg/L), using acute (0.3 µM, 3 d) and chronic (0.03 µM, 30 d) exposure protocols and enzyme activities related to the antioxidant (catalase, CAT, EC; superoxide dismutase, SOD, EC; glutathione peroxidase, GPx, EC and osmoregulation (Total, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, EC, Mg(2+)-ATPase, EC systems in the erythrocytes were measured. Activities of antioxidant enzymes generally decreased significantly following either Ca(2+) alone or Ca(2+)+Cu combinations in both acute and chronic exposures...
October 6, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Saradamma Bulle, Vaddi Damodara Reddy, Ananda Vardhan Hebbani, Pannuru Padmavathi, Chandrasekhar Challa, Pavan Kumar Puvvada, Elisha Repalle, Devanna Nayakanti, Chandrakala Aluganti Narasimhulu, Varadacharyulu Nallanchakravarthula
The present study investigated the antioxidant potential of P. santalinus heartwood methanolic extract (PSE) against alcohol-induced nephro-toxicity. The results indicated an increase in the concentration of kidney damage plasma markers, urea and creatinine with a concomitant decrease in the concentration of uric acid in alcohol-administered rats. A significant decrease in plasma electrolytes and mineral levels with increased kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NOx) levels was also observed...
October 3, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Y Zheng, L Qiu, L Fan, C Song, S Meng, J Chen
In the present study, GIFT tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for 7, 14, and 21 days. Over the duration of the exposure, genotoxicity and the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and Ca(+)/Mg(+)-ATPase (CMA) were measured in the gill, kidney, and intestine, to evaluate changes in osmoregulatory response in O. niloticus. Our results showed significant decreases in organic NKA (except in gill tissues after 0.5 mg/L PCB-exposure) and CMA activity. The results of the genotoxicity assay showed significant increases in atp1a1a, nkcc2 (only in gill tissue), and fxyd7 (except after 21 days of 5 mg/L PCB exposure)...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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