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Thora Lieke, Xuchao Zhang, Christian E W Steinberg, Bo Pan
In recent years, biochars have gained increasing interest in mitigating climate changes and revitalizing contaminated or drained soil. Studies determining their impact on the ecosystem, especially on soil invertebrates, however, are still scarce and the neurotoxic potential of biochars has never been evaluated before. Using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans we determined the neurotoxic effect of biochar produced from rice straw by pyrolysis at 500 °C at concentrations ranging from 0 to 2000 mg C∙L-1...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sara Dawood, Tushar Kanti Sen, Chi Phan
A practical continuous adsorption study in a packed-bed column was conducted by using two separate layers of kaolin and pine cone based biochar packed bed adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from its aqueous solution. A series of column experiments were performed to determine the breakthrough curves (BTCs) by varying bed height (3-7 cm), inlet flow rate (13- 17 ml/min) and initial dye concentration (50 -150 mg/L). The Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and Dose response (DR) dynamic models were applied to column experimental data under various operational conditions to predict the column breakthrough curves (BTC) using both nonlinear regression and linear regression and to determine various characteristic parameters such as percentage removal of dye, breakthrough time, used bed length, mass transfer zone (MTZ) and dye adsorption density q(total) that are useful for process design...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
Dongjin Wan, Lairong Wu, Yongde Liu, Hailiang Zhao, Jun Fu, Shuhu Xiao
In this study, cow dung biochar (CDB) and ferric chloride-modified CDB (Fe@CDB) were synthesized to remove low concentration perchlorate from water. The pseudo-second-order kinetics model was used and satisfactorily described perchlorate removal onto CDB and Fe@CDB. The Langmuir model fit the experimental isotherm data better than the Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained using the Langmuir model was 1787 μg/g for Fe@CDB and 304 μg/g for CDB. The detrimental effects of coexisting anions decreased as: NO3 -  > SO4 2 -  > Cl- ...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hye-Bin Kim, Seon-Hee Kim, Eun-Ki Jeon, Do-Hyung Kim, Daniel C W Tsang, Daniel S Alessi, Eilhann E Kwon, Kitae Baek
To date, studies on the mobility of arsenic (As) in soil amended with biochar have primarily relied on broad empirical observations, resulting in a gap between the behavior of As in amended soil and the chemical mechanisms controlling that behavior. This study focuses on the influence of abiotic factors in As mobility in As-contaminated soils amended with biochar. In order to understand the leaching of DOC and phosphate across a range of biomass feedstock and pyrolysis temperature, rice straw and granular sludge from an anaerobic digester were pyrolyzed at 300, 550, and 700 °C, and subjected to leaching studies by mixing air dried soil with 10 wt% of biochar at a soil: water ratio of 1:1(w/v)...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Peng Zhang, Shiling Zheng, Jia Liu, Bingchen Wang, Fanghua Liu, Yujie Feng
Biochar has been reported to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in co-cultures between Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens, a model defined co-culture system. In this study, the biochar derived from the activated sludge with different pyrolysis temperature was added to the co-cultures, the ethanol metabolism rates (Re) and succinate production rates (Rs) of co-culture with biochar-800 were 1.05- and 1.42-fold higher than that without addition. The results suggested that the conductivity of the biochar did not correlate with the facilitating effect of the biochar on the co-culture metabolism...
June 5, 2018: Water Research
Melanie Kah, Gabriel Sigmund, Pedro Luis Manga Chavez, Lucie Bielská, Thilo Hofmann
Amendment with biochar and/or compost has been proposed as a strategy to remediate soil contaminated with low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strong sorption potential of biochar can help sequestering contaminants while the compost may promote their degradation. An improved understanding of how sorption evolves upon soil amendment is an essential step towards the implementation of the approach. The present study reports on the sorption of pyrene to two soils, four biochars and one compost. Detailed isotherm analyzes across a wide range of concentration confirmed that soil amendments can significantly increase the sorption of pyrene...
2018: PeerJ
Zeng-Hui Diao, Jian-Jun Du, Dan Jiang, Ling-Jun Kong, Wen-Yi Huo, Cui-Mei Liu, Qi-Hang Wu, Xiang-Rong Xu
Cr6+ and Pb2+ are both highly toxic pollutants and commonly co-exist in some industrial effluents and contaminated waters. In this study, simultaneous removal of Cr6+ and Pb2+ by a novel sewage sludge-derived biochar immobilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (SSB-nZVI) was systematically investigated. It was well demonstrated that a porous structure was successfully formed on the SSB-nZVI when the starch was used as an additive. A synergistic effect on the adsorption and reduction over the SSB-nZVI was achieved, resulting in nearly 90 and 82% of Cr6+ and Pb2+ removal within 30 min, respectively...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yao Li, Xingang Liu, Xiaohu Wu, Fengshou Dong, Jun Xu, Xinglu Pan, Yongquan Zheng
Biochar (BC) can alter the fate and bioavailability of pesticides in soil. In this study, the effects of three types of BCs (made of crofton weed, wood chips and rice hull) on the sorption of acetochlor, a common herbicide, were investigated. The acetochlor sorption constants (Kf value) were 309.96 μg1-n Ln/ kg (biochars made of ricehull, BCR), 3.54 μg1-n Ln/ kg (biochars made of crofton weed, BCH) and 2.27 μg1-n Ln/ kg (biochars made of wood chips, BCW). The persistence of acetochlor was 8 times greater when 1% BCR was added to the soil...
June 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Veysel Turan, Shahbaz Ali Khan, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman, Muhammad Iqbal, Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Maryam Fatima
Depleting aquifers, lack of planning and low socioeconomic status of Pakistani farmers have led them to use wastewater (WW) for irrigating their crops causing food contamination with heavy metals and ultimately negative effects on human health. This study evaluates the effects of chitosan (CH) and biochar (BC) on growth and nutritional quality of brinjal plant together with in situ immobilization of heavy metals in a soil polluted with heavy metals due to irrigation with wastewater (SPHIW) and further irrigated with the same WW...
June 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhuhong Ding, Xuebin Xu, Thihongnhung Phan, Xin Hu, Guangze Nie
In order to develop promising sorbents for value-added application of solid wastes, low-cost aluminum-enriched biochar was prepared from abandoned Tetra Pak used to hold milks, a paper-polyethylence-Al foil laminated package box, after acid pretreatment and subsequent slow pyrolysis under an oxygen-limited environment at 600 °C. The basic physicochemical properties of the resultant biochar were characterized and the sorption performance of aqueous As(III) and As(V) was investigated via batch and column sorption experiments...
June 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Su He, Lili Ding, Yao Pan, Haidong Hu, Lin Ye, Hongqiang Ren
This study investigated the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT = 8, 12, 16, and 24 h) on effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), dissolved total nitrogen (DTN), and functional gene quantity/transcription in biochar packed reactors over a 125-day operation at 5 °C. The lowest effluent DON concentration (0.21 ± 0.14 mg/L) and DTN concentration (10.74 ± 0.41 mg/L) were in R12h and R24h , respectively. Adequate HRT (>12 h) was a necessary parameter for poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation (PHB/MLSS: 0...
June 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kiatkamjon Intani, Sajid Latif, Zebin Cao, Joachim Müller
Response surface methodology was used to optimise pyrolysis conditions to produce biochar from maize residues (cobs, husks, leaves and stalks). The aim was to obtain biochar with good potential as an additive for composting. Mathematical models were developed to explain the experimental responses of volatile matter content (VM), ash content (AC), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) to the operating parameters such as temperature, heating rate and holding time. The temperature had the most significant influence on biochar properties...
June 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ihuoma N Anyanwu, Moses N Alo, Amos M Onyekwere, John D Crosse, Okoro Nworie, Clementina U Uwa, Md Faruque Hossain
Accumulation of heavy metals results in soil degradation and impairs the normal functioning of ecosystems. Thus, monitoring of heavy metals is essential in both pristine and polluted soils. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in a pristine tropical agricultural soil using acid digestion procedures. The soil samples were also analyzed for physico-chemical parameters and biochar toxicity to earthworms. Data shows that the soil is acidic, with low organic matter content. The level of heavy metals ranged from <0...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Abhay Kumar, Stephen Joseph, Ludmila Tsechansky, Karen Privat, Inga J Schreiter, Christoph Schüth, Ellen R Graber
Adding biochar to Zn-contaminated soil can immobilize excess Zn and promote plant biomass growth. This was seen previously over the course of a 180-day planted pot trial involving two types of biochar (cattle manure, CM, and grain husk, GH) in a Zn-contaminated soil. Both biochars alleviated Zn-induced phytotoxicity to Ficus by immobilizing Zn and reducing its uptake by the plant, but to different extents. The aim of the current study was to delve into the in-soil mechanisms involved in biochar-mediated Zn immobilization...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhaofeng Chang, Luping Tian, Fangfang Li, Yuwei Zhou, Min Wu, Christian E W Steinberg, Xudong Dong, Bo Pan, Baoshan Xing
Benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) molecules are a widely used marker method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of pyrogenic black carbons (BC). Based on an overview of the development and chemical reaction mechanism of the BPCA method, we propose that the commonly used BPCA markers may not be solely indicative of BC but more generally of condensed organic matter in soils and aquatic systems. First, we sequentially removed the soil fractions and observed that the BPCA contents were abundant in humic acids (HAs)...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michelle A Coelho, Roberta Fusconi, Liliane Pinheiro, Ionara C Ramos, Adão S Ferreira
The addition of organic residues to agricultural soils has been used as a practical alternative to improve crop quality and health. The objective of this work was to evaluate maize physiological and nutritional responses to the application of compost and biochar combined with urea (N) and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). The experiment was performed in plastic pots with 3 kg of soil under greenhouse conditions for 30 days. The compost and biochar were applied at the rate of 0.3 ton ha-1, using an amount of nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) demanded by crop growth...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Loissi Kalakodio, Moussa Bakayoko, Adiara Kalagodio, Bodjui Olivier Abo, Jean Pierre Muhoza, El Moctar Ismaila
Biochar, coal produced by pyrolysis and used as an amendment, has several advantages and has proven to be a promising avenue for sustainable agriculture. However, the current manufacturing methods, the conditions of pyrolysis and the biomasses used produce biochars of very variable qualities which can differently affect the productivity of the ground and the outputs of plants. Currently, no study makes it possible to elucidate the influence of the physicochemical properties of the biochars on the structure and the microbial diversity of the soil...
June 13, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Md Manik Mian, Guijian Liu, Balal Yousaf, Biao Fu, Habib Ullah, Muhammad Ubaid Ali, Qumber Abbas, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba Munir, Liu Ruijia
Enhancing biochar adsorption capabilities and recollection ability is essential for efficient biochar application. In this study, Nitrogen-doped magnetic biochar was prepared via one-step heating of FeCl3 -laden agar biomass under NH3 environment. Synthesized magnetic biochar ABF-N800 shows a maximum Cr (VI) adsorption capacity up to 142.86 mg g-1 , outperforming that of magnetic biochar and many other previously reported materials. Moreover, a significant increase of magnetic properties obtained by NH3 ambiance pyrolysis enables easy separation of the adsorbent from the solution after treated with Cr (VI)...
June 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Si-Jia Liu, Yun-Guo Liu, Xiao-Fei Tan, Guang-Ming Zeng, Ya-Hui Zhou, Shao-Bo Liu, Zhi-Hong Yin, Lu-Hua Jiang, Mei-Fang Li, Jun Wen
Chemical activation and microwave assisted activation were adopted to modify biochar. Activated biochars were characterized by SEM, BET, FTIR, XRD and XPS. Raw biochar, activated biochars and commercial activated carbon were compared as remediation strategies for sediment from the Xiangjiang River containing 14.70 mg/kg Cd. After the treatment by activated biochar, the overlying water and pore water concentration of Cd decreased by 71% and 49%, respectively. And the threat of heavy metal along with bioavailability of Cd was depressed...
June 4, 2018: Chemosphere
J L Munera-Echeverri, V Martinsen, L T Strand, V Zivanovic, G Cornelissen, J Mulder
Biochar, produced through pyrolysis of organic matter, is negatively charged, thus contributing to electrostatic adsorption of cations. However, due to its porous structure and contents of alkaline ashes, the determination of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) is challenging. Literature values for the CEC of biochar are surprisingly variable and are often poorly reproducible, suggesting methodological problems. Here, we modify and critically assess different steps in the existing ammonium acetate (NH4 OAc) method (pH 7), where ammonium (NH4 + ) is displaced by potassium chloride (KCl), following removal of excess NH4 OAc with isopropanol, in batch mode...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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