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Xueyang Zhang, Bin Gao, Anne Elise Creamer, Chengcheng Cao, Yuncong Li
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) severely threaten human health and the ecological environment because most of them are toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. The persistent increase of VOCs together with the stringent regulations make the reduction of VOC emissions more imperative. Up to now, numerous VOC treatment technologies have emerged, such as incineration, condensation, biological degradation, absorption, adsorption, and catalysis oxidation et al. Among them, the adsorption technology has been recognized as an efficient and economical control strategy because it has the potential to recover and reuse both adsorbent and adsorbate...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Min Xu, Hongxia Xia, Jun Wu, Gang Yang, Xiaohong Zhang, Hong Peng, Xiaoyu Yu, Li Li, Hong Xiao, Hui Qi
The impact of biochar application on soil ecological functions depends on the diversity of soil conditions and of the feedstocks from which biochar is obtained. Moreover, little information is available on the effect of biochar on dynamic changes in microorganisms with the development of rice plants in multi-metal-contaminated paddy soil amended with wine-lees-derived biochar. In this paper, biochar obtained from the pyrolysis of wine lees at 600°C was used to investigate the potential role of biochar in maintaining soil ecological functions, with consideration of the alteration of the microbial population over periods of rice growth...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Heshan Zheng, Wanqian Guo, Shuo Li, Yidi Chen, Qinglian Wu, Xiaochi Feng, Renli Yin, Shih-Hsin Ho, Nanqi Ren, Jo-Shu Chang
Biochars derived from three microalgal strains (namely, Chlorella sp. Cha-01, Chlamydomonas sp. Tai-03 and Coelastrum sp. Pte-15) were evaluated for their capacity to adsorb p-nitrophenols (PNP) using raw microalgal biomass and powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the control. The results show that BC-Cha-01 (biochar from Chlorella sp. Cha-01) exhibited a high PNP adsorption capacity of 204.8mgg(-1), which is 250% and 140% higher than that of its raw biomass and PAC, respectively. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium are well described with pseudo-second-order equation and Freundlich model, respectively...
May 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Yohan Jayawardhana, S S Mayakaduwa, Prasanna Kumarathilaka, Sewwandi Gamage, Meththika Vithanage
The potential of biochar, produced from fibrous organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW), for remediation of benzene, one of the frequently found toxic volatile organic compounds in landfill leachate, was investigated in this study based on various environmental conditions such as varying pH, benzene concentration, temperature and time. At the same time, landfill leachate quality parameters were assessed at two different dump sites in Sri Lanka: Gohagoda and Kurunegala. MSW biochar (MSW-BC) was produced by slow temperature pyrolysis at 450 °C, and the physiochemical characteristics of the MSW-BC were characterized...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Engil Isadora Pujol Pereira, Rafaela Feola Conz, Johan Six
The potential of biochar to prevent nitrogen (N) losses and improve plant performance were studied across various levels of N input for two growing seasons in mesocosms simulating an organic lettuce production system. A silt loam soil was amended with pine chip (PC) and walnut shell (WS) biochar (10tha(-1)) in combination with five organic N fertilization rates (0, 56, 112, 168, and 225kgNha(-1)). The N output through harvest, leachate, and N2O emissions were measured to assess N utilization and environmental losses of biochar-amended soils...
May 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Teresa Fresno, Jesús M Peñalosa, Jakob Santner, Markus Puschenreiter, Eduardo Moreno-Jiménez
Arsenic and Cu mobility was investigated in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus L. grown in an iron-amended contaminated soil. White lupin was grown in rhizobags in contaminated soil either left untreated or amended with iron sulphate plus lime (Fe + lime) or biochar (Fe + BC). Porewater was monitored in rhizosphere and bulk soil throughout the experiment and the extractable fraction of several elements and As and Cu plant uptake was analysed after 48 days. The distribution of As, Cu, P and Fe in the lupin rhizosphere was evaluated with chemical images obtained by laser ablation-ICP-MS analysis of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels...
May 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Hinnan Khalid, Fatima Akmal, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Usman Khalid, Muhammad Azhar
Cadmium (Cd) uptake and accumulation in crop plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the main concerns for food security worldwide. A field experiment was done to investigate the effects of limestone, lignite, and biochar on growth, physiology and Cd uptake in wheat and rice under rotation irrigated with raw effluents. Initially, each treatment was applied alone at 0.1% and combined at 0.05% each and wheat was grown in the field and then, after wheat harvesting, rice was grown in the same field without additional application of amendments...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Bijing Xiong, Youchi Zhang, Yanwei Hou, Hans Peter H Arp, Brian J Reid, Chao Cai
The inoculation of rice straw biochar with PAH-degrading Mycobacterium gilvum (1.27 × 10(11) ± 1.24 × 10(10) cell g(-1)), and the subsequent amendment of this composite material to PAHs contaminated (677 mg kg(-1)) coke plant soil, was conducted in order to investigate if would enhance PAHs biodegradation in soils. The microbe-biochar composite showed superior degradation capacity for phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Phenanthrene loss in the microbe-biochar composite, free cell alone and biochar alone treatments was, respectively, 62...
May 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Rumi Narzari, Neonjyoti Bordoloi, Banashree Sarma, Lina Gogoi, Nirmali Gogoi, Bikram Borkotoki, Rupam Kataki
This study investigated the yields and the physicochemical properties of biochar from three different feedstocks viz., i) bioenergy byproducts (deoiled cakes of Jatropha carcus and Pongamia glabra), ii) lignocellulose biomass (Jatropha carcus seed cover), and iii) a noxious weed (Parthenium hysterophorus), obtained through slow pyrolysis at a heating rate of 40°Cmin(-1) with a nitrogen flow 100mlmin(-1) at a temperature range of 350-650°C. For successful utilization of biochar for C-sequestration, its ability to resist abiotic or biotic degradation was deduced from recalcitrance index R50 by using TG analysis...
April 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Aylin Aghababaei, Mohamed Chaker Ncibi, Mika Sillanpää
In the present investigation, the adsorptive removal of the antibiotic drug oxytetracycline (OTC) and toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) from aqueous solution was carried out using forest and wood-processing residues. Numerous biochars were prepared using different chemical agents (H3PO4, H2SO4, NaOH and KOH) and pyrolysis times and temperatures. Several elemental, chemical and structural characterizations were performed. The optimum conditions for pyrolysis to enable the production of biochars with well-developed porosity was 600°C for 1h, for both residues...
May 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Magdalena Stefaniuk, Patryk Oleszczuk, Krzysztof Różyło
The application of sewage sludge with biochar as fertilizer may be a new method improves soil properties. Biochar increases of the crops productivity and reduction of bioavailability of contaminants. In the present study the persistence of sum of 16 (Σ16) PAHs (US EPA 16 PAHs) in a sewage sludge-amended soil (11t/h) and in a sewage sludge-amended soil with the addition of biochar (at a rate of 2.5, 5 or 10% of sewage sludge (dry weight basis)) was determined. This study was carried out as a plot experiment over a period of 18months...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
E Pehlivan, N Özbay, A S Yargıç, R Z Şahin
Pyrolysis is an eco-friendly process to achieve valuable products like bio-oil, char and gases. In the last decades, biochar production from pyrolysis of a wide variety of industrial and agricultural wastes become popular, which can be utilized as adsorbent instead of the expensive activated carbons. In this study, cherry pulp was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed tubular reactor at five different temperatures (400, 500,550, 600 and 700 °C) and three different heating rates (10, 100 and 200 °C/min) to obtain biochar...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Luhua Jiang, Yunguo Liu, Shaobo Liu, Guangming Zeng, Xin-Jiang Hu, Xi Hu, Zhi Guo, Xiao-Fei Tan, Lele Wang, Zhibin Wu
Adsorption of two estrogen contaminants (17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynyl estradiol) by graphene nanomaterials was investigated and compared with those of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), two biochars, a powdered activated carbon (PAC), and a granular activate carbon (GAC) in ultrapure water and in the competition of natural organic matter (NOM). Graphene nanomaterials showed comparable or better adsorption ability than carbon nanotubes (CNTs), biochars (BCs) and activated carbon (ACs) under NOM preloading...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Muhammad Khalid, Danial Hassani, Muhammad Bilal, Jianli Liao, Danfeng Huang
This work evaluated the impact of exogenous soil inoculation of beneficial fungal strain Piriformospora indica on phytochemical changes and the related genes expression of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis L.) by greenhouse pot experiments. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) affirmed that among the different combinations of fungal and organic fertilizer treatments, the phenolic acids and flavonoids were considerably enriched in organic fertilizer and fungi (OP) followed by organic fertilizer, biochar, fungi (OBP) treated plants...
2017: PloS One
Rimena R Domingues, Paulo F Trugilho, Carlos A Silva, Isabel Cristina N A de Melo, Leônidas C A Melo, Zuy M Magriotis, Miguel A Sánchez-Monedero
Biochar production and use are part of the modern agenda to recycle wastes, and to retain nutrients, pollutants, and heavy metals in the soil and to offset some greenhouse gas emissions. Biochars from wood (eucalyptus sawdust, pine bark), sugarcane bagasse, and substances rich in nutrients (coffee husk, chicken manure) produced at 350, 450 and 750°C were characterized to identify agronomic and environmental benefits, which may enhance soil quality. Biochars derived from wood and sugarcane have greater potential for improving C storage in tropical soils due to a higher aromatic character, high C concentration, low H/C ratio, and FTIR spectra features as compared to nutrient-rich biochars...
2017: PloS One
Xinda Li, Li Liu, Xianzong Wang, Yong Sik Ok, Janet A W Elliott, Scott X Chang, Hyun-Joong Chung
A flexible and self-healing supercapacitor with high energy density in low temperature operation was fabricated using a combination of biochar-based composite electrodes and a polyampholyte hydrogel electrolyte. Polyampholytes, a novel class of tough hydrogel, provide self-healing ability and mechanical flexibility, as well as low temperature operation for the aqueous electrolyte. Biochar is a carbon material produced from the low-temperature pyrolysis of biological wastes; the incorporation of reduced graphene oxide conferred mechanical integrity and electrical conductivity and hence the electrodes are called biochar-reduced-graphene-oxide (BC-RGO) electrodes...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xian Wu, Lishuang Fan, Maoxu Wang, Junhan Cheng, Hexian Wu, Bin Guan, Naiqing Zhang, Kening Sun
Restriction on the low conductivity of sulfur and soluble polysulfides during discharge, lithium sulfur battery is unable for further large scale applications. The current carbon based cathodes suffer from poor cycle stability and high cost. Recently, heteroatom doped carbons have been considered as a settlement to enhance the performance of lithium sulfur batteries. With this strategy, we report the low cost activated nori based N, O-doped 3D hierarchical carbon material (ANC) as a sulfur host. The N, O dual-doped ANC reveals an elevated electrochemical performance, which exhibits not only a good rate performance over 5 C, but also a high sulfur content of 81...
May 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jessica L Linville, Yanwen Shen, Patricia A Ignacio-de Leon, Robin P Schoene, Meltem Urgun-Demirtas
A modified version of an in-situ CO2 removal process was applied during anaerobic digestion of food waste with two types of walnut shell biochar at bench scale under batch operating mode. Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8.4 vs. 5.6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23.4 vs. 0.3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0.2 vs. 40% wt% of ash). The 0.96-3...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Yongsheng Wang, Yansui Liu, Ruliang Liu, Aiping Zhang, Shiqi Yang, Hongyuan Liu, Yang Zhou, Zhengli Yang
The efficacy of biochar as an environmentally friendly agent for non-point source and climate change mitigation remains uncertain. Our goal was to test the impact of biochar amendment on paddy rice nitrogen (N) uptake, soil N leaching, and soil CH4 and N2O fluxes in northwest China. Biochar was applied at four rates (0, 4.5, 9 and13.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1)). Biochar amendment significantly increased rice N uptake, soil total N concentration and the abundance of soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), but it significantly reduced the soil NO3(-)-N concentration and soil bulk density...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chao-Yi Hung, Wen-Tien Tsai, Jie-Wei Chen, Yu-Quan Lin, Yuan-Ming Chang
In the study, the biogas digestate was evaluated as a potential feedstock for preparing biochars at a broad temperature range of 300-900°C. The physico-chemical and pore properties of the resulting biochars (denoted as SDBC, solid digestate biochar), including calorific value (higher heating value), surface area/pore volume/pore size distribution, true density, scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), were studied. It was found that the higher heating values of the SDBC products were on a decreasing trend as pyrolysis temperature increased, but they indicated an increase in true density...
May 6, 2017: Waste Management
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