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Fernando Fornes, Rosa M Belda, Pascual Fernández de Córdova, Jaime Cebolla-Cornejo
BACKGROUND: Chars are emerging materials as constituents of growth media. However, chars of different origin differ in their characteristics and more studies are needed to ratify them for such role. The characteristics of coir mixed with 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 (% v:v) of two biochars, from forest waste (BCH-FW) and from olive mill waste (BCH-OMW), and one hydrochar, from forest waste (HYD-FW), and their effects on growth, yield and fruit quality of two tomato cultivars (Gransol RZ and Cuarenteno) were assessed...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Daniel J Ashworth, Scott R Yates, Guoqing Shen
Emissions of volatile soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) from soil to air are a significant concern in relation to air quality, and cost-effective strategies to reduce such emissions are urgently required by growers to help them comply with increasingly stringent regulations. In this work, application of a rice husk-derived biochar to the surface of a sandy loam soil chamber reduced soil-air emissions of 1,3-D from 42% in a control (no biochar) to 8% due to adsorption onto the biochar. This adsorbed 1,3-D showed a potential for re-volatilization into air and solubilization into the soil-liquid phase...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
William A Tarpeh, Kai M Udert, Kara L Nelson
Separate collection of urine, which is only 1% of wastewater volume but contains the majority of nitrogen humans excrete, can potentially reduce the costs and energy input of wastewater treatment and facilitate recovery of nitrogen for beneficial use. Ion exchange was investigated for recovery of nitrogen as ammonium from urine for use as a fertilizer or disinfectant. Cation adsorption curves for four adsorbents (clinoptilolite, biochar, Dowex 50, and Dowex Mac 3) were compared in pure salt solutions, synthetic urine, and real stored urine...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Shengze Yi, Yuanyuan Sun, Xin Hu, Hongxia Xu, Bin Gao, Jichun Wu
The adsorption removal of levofloxacin (LEV), a widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by using the biochars derived from the pyrolysis of pine wood chip pretreated with cerium trichloride was investigated through batch sorption experiments and multiple characterization techniques. The differences in the basic physicochemical properties between Ce-impregnated biochars and the pristine biochars were confirmed by the analysis of elemental compositions, specific surface areas, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and thermo-gravimetry...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Frédéric Rees, Adrien Dhyèvre, Jean Louis Morel, Sylvie Cotelle
Biochar amendments, i.e., the solid product of biomass pyrolysis, reduce soil metal availability, which may lower the toxicity of metal-contaminated soils. A direct link between the decrease in soil metal availability and improved plant development is however often difficult to establish, as biochar may induce undesirable side effects on plant growth, e.g., a modification to plant nutrition. In order to investigate toxicity processes at a cellular level, roots of Vicia faba were exposed for 7 days to three metal-contaminated substrates and one control soil, amended with a 0 or 5% (w/w) addition of a wood-derived biochar...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ruilun Zheng, Guoxin Sun, Cui Li, Brian J Reid, Zubin Xie, Bo Zhang, Qinghai Wang
Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of rice straw biochar (RSB) on soil cadmium (Cd) availability and accumulation in lettuce. The RSB was applied either in bands or broadcast in the test site of four greenhouses with soil Cd concentrations ranging from 1.70-3.14 μg g(-1). Biochar doses applied in bands were half of those broadcast. The Cd levels in the shoots of lettuce were observed to be reduced by up to 57% with increasing RSB application rate (0, 6, 12, 18 t ha(-1))...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Junwei Jin, Minyan Wang, Yucheng Cao, Shengchun Wu, Peng Liang, Yanan Li, Jianyun Zhang, Jin Zhang, Ming Hung Wong, Shengdao Shan, Peter Christie
A novel type of biochar was produced by mixing bamboo sawdust with sewage sludge (1:1, w/w) via a co-pyrolysis process at 400-600°C. Changes in physico-chemical properties and the intrinsic speciation of metals were investigated before and after pyrolysis. Co-pyrolysis resulted in a lower biochar yield but a higher C content in the end product compared with use of sludge alone as the raw material. FT-IR analysis indicates that phosphine derivatives containing PH bonds were formed in the co-pyrolyzed biochars...
December 30, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Xiao-Fei Tan, Shao-Bo Liu, Yun-Guo Liu, Yan-Ling Gu, Guang-Ming Zeng, Xin-Jiang Hu, Xin Wang, Shao-Heng Liu, Lu-Hua Jiang
There is a growing interest of the scientific community on production of activated carbon using biochar as potential sustainable precursors pyrolyzed from biomass wastes. Physical activation and chemical activation are the main methods applied in the activation process. These methods could have significantly beneficial effects on biochar chemical/physical properties, which make it suitable for multiple applications including water pollution treatment, CO2 capture, and energy storage. The feedstock with different compositions, pyrolysis conditions and activation parameters of biochar have significant influences on the properties of resultant activated carbon...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zhongmin Dai, Xiaojie Zhang, C Tang, Niaz Muhammad, Jianjun Wu, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
A large number of soils, worldwide, are acid (normally pH<5.5) and suffering from on-going soil acidification. Acid soils or soils undergoing acidification generally have low fertility and low crop productivity. Biochars have been reported to be of potential value in agriculture for improving soil properties and in reducing the hazards caused by soil acidification and in naturally acidic soils. However, the ameliorant effects of biochars on acid soils and the mechanisms involved have not previously been critically reviewed...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ning Wang, Zhi-Zhou Chang, Xi-Mei Xue, Jian-Guang Yu, Xiao-Xia Shi, Lena Q Ma, Hong-Bo Li
Biochar application to agricultural soil is an appealing approach to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions. However, the underlying microbial mechanisms are unclear. In this study, a paddy soil slurry was incubated anaerobically for 14d with biochar amendments produced from rice straw at 300, 500, or 700°C (B300, B500, and B700) to study their influences on greenhouse gas emissions. Illumina sequencing was used to characterize shift of soil bacterial and archaeal community composition. After peaking at day 1, N2O emission then sharply decreased to low levels while CH4 started to emit at day 3 then continually increased with incubation...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Worachart Wisawapipat, Kamolchanok Charoensri, Jirawat Runglerttrakoolchai
Understanding phosphorus (P) speciation and how redox conditions control P solubility in acid sulfate paddy soils with limited P availability is crucial for improving soil P availability. We examined P speciation and extractability in an acid sulfate paddy soil incorporated with oil palm ash (OPA) and biochar (OPB) during soil reduction and subsequent oxidation. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the soil samples revealed that P in the soil mainly occurred as P adsorbed to ferrihydrite and P adsorbed to gibbsite...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bing Li, Hongkai Zhu, Hongwen Sun, Jiayao Xu
Biochar is a promising material used in soil amendment and carbon nanotubes may enter soil due to its increasing application. These carbonaceous materials may change the bioavailability of pollutants in soil. In this concern, 0.5% w/w multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 3 corn-straw biochars acquired at different pyrolyzing temperatures were used in soil amendment and their influences on the bioavailability of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), a brominated flame retardant, to 2 ecologically different earthworm species were studied...
January 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Dengyu Chen, Jiaming Mei, Haiping Li, Yiming Li, Mengting Lu, Tingting Ma, Zhongqing Ma
This study presented an approach to upgrade biomass and pyrolysis products using a process based on torrefaction liquid washing combined with torrefaction pretreatment. The torrefaction of cotton stalk was first conducted at 250°C for 30min and then the resulting torrefaction liquid products were collected and reused to wash cottonstalk. The pyrolysis of the original and pretreated cotton stalk was performed at 500°C for 15min in a fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that the combined pretreatment obviously reduced the metallic species in cotton stalk, decreased the water and acids contents while promoted phenols in bio-oil, declined the ash content in biochar, as well as improved the heating value of non-condensable gas...
December 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Yafei Shen
Silica-rich rice husk (RH) is an abundant and sustainable agricultural waste. The recovery of value added products from RH or its ash to explore an economic way for the valorization of agricultural wastes have attracted wide attention. For instance, RH can be converted to biofuels and biochars simultaneously via thermochemical processes. In general, the applications of RH biochars include soil remediation, pollutants removal, silicon battery materials, etc. This review article concludes recent progresses in the synthesis of RH-derived silicon materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) applications...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bernard Fungo, Johannes Lehmann, Karsten Kalbitz, Margaret Thionģo, Irene Okeyo, Moses Tenywa, Henry Neufeldt
Biochar (or pyrogenic organic matter) is increasingly proposed as a soil amendment for improving fertility, carbon sequestration and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, little is known about its effects on aggregation, an important indicator of soil quality and functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Eucalyptus wood biochar (B, pyrolyzed at 550 °C, at 0 or 2.5 t ha(-1)), green manure (T, from Tithonia diversifolia at 0, 2.5 or 5.0 t ha(-1)) and mineral nitrogen (U, urea, at 0, or 120 kg N ha(-1)) on soil respiration, aggregate size distribution and SOC in these aggregate size fractions in a 2-year field experiment on a low-fertility Ultisol in western Kenya under conventional hand-hoe tillage...
January 2017: Soil & Tillage Research
Eunice Agyarko-Mintah, Annette Cowie, Lukas Van Zwieten, Bhupinder Pal Singh, Robert Smillie, Steven Harden, Flavio Fornasier
The poultry industry produces abundant quantities of nutrient-rich litter, much of which is composted before use as a soil amendment. However, a large proportion of nitrogen (N) in poultry litter is lost via volatilisation during composting, with negative environmental and economic consequences. This study examined the effect of incorporating biochar during composting of poultry litter on ammonia (NH3) volatilisation and N retention. Biochars produced at 550°C from greenwaste (GWB) and poultry litter (PLB) feedstocks were co-composted with a mixture of raw poultry litter and sugarcane straw [carbon (C):N ratio 10:1] in compost bins...
December 29, 2016: Waste Management
Dou Wang, Jing Ai, Fei Shen, Gang Yang, Yanzong Zhang, Shihuai Deng, Jing Zhang, Yongmei Zeng, Chun Song
Acid-buffering of VCBC and VC was evaluated using 4 VFAs, and their application on anaerobic digestion of CM and KW was investigated. Results indicated acid-buffering capacity of VCBC to acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acid was 2.5, 1.1, 1.9 and 1.6-fold higher comparing with VC. CM digestion was not initiated at higher organic loading of 50gTS/kg, while it worked well with 5.0% VCBC or VC. KW was not digested even though VC or VCBC was increased to 15% and 20%. However, KW digestion can be alleviated with increasing VCBC or VC proportion, in which the alleviation by VCBC was better than VC...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
Lu Han, Linbo Qian, Jingchun Yan, Mengfang Chen
Adsorption behaviors of the chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) (i.e., trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB); 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB); and monochlorobenzene (MCB)) by the commercial rice husk-based biochar (RH500) and the laboratory-prepared biochars from corn stalks under different pyrolytic temperatures (i.e., CS300, CS500, CS700) were examined and interpreted by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, the double layer model with two energies, and the Freundlich model. It is identified that the first-order adsorption rate constants (k 1 = 0...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xueqin Wang, Yue Zhao, Huan Wang, Xinyu Zhao, Hongyang Cui, Zimin Wei
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of composting of beer vinasse generated from brewing industry, the effect of biochar amendment on beer vinasse composting was also evaluated based on the changes of different physicochemical parameters, phytotoxicity and final compost quality. Four different treatments were performed of beer vinasse with biochar addition at 0, 5%, 10%, 15% (w/w dry basis). The final product obtained from beer vinasse composting was phytotoxicity-free (GI: 120.8%), mature (C/N: 19...
December 23, 2016: Waste Management
Tripti, Adarsh Kumar, Zeba Usmani, Vipin Kumar, Anshumali
Overuse of agrochemical fertilizers alarmingly causes deterioration in soil health and soil-flora. Persistence of these agrochemicals exerts detrimental effects on environment, potentially inducing toxic effects on human health, thus pronouncing an urgent need for a safer substitute. The present study investigates the potential use of agricultural and industrial wastes as carrier materials, viz. biochar and flyash, respectively, for preparation of bioformulations (or biofertilizers) using two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Bacillus sp...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
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