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Jie Jin, Ke Sun, Wei Liu, Shiwei Li, Xianqiang Peng, Yan Yang, Lanfang Han, Ziwen Du, Xiangke Wang
Chemical composition and pollutant sorption of biochar-derived organic matter fractions (BDOMs) are critical for understanding the long-term environmental significance of biochar. Phenanthrene (PHE) sorption by the humic acid-like (HAL) fractions isolated from plant straw- (PLABs) and animal manure-based (ANIBs) biochars, and the residue materials (RES) after HAL extraction was investigated. The HAL fraction comprised approximately 50% of organic carbon (OC) of the original biochars. Results of XPS and13 C NMR demonstrated that the biochar-derived HAL fractions mainly consisted of aromatic clusters substituted by carboxylic groups...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Huabin Wang, Yong Liu, Jerosha Ifthikar, Lerong Shi, Aimal Khan, Zhulei Chen, Zhuqi Chen
Pyrolysis under protective atmosphere was regarded as an indispensable process for the preparation of biomass-based adsorbents to achieve higher surface areas. In this paper, magnetic carbon composites (MCC) that fabricated under air atmosphere showed an adsorption capacity of 167.22 mg/g in 200 ppm Hg(II), which was significantly higher than magnetic biochar (MBC, 31.80 mg/g) that fabricated under traditional nitrogen protection, and this remarkable performance of MCC was consistent in a wide range of pHs...
February 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Febelyn Reguyal, Ajit K Sarmah
Recent studies have shown the widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment leading to increasing global concern on their potential adverse effects in the environment and public health. In this study, we evaluated the use of magnetic biochar derived from pine sawdust, one of New Zealand's major wood wastes, to remove an emerging contaminant, sulfamethoxazole (SMX), at different pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter (NOM) and a competing compound, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). In single-solute system, the sorption of SMX onto magnetic biochar was found to be highly pH-dependent and slightly increased with increase in ionic strength...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Rizwan, Hinnan Khalid, Shafaqat Ali, Asif Naeem, Balal Yousaf, Guijian Liu, Muhammad Sabir, Muhammad Farooq
Cadmium (Cd) stress is a serious concern in agricultural soils worldwide whereas little is known about the impact of farmyard manure (FYM) alone or combined with limestone, lignite and biochar on Cd concentrations in plants. Wheat was grown in Cd-contaminated field amended with control (T 1 ), FYM @ 0.1% (T 2 ), FYM + limestone @ 0.05% each (T 3 ), FYM + lignite @ 0.05% each (T 4 ), FYM + biochar @ 0.05% each (T 5 ) and subsequent rice was grown without additional use of amendments. Soil application of amendments increased straw and grain yield and thousand grain weight being maximum in FYM + limestone treatment...
February 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Shunquan Shi, Jiakuan Yang, Sha Liang, Mingyang Li, Quan Gan, Keke Xiao, Jingping Hu
Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 -NH 2 magnetic particles with core-shell structure were attached on carboxylated biochar derived from phoenix tree leaves to synthesize a novel magnetic biochar for removing Cr(VI) ions from acidic solutions. FSEM, FTEM, XRD characterizations of the synthesized magnetic biochar revealed that the Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 -NH 2 magnetic particles distributed uniformly on the surface or macrospores of carboxylated biochar by strong chemical bonding. The Cr(VI) ions adsorption capacity of magnetic biochar was 27...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qincheng Chen, Jiaolong Qin, Zhiwen Cheng, Lu Huang, Peng Sun, Lu Chen, Guoqing Shen
Biochar improves soil fertility and promotes long-term terrestrial carbon sequestration. However, biochar seems not to be stable enough due to physical, chemical and biological reactions. In this study, a novel, stable, and magnesium (Mg)-impregnated biochar was prepared from cow dung and applied to decrease P leaching from soil. XPS, FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDS were used to evaluate the effect of modification and phosphorus(P) sorption on the oxidation resistance of biochar. The results showed that the oxidation resistance of the Mg-impregnated biochar was improved by the formation of MgO on its surface...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Jie Jin, Shiwei Li, Xianqiang Peng, Wei Liu, Chenlu Zhang, Yan Yang, Lanfang Han, Ziwen Du, Ke Sun, Xiangke Wang
The HNO 3 treatment was used to chemically modify the biochars produced from wheat straw (WH) and cow manure for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution. Macroscopic experiments proved that the enrichment of U(VI) on the biochars was regulated by surface complexation and electrostatic interactions. FTIR and XPS analyses confirmed that the highly efficient adsorption of U(VI) was due to the carboxyl groups on the biochar surfaces. The reducing agents of the R-CH 2 OH groups facilitated U(VI) adsorption on the untreated biochars...
February 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
S Serranti, A Trella, G Bonifazi, C Garcia Izquierdo
In this work the possibility to apply hyperspectral imaging as a fast and non-destructive technique for the monitoring of the production process at pilot plant scale of an innovative biowaste-derived fertilizer was explored. Different mixtures of urban organic waste, farm organic residues, biochar and vegetable active principles were selected and utilized in two different European countries, Italy and Spain, for the production of the innovative fertilizer. The biowaste-derived fertilizer samples were collected from the pilot plant piles at different curing time and acquired by the hyperspectral imaging device...
February 12, 2018: Waste Management
Pravin Jagdale, Samera Salimpour, Md Hujjatul Islam, Fabio Cuttica, Francisco C Robles Hernandez, Alberto Tagliaferro, Alberto Frache
Polydimethylsiloxane has exceptional fire retardancy characteristics, which make it a popular polymer in flame retardancy applications. Flame retardancy of polydimethylsiloxane with different nano fillers was studied. Polydimethylsiloxane composite fire property varies because of the shape, size, density, and chemical nature of nano fillers. In house made carbon and bismuth oxide nano fillers were used in polydimethylsiloxane composite. Carbon from biochar (carbonised bamboo) and a carbon by-product (carbon soot) were selected...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Saqib Bashir, Jun Zhu, Qingling Fu, Hongqing Hu
Biochar was considered as an effective and novel sorbent for cadmium (Cd) adsorption from aqueous solution. In this study, the adsorption isotherm investigations were conducted to examine the effect of biochar produced via pyrolysis from rice straw on removing aqueous Cd before and after modification by 2 M KOH solution. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms can preferably describe the adsorption process. Results showed that the highest adsorption capacity of pristine rice straw biochar was 12.17 mg g -1 ...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhang Chen, Tao Liu, Junjie Tang, Zhijian Zheng, Huimin Wang, Qi Shao, Guoliang Chen, Zhixian Li, Yuanqi Chen, Jiawen Zhu, Tao Feng
Herein, biochar derived from lotus seedpods, as an effective adsorbent, was prepared by pyrolysis method at 300 and 600 °C. The physicochemical characteristics and cadmium adsorption properties were studied systematically by batch adsorption experiments, FTIR, SEM-EDX, XRD, and XPS. Cd adsorption onto lotus seedpod-derived biochar was better fitted using Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order model. Adsorption capacity of biochar produced at 300 and 600 °C was 31.69 and 51.18 mg g -1 , respectively. The Cd adsorption capacity of biochar was related to its characteristics determined by pyrolysis temperature, including carbonization, surface area, surface morphology, and surface functional groups...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shiqiu Zhang, Xue Yang, Le Liu, Meiting Ju, Kui Zheng
Biochar is an excellent absorbent for most heavy metal ions and organic pollutants with high specific surface area, strong aperture structure, high stability, higher cation exchange capacity and rich surface functional groups. To improve the selective adsorption capacity of biochar to designated heavy metal ions, biochar prepared by agricultural waste is modified via Ionic-Imprinted Technique. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of imprinted biochar (IB) indicate that 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane is grafted on biochar surface through Si-O-Si bonds...
February 14, 2018: Materials
Yuhao Nie, Xiaotao Bi
Background: Biofuels from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of abundantly available forest residues in British Columbia (BC) can potentially make great contributions to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. A life-cycle assessment was conducted to quantify the GHG emissions of a hypothetic 100 million liters per year HTL biofuel system in the Coast Region of BC. Three scenarios were defined and investigated, namely, supply of bulky forest residues for conversion in a central integrated refinery (Fr-CIR), HTL of forest residues to bio-oil in distributed biorefineries and subsequent upgrading in a central oil refinery (Bo-DBR), and densification of forest residues in distributed pellet plants and conversion in a central integrated refinery (Wp-CIR)...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yu-Ping Yang, Hong-Mei Zhang, Hai-Yan Yuan, Gui-Lan Duan, De-Cai Jin, Fang-Jie Zhao, Yong-Guan Zhu
Arsenic (As) contamination is a global problem. Straw incorporation is widely performed in As contaminated paddy fields. To understand how straw and straw biochar incorporation affect As transformation and translocation in the soil-microbe-rice system, a pot experiment was carried out with different dosages of rice straw and straw biochar application. Results showed that both straw biochar and straw application significantly increased As mobility. Straw biochar mobilized As mainly through increasing soil pH and DOM content...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Neonjyoti Bordoloi, Manash Deep Dey, Rupak Mukhopadhyay, Rupam Kataki
Biochar obtained through the pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra seed cover (PGSC) at 550 °C with a heating rate of 40 °C/min was characterized and its ability to adsorb the dyes Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dyes on adsorption behavior were investigated. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Equilibrium data were well fitted for D-R isotherm in case of MB and Langmuir isotherm in case of RB dyes...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jeonggwan Kim, Beomguk Park, Younggyu Son, Jeehyeong Khim
Peat-moss derived biochar was used as a sonocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) at different ultrasonic frequencies (40 kHz and 300 kHz). The biochar was prepared by pyrolysis of peat-moss at 300 °C under N2-saturated conditions. High removal efficiency was achieved when biochar (1000 mg L-1) was used as a sonocatalyst in the 40 kHz system, and high removal could be achieved by pre-adsorption and radical oxidation reactions on the surface of the biochar. This was validated in experiments employing radical scavengers...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Abdelhafid Ahmed Dugdug, Scott X Chang, Yong Sik Ok, Anushka Upamali Rajapaksha, Anthony Anyia
Biochar is recognized as an effective material for recovering excess nutrients, including phosphorus (P), from aqueous solutions. Practically, that benefits the environment through reducing P losses from biochar-amended soils; however, how salinity influences P sorption by biochar is poorly understood and there has been no direct comparison on P sorption capacity between biochars derived from different feedstock types under non-saline and saline conditions. In this study, biochars derived from wheat straw, hardwood, and willow wood were used to compare P sorption at three levels of electrical conductivity (EC) (0, 4, and 8 dS m-1) to represent a wide range of salinity conditions...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jie Li, Guangwei Yu, Shengyu Xie, Lanjia Pan, Chunxing Li, Futian You, Yin Wang
Ceramsite was prepared from sewage sludge biochar (SSB). The migration, speciation evolution, leaching toxicity, and potential environmental risk of heavy metals (HMs) in sludge biochar ceramsite (SBC) were investigated. The characteristics of the SBC met the requirements for Chinese lightweight aggregate standards (GB/T 1743.1-2010 and JT/T 770-2009) and the heavy metals (HMs: Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, and Cd) were well immobilized in the SBC. The leaching percentages of the HMs in SBC were remarkably reduced, in particular after preheating at 400°C and sintering at 1100°C...
February 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tiehu He, Deyan Liu, Junji Yuan, Jiafa Luo, Stuart Lindsey, Nanthi Bolan, Weixin Ding
The effects of biochar combined with the urease inhibitor, hydroquinone, and nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide, on gaseous nitrogen (N2O, NO and NH3) emissions and wheat yield were examined in a wheat crop cultivated in a rice-wheat rotation system in the Taihu Lake region of China. Eight treatments comprised N fertilizer at a conventional application rate of 150kgNha-1 (CN); N fertilizer at an optimal application rate of 125kgNha-1 (ON); ON+wheat-derived biochar at rates of 7.5 (ONB1) and 15tha-1 (ONB2); ON+nitrification and urease inhibitors (ONI); ONI+wheat-derived biochar at rates of 7...
February 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xin Zhang, Lei Lv, Yingzhi Qin, Min Xu, Xianbin Jia, Zhihua Chen
Magnetic biochar (MMABC) prepared from Melia azedarach wood was used for aqueous Cr(VI) removal. MMABC was a mesoporous material with SBET 5.219 m2/g and superparamagnetic magnetization 17.3 emu/g contributed by the contained Fe3O4. The MMABC showed higher removal efficiency (99.8%) than biochar under conditions of dosage 5 g/L, pH = 3.0, and Cr(VI) concentration 10 mg/L. The saturation magnetization (16.1emg/g) of MMABC still remained after adsorption. According to FTIR and Raman results, the benzene-ring adjacent carbonyl did not showed obvious positive effects on Cr(VI) removal...
February 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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