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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332174/effects-of-carbon-nanotube-and-biochar-on-bioavailability-of-pb-cu-and-sb-in-multi-metal-contaminated-soil
#1
Meththika Vithanage, Indika Herath, Yaser A Almaroai, Anushka Upamali Rajapaksha, Longbin Huang, Jwa-Kyung Sung, Sang Soo Lee, Yong Sik Ok
This study examined the effects of carbon nanotube and biochar on the bioavailability of Pb, Cu and Sb in the shooting range soils for developing low-cost remediation technology. Commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and biochar pyrolyzed from soybean stover at 300 °C (BC) at 0.5, 1 and 2.5% (w w(-1)) were used to remediate the contaminated soil in an incubation experiment. Both DTPA (bioavailable) and TCLP (leaching) extraction procedures were used to compare the metal/loid availability and leaching by the amendments in soil...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324819/impact-of-different-feedstocks-derived-biochar-amendment-with-cadmium-low-uptake-affinity-cultivar-of-pak-choi-brassica-rapa-ssb-chinensis-l-on-phytoavoidation-of-cd-to-reduce-potential-dietary-toxicity
#2
Kiran Yasmin Khan, Barkat Ali, Xiaoqiang Cui, Ying Feng, Xiaoe Yang, Peter Joseph Stoffella
Biochar has become eco-friendly amendment used for phytoavoidation with low cadmium (Cd) accumulating cultivars of crops to ensure food safety in Cd contaminated soils. In this study, biochar with different waste feedstock material were evaluated for their effectiveness on essential trace metals mobility, Cd bioavailability and its accumulation in two contrasting Cd accumulating cultivars of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L.) grown in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with plants grown in Cd contaminated soil that had been amended with biochar derived from barley straw, tomato green waste, chicken manure, duck manure and swine manure at application rate of 0%, 2...
March 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324138/remediation-of-petroleum-contaminated-soil-using-bulrush-straw-powder-biochar-and-nutrients
#3
Yanjie Wang, Fayun Li, Xiangmin Rong, Haixing Song, Jiabo Chen
The aim of this study was to determine the remediation efficiency of petroleum-contaminated soil from an oilfield using different types of remediation treatments under laboratory conditions. Compared with unamended soil as the control treatment (T1), soil samples were amended with bulrush straw powder (T2), with biochar alone (T3) and in combination with nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) (T4). The remediation experiment was carried out for 8 weeks. The extent of hydrocarbon degradation was monitored gravimetrically, and the residual oil fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography...
March 21, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321595/enhanced-roles-of-biochar-and-organic-fertilizer-in-microalgae-for-soil-carbon-sink
#4
Shiping Zhang, Liang Wang, Wei Wei, Jiajun Hu, Shouhua Mei, Quanyu Zhao, Yiu Fai Tsang
Improved soil carbon sink capability is important for the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions and the enhancement of soil productivity. Biochar and organic fertilizer (OF) showed a significant improving effect on microalgae in soil carbon sink capacity, and the ultimate soil total organic carbons with microalgae-OF, microalgae-biochar, microalgae-OF-biochar were about 16, 67 and 58% higher than that with microalgae alone, respectively, indicating that carbon fixation efficiency of microalgae applied in soil was improved with biochar and OF whilst the soil carbon capacity was promoted, the mechanism of which is illustrated through simulative experiments...
March 20, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321358/examining-the-potential-of-forest-residue-based-amendments-for-post-wildfire-rehabilitation-in-colorado-usa
#5
Charles C Rhoades, Kerri L Minatre, Derek N Pierson, Timothy S Fegel, M Francesca Cotrufo, Eugene F Kelly
Wildfire is a natural disturbance, though elemental losses and changes that occur during combustion and post-fire erosion can have long-term impacts on soil properties, ecosystem productivity, and watershed condition. Here we evaluate the potential of forest residue-based materials to rehabilitate burned soils. We compare soil nutrient and water availability, and plant recovery after application of 37 t ha(-1) of wood mulch, 20 t ha(-1) of biochar, and the combination of the two amendments with untreated, burned soils...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319776/removal-of-antimony-iii-and-cadmium-ii-from-aqueous-solution-using-animal-manure-derived-hydrochars-and-pyrochars
#6
Lanfang Han, Haoran Sun, Kyoung S Ro, Ke Sun, Judy A Libra, Baoshan Xing
In this study, hydrochars and pyrochars prepared from animal manures were characterized and were used to remove Sb (III) and Cd (II) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the interaction between Cd (II) and CO and CO groups within biochars and between Sb (III) and CO, CO and OH groups, respectively. Additionally, the lower absolute value of zeta potential of biochar after loading Sb (III) and Cd (II) suggested the occurrence of surface complexation. Existing primarily in the form of Sb (OH)3, the maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) for Sb (III) were lower than those for Cd (II)...
March 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319759/removal-of-hydrogen-sulfide-generated-during-anaerobic-treatment-of-sulfate-laden-wastewater-using-biochar-evaluation-of-efficiency-and-mechanisms
#7
Jarupat Kanjanarong, Balendu S Giri, Deb P Jaisi, Fernanda R Oliveira, Piyarat Boonsawang, Sumate Chaiprapat, R S Singh, Avula Balakrishna, Samir Kumar Khanal
Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from biogas was investigated in a biochar column integrated with a bench-scale continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating sulfate-laden wastewater. Synthetic wastewater containing sulfate concentrations of 200-2000mg SO4(2-)/L was used as substrate, and the CSTR was operated at an organic loading rate of 1.5g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L·day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20days. The biochar was able to remove about 98.0 (±1.2)% of H2S for the ranges of concentrations from 105-1020ppmv, especially at high moisture content (80-85%)...
March 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319742/biochar-provides-a-safe-and-value-added-solution-for-hyperaccumulating-plant-disposal-a-case-study-of-phytolacca-acinosa-roxb-phytolaccaceae
#8
Shengsen Wang, Bin Gao, Yuncong Li, Yong Sik Ok, Chaofeng Shen, Shengguo Xue
In this work, an innovative approach using biochar technology for hyperaccumulator disposal was developed and evaluated. The heavy metal enriched P. acinosa biomass (PBM) was pyrolyzed to produce biochar (PBC). Both PBM and PBC were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystal phases, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface topography, and analyzed for elemental composition and mobility. The results revealed that whewellite, a dominant crystal form in biomass, was decomposed to calcite after pyrolysis...
February 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319738/mobility-and-phytoavailability-of-as-and-pb-in-a-contaminated-soil-using-pine-sawdust-biochar-under-systematic-change-of-redox-conditions
#9
Jingzi Beiyuan, Yasser M Awad, Felix Beckers, Daniel C W Tsang, Yong Sik Ok, Jörg Rinklebe
Biochar has been adopted to control the mobility and phytoavailability of trace elements (TEs) in soils. To date, no attempt has been made to determine the mobility and phytoavailability of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) in a contaminated soil with biochars as amendments under predefined redox potentials (EH). Thus, in this study, a soil contaminated with As and Pb (2047 and 1677 mg kg(-1), respectively) was pre-incubated for 105 days with three amendments (pine sawdust biomass (BM) and two biochars produced from the same feedstock at 300 °C (BC300) and 550 °C (BC550))...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319707/treatment-of-anaerobic-digested-effluent-in-biochar-packed-vertical-flow-constructed-wetland-columns-role-of-media-and-tidal-operation
#10
Simon Kizito, Tao Lv, Shubiao Wu, Zeeshan Ajmal, Hongzhen Luo, Renjie Dong
Three types of vertical flow constructed wetland columns (VFCWs), packed with corn cob biochar (CB-CW), wood biochar (WB-CW) and gravel (G-CW) under tidal flow operations, were comparatively evaluated to investigate anaerobic digested effluent treatment performance and mechanisms. It was demonstrated that CB-CW and WB-CW provide significantly higher removal efficiencies for organic matter (>59%), NH4(+)-N (>76%), TN (>37%) and phosphorus (>71%), compared with G-CW (22%-49%). The higher pollutants removal ability of biochar-packed VFCWs was mainly attribute to the higher adsorption ability and microbial cultivation in the porous biochar media...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318964/slow-pyrolysis-enhances-the-recovery-and-reuse-of-phosphorus-and-reduces-metal-leaching-from-biosolids
#11
David A Roberts, Andrew J Cole, Anna Whelan, Rocky de Nys, Nicholas A Paul
In this study, biochar is produced from biosolids with and without alum at a range of temperatures and simulated oxidative aging of the biochars is conducted to quantify the long-term leaching of P and metals. While biosolids containing alum had negligible amounts of plant-available P, after pyrolysis >90% of the P became immediately available for plant growth. When biosolids with no alum were converted into biochar there was a small increase in the availability of P but a larger pool was available after oxidation...
March 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318694/facile-synthesis-of-cu-ii-impregnated-biochar-with-enhanced-adsorption-activity-for-the-removal-of-doxycycline-hydrochloride-from-water
#12
Su Liu, Wei-Hua Xu, Yun-Guo Liu, Xiao-Fei Tan, Guang-Ming Zeng, Xin Li, Jie Liang, Zan Zhou, Zhi-Li Yan, Xiao-Xi Cai
In this study, the effect factors and mechanisms of doxycycline hydrochloride (DOX) adsorption on copper nitrate modified biochar (Cu-BC) was investigated. Cu-BC absorbent was synthesized through calcination of peanut shells biomass at 450°C and then impregnation with copper nitrate. The Cu-BC has exhibited excellent sorption efficiency about 93.22% of doxycycline hydrochloride from aqueous solution, which was double higher than that of the unmodified biochar. The experimental results suggest that the adsorption efficiency of DOX on the Cu-BC is dominated by the strong complexation, electrostatic interactions between DOX molecules and the Cu-BC samples...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314607/mutagenic-activities-of-biochars-from-pyrolysis
#13
Anna V Piterina, J Kevin Chipman, J Tony Pembroke, Michael H B Hayes
Biochar production, from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks, agricultural residues, and animal and poultry manures are emerging globally as novel industrial and commercial products. It is important to develop and to validate a series of suitable protocols for the ecological monitoring of the qualities and properties of biochars. The highly sensitive Salmonella mutagenicity assays (the Ames test) are used widely by the toxicology community and, via the rat liver extract (S9), can reflect the potential for mammalian metabolic activation...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299568/time-lapse-effect-of-ancient-plant-coal-biochar-on-some-soil-agrochemical-parameters-and-soil-characteristics
#14
Tamás Kocsis, Borbála Biró, Ákos Ulmer, Mónika Szántó, Zsolt Kotroczó
Biochar is a solid material obtained from reductive, oxygen-free processes, i.e. the thermo-chemical conversion of biomass in oxygen-limited environment. The obtained products have high carbon sequestration potential and strong nutrient-water absorption capacities because of the enlarged carbon surfaces. It is not yet clear how carbon stimulates agrochemical parameters in soil and how those characteristics are developing as time goes on a long-term basis. Samples of ancient (25, 35, 80 years old) plant coal-affected soils were collected in a temperate deciduous forest site located in the south part of the Bükk Mountains (in North Eastern Hungary)...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289987/biochar-based-constructed-wetlands-to-treat-reverse-osmosis-rejected-concentrates-in-chronic-kidney-disease-endemic-areas-in-sri-lanka
#15
B C L Athapattu, T W L R Thalgaspitiya, U L S Yasaratne, Meththika Vithanage
The objectives were to investigate the potential remedial measures for reverse osmosis (RO) rejected water through constructed wetlands (CWs) with low-cost materials in the media established in chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) prevalent area in Sri Lanka. A pilot-scale surface and subsurface water CWs were established at the Medawachchiya community-based RO water supply unit. Locally available soil, calicut tile and biochar were used in proportions of 81, 16.5 and 2.5% (w/w), respectively, as filter materials in the subsurface...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288424/slow-pyrolyzed-biochars-from-crop-residues-for-soil-metal-loid-immobilization-and-microbial-community-abundance-in-contaminated-agricultural-soils
#16
Avanthi Deshani Igalavithana, Jinje Park, Changkook Ryu, Young Han Lee, Yohey Hashimoto, Longbin Huang, Eilhann E Kwon, Yong Sik Ok, Sang Soo Lee
This study evaluated the feasibility of using biochars produced from three types of crop residues for immobilizing Pb and As and their effects on the abundance of microbial community in contaminated lowland paddy (P-soil) and upland (U-soil) agricultural soils. Biochars were produced from umbrella tree [Maesopsis eminii] wood bark [WB], cocopeat [CP], and palm kernel shell [PKS] at 500 °C by slow pyrolysis at a heating rate of 10 °C min(-1). Soils were incubated with 5% (w w(-1)) biochars at 25 °C and 70% water holding capacity for 45 d...
March 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287177/linking-the-belowground-microbial-composition-diversity-and-activity-to-soilborne-disease-suppression-and-growth-promotion-of-tomato-amended-with-biochar
#17
Amit K Jaiswal, Yigal Elad, Indira Paudel, Ellen R Graber, Eddie Cytryn, Omer Frenkel
Biochar, in addition to sequestering carbon, ameliorating soil, and improving plant performance, can impact foliar and soilborne plant diseases. Nevertheless, the mechanisms associated with suppression of soilborne diseases and improved plant performances are not well understood. This study is designed to establish the relationships between biochar-induced changes in rhizosphere microbial community structure, taxonomic and functional diversity, and activity with soilborne disease suppression and enhanced plant performance in a comprehensive fashion...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285230/co-pelletizing-characteristics-of-torrefied-wheat-straw-with-peanut-shell
#18
Xiaopeng Bai, Guanghui Wang, Chunxiao Gong, Yong Yu, Weinan Liu, Decheng Wang
The co-pelletizing characteristics of torrefied wheat straw and peanut shell with adding water were investigated. The physicochemical and friction characteristics of biochar were determined to investigate the mechanism of biochar inter-particle cohesive bonding. Results showed that optimized process conditions were obtained with 15% peanut shell and 10% water content. The volume density, maximum breaking force of pellets initially decreased and then increased, while energy consumption increased with increasing temperature...
February 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285228/pyrolysis-of-corn-stalk-biomass-briquettes-in-a-scaled-up-microwave-technology
#19
Arshad Adam Salema, Muhammad T Afzal, Lyes Bennamoun
Pyrolysis of corn stalk biomass briquettes was carried out in a developed microwave (MW) reactor supplied with 2.45GHz frequency using 3kW power generator. MW power and biomass loading were the key parameters investigated in this study. Highest bio-oil, biochar, and gas yield of 19.6%, 41.1%, and 54.0% was achieved at different process condition. In terms of quality, biochar exhibited good heating value (32MJ/kg) than bio-oil (2.47MJ/kg). Bio-oil was also characterised chemically using FTIR and GC-MS method...
February 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285217/transformation-of-chlorpyrifos-in-integrated-recirculating-constructed-wetlands-ircws-as-revealed-by-compound-specific-stable-isotope-csia-and-microbial-community-structure-analysis
#20
Xiaoyan Tang, Yang Yang, Wenda Huang, Murray B McBride, Jingjing Guo, Ran Tao, Yunv Dai
Carbon isotope analysis and 454 pyrosequencing methods were used to investigate in situ biodegradation of chlorpyrifos during its transport through three model integrated recirculating constructed wetlands (IRCWs). Results show that plant and Fe-impregnated biochar promoted degradation of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). Carbon isotope ratios in the IRCWs shifted to -31.24±0.58‰ (IRCW1, plant free), -26.82±0.60‰ (IRCW2, with plant) and -24.76±0.94‰ (IRCW3, with plant and Fe-biochar)...
February 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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