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S Y Lee, Y Kwon
OBJECTIVES: To examine how Twitter is used as a place where people seek others to make suicide pacts. STUDY DESIGN: This is an exploratory quantitative study. METHODS: We used Twitter application programming interfaces to collect all Korean tweets containing the term 'suicide pact' between October 16, 2017 and November 30, 2017. A Python program and human coders were employed to further identify tweets that aimed to seek others to make a suicide pact and analyze the content of each tweet...
April 21, 2018: Public Health
Andrew Wildman, Ernesto Martinez-Baez, John L Fulton, Gregory K Schenter, Carolyn I Pearce, Aurora Evelyn Clark, Xiaosong Li
Ion pairing within complex solutions and elec- trolytes is a difficult phenomenon to mea- sure and investigate, yet it has signicant im- pact upon macroscopic processes, such as crys- tal formation. Traditional methods of detect- ing and characterizing ion pairing are sensi- tive to contact ion pairs, may require min- imum concentrations that limit applicability, and can have difficulty in characterizing solu- tions with many components. Because of its element specicity and sensitivity to local en- vironment, X-ray absorption near edge struc- ture (XANES) is a promising tool for investi- gating ion pairing in complex solutions...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Junjie Shao, Qinfeng Huang, Xiaoying Liu, Da Di, Yuying Liang, Hinh Ly
RIG-I is a major cytoplasmic sensor of viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) RNA and induces the production of type I interferon (IFN) upon viral infection. A dsRNA-binding protein PACT plays an important role in potentiating RIG-I function. We have previously shown that arenaviral nucleoproteins (NPs) suppress type I IFN production via its exoribonuclease (RNase) activity to degrade PAMP RNA. We report here that NPs of arenaviruses block PACT-induced enhancement of RIG-I function to mediate type I IFN production and that the inhibition is dependent on the NP's RNase function, which is different than a known mechanism of other viral proteins to disrupt PACT and RIG-I interaction...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ahmed Madisch
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the more common functional disorders, with a prevalence of 10-20%. It affectsthe gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: This article is based on publications retrieved by a selective search of PubMed, with special attention to controlled trials, guidelines, and reviews. RESULTS: Typical dyspeptic symptoms in functional dyspepsia include epigastric pain, sensations of pressure and fullness, nausea, and early subjective satiety...
March 30, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Isabelle Darmon, Alan Warde
This paper examines processes of habit reshuffling and change in different contexts of household formation, looking specifically at habits regarding eating and commensality. It is based on a study of 14 couples, each with one English and one French partner, half of whom live in France, half in England. We examine the interplay between partners, their determination to eat together as a couple, and the various 'orders' associated with their commensal pact (diets, routines, extra-marital commensality), both when they start as couples and as parents of young children...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
Ina P Pavlova, Shannon C Shipley, Marcos Lanio, René Hen, Christine A Denny
Recent genetic tools have allowed researchers to visualize and manipulate memory traces (i.e. engrams) in small brain regions. However, the ultimate goal is to visualize memory traces across the entire brain in order to better understand how memories are stored in neural networks and how multiple memories may coexist. Intact tissue clearing and imaging is a new and rapidly growing area of focus that could accomplish this task. Here, we utilized the leading protocols for whole-brain clearing and applied them to the ArcCreERT2 mice, a murine line that allows for the indelible labeling of memory traces...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
Michele Reni, Gianpaolo Balzano, Silvia Zanon, Alessandro Zerbi, Lorenza Rimassa, Renato Castoldi, Domenico Pinelli, Stefania Mosconi, Claudio Doglioni, Marta Chiaravalli, Chiara Pircher, Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono, Valter Torri, Paola Maggiora, Domenica Ceraulo, Massimo Falconi, Luca Gianni
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are known to metastasise early and a rationale exists for the investigation of preoperative chemotherapy in patients with resectable disease. We aimed to assess the role of combination chemotherapy in this setting in the PACT-15 trial. METHODS: We did this randomised, open-label, phase 2-3 trial in ten hospitals in Italy. We report the phase 2 part here. Patients aged 18-75 years who were previously untreated for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, with Karnofsky performance status of more than 60, and pathologically confirmed stage I-II resectable disease were enrolled...
April 3, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Bec Jenkinson, Sue Kruske, Sue Kildea
BACKGROUND: The right to refuse medical treatment can be contentious in maternity care. Professional guidance for midwives and obstetricians emphasises informed consent and respect for patient autonomy, but there is little guidance available to clinicians about the appropriate clinical responses when women decline recommended care. OBJECTIVES: We propose a comprehensive, woman-centred, systems-level framework for documentation and communication with the goal of supporting women, clinicians and health services in situations of maternal refusal...
March 28, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Kentaro Sueoka, Taiichiro Chikama, Miftahul Akhyar Latief, Ji-Ae Ko, Yoshiaki Kiuchi, Takemasa Sakaguchi, Akira Obana
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a major cause of infectious keratitis, which itself is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We have now evaluated the time-dependent effectiveness of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with the chlorin derivative TONS 504 and a light-emitting diode (LED) on P. aeruginosa in vitro. PACT with TONS 504 (10 mg/L) and irradiation (30 J/m2 ) by an LED device that delivers light centered on a wavelength of 660 nm was applied to 1 × 106 colony-forming units of P...
March 27, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Mucong Li, Bangxin Lan, Wei Liu, Jun Xia, Junjie Yao
We report a photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system using a customized optical fiber with a cylindrical diffuser to internally illuminate deep targets. The traditional external light illumination in PACT usually limits the penetration depth to a few centimeters from the tissue surface, mainly due to strong optical attenuation along the light propagation path from the outside in. By contrast, internal light illumination, with external ultrasound detection, can potentially detect much deeper targets. Different from previous internal illumination PACT implementations using forward-looking optical fibers, our internal-illumination PACT system uses a customized optical fiber with a 3-cm-long conoid needle diffuser attached to the fiber tip, which can homogeneously illuminate the surrounding space and substantially enlarge the field of view...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Azeem Ullah, Yuxiang Zhang, Zafar Iqbal, Yaxin Zhang, Dong Wang, Jincan Chen, Ping Hu, Zhuo Chen, Mingdong Huang
Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is considered a promising alternative to conventional antibiotic approach. We have previously developed a novel PS containing five lysine amino acids, pentalysine-β-carbonylphthalocyanine Zinc (ZnPc(Lys)5 ), which in the presence of light, is highly toxic against a range of bacterial strains, including hospital isolated, drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Here, we study the effect of light fluence of the two light sources on the PACT potency of ZnPc(Lys)5 ...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Brittany L Cornwell, Laurie M Brockmann, Elaine C Lasky, Jennifer Mach, John F McCarthy
OBJECTIVES: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has achieved substantial national implementation of primary care-mental health integration (PC-MHI) services. However, little is known regarding program characteristics, variation in characteristics across settings, or associations between program fidelity and performance. This study identified core elements of PC-MHI services and evaluated their associations with program characteristics and performance. METHODS: A principal-components analysis (PCA) of reports from 349 sites identified factors associated with PC-MHI fidelity...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
V Venturi, T Masek, M Pospisek
Elevated levels of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) are implicated in neoplasia, with cumulative evidence pointing to its role in the etiopathogenesis of hematological diseases. As a node of convergence for several oncogenic signaling pathways, eIF4E has attracted a great deal of interest from biologists and clinicians whose efforts have been targeting this translation factor and its biological circuits in the battle against leukemia. The role of eIF4E in myeloid leukemia has been ascertained and drugs targeting its functions have found their place in clinical trials...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Hyunsuk Frank Roh, Jung Mogg Kim
RATIONALE: A hemodynamic relationship of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) to pulmonary acceleration time (PAcT) has not yet been explicitly presented. OBJECTIVE: We employed a logistic-based systolic model with a subtle modification for pulmonary circulation and provided a logical ground for the relationship between systolic PAP and PAcT using transthoracic echocardiography. Additionally, the logistic-based PAP estimation equation was deduced from the model to relate systolic PAP and PAcT...
February 24, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Chi-Ping Chan, Chun-Kit Yuen, Pak-Hin Hinson Cheung, Sin-Yee Fung, Pak-Yin Lui, Honglin Chen, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin
PACT is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein that has been implicated in host-influenza A virus (IAV) interaction. PACT facilitates the action of RIG-I in the activation of the type I IFN response, which is suppressed by the viral nonstructural protein NS1. PACT is also known to interact with the IAV RNA polymerase subunit PA. Exactly how PACT exerts its antiviral activity during IAV infection remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we demonstrated the interplay between PACT and IAV polymerase. Induction of IFN-β by the IAV RNP complex was most robust when both RIG-I and PACT were expressed...
March 7, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Emil Ter Veer, L Bengt van Rijssen, Marc G Besselink, Rosa M A Mali, Jordan D Berlin, Stefan Boeck, Franck Bonnetain, Ian Chau, Thierry Conroy, Eric Van Cutsem, Gael Deplanque, Helmut Friess, Bengt Glimelius, David Goldstein, Richard Herrmann, Roberto Labianca, Jean-Luc Van Laethem, Teresa Macarulla, Jonathan H M van der Meer, John P Neoptolemos, Takuji Okusaka, Eileen M O'Reilly, Uwe Pelzer, Philip A Philip, Marcel J van der Poel, Michele Reni, Werner Scheithauer, Jens T Siveke, Chris Verslype, Olivier R Busch, Johanna W Wilmink, Martijn G H van Oijen, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven
Variations in the reporting of potentially confounding variables in studies investigating systemic treatments for unresectable pancreatic cancer pose challenges in drawing accurate comparisons between findings. In this Review, we establish the first international consensus on mandatory baseline and prognostic characteristics in future trials for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer. We did a systematic literature search to find phase 3 trials investigating first-line systemic treatment for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer to identify baseline characteristics and prognostic variables...
March 2018: Lancet Oncology
Sio Hang Pun, Yuanyu Yu, Jian Zhang, Jiujiang Wang, Ching-Hsiang Cheng, Kin Fong Lei, Zhen Yuan, Peng Un Mak
Among the biomedical imaging modalities, photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) was one of the emerging hybrid techniques in recent years. In designing the PACT imaging system, a finite-bandwidth transducer is one of the limited factors for the overall performance. As the target size is inversely proportional to the dominant frequency components of the generated photoacoustic (PA) signal, a broad bandwidth transducer is desired for different scales' imaging. In this paper, a monolithic multiband capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array was designed and fabricated for the reception of the wideband PA signals so as to provide high-resolution images with high-frequency CMUT arrays and present the high signal-to-noise-ratio major structure with low-frequency CMUT arrays...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Gustavo Miranda Pires Santos, Susana C P S de Oliveira, Juliana C S Monteiro, Sandra R Fagnani, Fernando Pires Sampaio, Pedro J L Crugeira, Paulo Fernando Almeida, Antonio L B Pinheiro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the lethal potential of macrophages infected with Staphylococcus aureus after PACT using phenothiazine derivatives (a solution containing 1:1 methylene blue and O toluidine blue) and laser (660 nm, 40 mW, 60 s, 12 J/cm2 ) or LED (632 ± 2 nm, 145 mW, 40 s, 12 J/cm2 ). Six experimental groups were evaluated: Control Group (untreated); Photosensitizer group (phenothiazines - 12.5 μg/mL); Laser Group; LED Group; Laser PACT Group; and LED PACT Group. The pre-irradiation time used in this study was 5 minutes...
February 27, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Pouriya Faraj Tabrizi, Sara Wennige, Mark Berneburg, Tim Maisch
Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is a multi-target method to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms by exciting a photosensitizer (PS) with visible light of appropriate wavelength in the presence of molecular oxygen (3 O2 ). There are two major pathways by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced. In type I (TI )-reactions, radicals such as superoxide (O2 ˙- ) and hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) are generated by electron transfer. In type II (TII )-reactions, highly reactive singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) is produced by direct energy transfer...
February 28, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Thomas P O'Toole, Erin E Johnson, Matthew Borgia, Amy Noack, Jean Yoon, Elizabeth Gehlert, Jeanie Lo
INTRODUCTION: Although traditional patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) are effective for patients with complex needs, it is unclear whether homeless-tailored PCMHs work better for homeless veterans. We examined the impact of enrollment in a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) homeless-tailored PCMH on health services use, cost, and satisfaction compared with enrollment in a traditional, nontailored PCMH. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, quasi-experimental, single-blinded study at 2 VHA medical centers to assess health services use, cost, and satisfaction during 12 months among 2 groups of homeless veterans: 1) veterans receiving VHA homeless-tailored primary care (Homeless-Patient Aligned Care Team [H-PACT]) and 2) veterans receiving traditional primary care services (PACT)...
February 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
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