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Nutrition epigenetics

Luba Sominsky, Christine L Jasoni, Hannah Twigg, Sarah J Spencer
The hypothalamus is a key centre for regulation of vital physiological functions, such as appetite, stress responsiveness and reproduction. Development of the different hypothalamic nuclei and its major neuronal populations begins prenatally in both altricial and precocial species, with the fine tuning of neuronal connectivity and attainment of adult function established postnatally, and maintained throughout adult life. The perinatal period is highly susceptible to environmental insults that, by disrupting critical developmental processes, can set the tone for the establishment of adult functionality...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Vasantha Padmanabhan
The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the origin of several ovarian pathologies remain unclear. In addition to the genetic basis, developmental insults are gaining attention as a basis for the origin of these pathologies. Such early insults include maternal over or under nutrition, stress, and exposure to environmental chemicals. This chapter reviews the development and physiological function of the ovary, the known ovarian pathologies, the developmental check points of ovarian differentiation impacted by developmental insults, the role played by steroidal and metabolic factors as mediaries, the epigenetic mechanisms via which these mediaries induce their effects, and the knowledge gaps for targeting future studies to ultimately aid in the development of improved treatments...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Samantha L Martin, Kendra J Royston, Trygve O Tollefsbol
Cancer is the second leading cause of mortalities in the United States, only exceeded by heart disease. Current cancer treatments include chemotherapy, surgery and/or radiation. Due to the often harsh effects of current cancer therapies, investigators are focusing their efforts on cancer prevention mediated by dietary phytochemicals. Since the discovery that cancer can be initiated by and progress through both genetic and epigenetic pathways, there has been a significant surge in studies on epigenetic effects mediated by nutritive compounds...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Rosita Gabbianelli, Elisabetta Damiani
Neurodegeneration represents a global problem due to the progressive increase in the aging population all over the world. The quality of life in aging and the cost for the health care system require actions to promote healthy aging. In this regard, several risk factors associated with the development of neurodegeneration can be identified, and programs to educate people on the key role of prevention could significantly ameliorate the future picture of the aging population. Here we describe the key role of the pre- and postnatal period of life during the first 1000 days of life, focusing on the importance of nutrition and a healthy lifestyle of mother and offspring for the prevention of neurodegeneration later in life...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Susann Weihrauch-Blüher, Matthias Richter, Martin S Staege
Obesity is a complex disease which has reached epidemic dimensions. Thus, prevention of excessive weight gain and associated metabolic and cardiovascular diseases has to start as early in life as possible. The impact of epigenetic mechanisms on the regulation of genes involved in obesity is increasingly recognized. On the other hand, it is well known that socioeconomic factors influence the risk for obesity. These factors can also have an impact on epigenetic gene regulation. There is increasing body of evidence that several factors and interventions addressing extragenetic causes of obesity may not only improve individual health, but also the health of future generations by epigenetic alterations...
March 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
W Philip T James
BACKGROUND: This analysis sets out an overview of an IUNS presentation of a European clinician's assessment of the challenges of coping with immediate critical clinical problems and how to use metabolic and a mechanistic understanding of disease when developing nutritional policies. SUMMARY: Critically ill malnourished children prove very sensitive to both mineral and general nutritional overload, but after careful metabolic control they can cope with a high-quality, energy-rich diet provided their initial lactase deficiency and intestinal atrophy are taken into account...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Rahia Mashoodh, Ireneusz B Habrylo, Kathryn M Gudsnuk, Geralyn Pelle, Frances A Champagne
The paternal transmission of environmentally induced phenotypes across generations has been reported to occur following a number of qualitatively different exposures and appear to be driven, at least in part, by epigenetic factors that are inherited via the sperm. However, previous studies of paternal germline transmission have not addressed the role of mothers in the propagation of paternal effects to offspring. We hypothesized that paternal exposure to nutritional restriction would impact male mate quality and subsequent maternal reproductive investment with consequences for the transmission of paternal germline effects...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Féaron C Cassidy, Marika Charalambous
In the 1980s, mouse nuclear transplantation experiments revealed that both male and female parental genomes are required for successful development to term ( McGrath and Solter, 1983; Surani and Barton, 1983). This non-equivalence of parental genomes is because imprinted genes are predominantly expressed from only one parental chromosome. Uniparental inheritance of these genomic regions causes paediatric growth disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (reviewed in Peters, 2014). More than 100 imprinted genes have now been discovered and the functions of many of these genes have been assessed in murine models...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
A Zullo, E Simone, M Grimaldi, M Gagliardi, L Zullo, M R Matarazzo, F P Mancini
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Over the last decades advances in understanding the molecular bases of the close relationship between nutrition, metabolism, and diseases have been impressive. However, there are always novel frontiers coming up and epigenetics is one of these. Sirtuins, are pivotal factors in the control of metabolic pathways according to nutrient availability. In the present study we evaluated the effect of nutrient deprivation on expression, DNA methylation and chromatin status of the sirtuin genes...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Amy J Osborne, Peter K Dearden
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis predicts that early-life environmental exposures can be detrimental to later-life health and that mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environment may contribute to the growing non-communicable disease epidemic. Within this is an increasingly recognized role for epigenetic mechanisms; for example, epigenetic modifications can be influenced by nutrition and can alter gene expression in mothers and offspring. Currently, there are few whole-genome transcriptional studies of response to nutritional alteration...
October 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Nisha Padmanabhan, Joanna Rakoczy, Monika Kondratowicz, Katerina Menelaou, Georgina E T Blake, Erica D Watson
The exposure to adverse environmental conditions (e.g. poor nutrition) may lead to increased disease risk in an individual and their descendants. In some cases, the results may be sexually dimorphic. A range of phenotypes has been associated with deficiency in or defective metabolism of the vitamin folate. However, the molecular mechanism linking folate metabolism to development is still not well defined nor is it clear whether phenotypes are sex-specific. The enzyme methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is required for the progression of folate metabolism and the utilization of methyl groups from the folate cycle...
October 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Miriam G Jasiulionis
Epigenetics refers to the study of mechanisms controlling the chromatin structure, which has fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and genome stability. Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are established during embryonic development and epigenetic profiles are stably inherited during mitosis, ensuring cell differentiation and fate. Under the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as metabolic profile, hormones, nutrition, drugs, smoke, and stress, epigenetic marks are actively modulated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Karina Oyarce, Mauricio Campos-Mora, Tania Gajardo-Carrasco, Karina Pino-Lagos
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical players of immunological tolerance due to their ability to suppress effector T cell function thereby preventing transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases. During allograft transplantation, increases of both Treg expansion and generation, as well as their stable function, are needed to ensure allograft acceptance; thus, efforts have been made to discover new molecules that enhance Treg-mediated tolerance and to uncover their mechanisms. Recently, vitamin C (VitC), known to regulate T cell maturation and dendritic cell-mediated T cell polarization, has gained attention as a relevant epigenetic remodeler able to enhance and stabilize the expression of the Treg master regulator gene Foxp3, positively affecting the generation of induced Tregs (iTregs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
James B Kirkland, Mirella L Meyer-Ficca
Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, collectively referred to as niacin, are nutritional precursors of the bioactive molecules nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). NAD and NADP are important cofactors for most cellular redox reactions, and as such are essential to maintain cellular metabolism and respiration. NAD also serves as a cosubstrate for a large number of ADP-ribosylation enzymes with varied functions. Among the NAD-consuming enzymes identified to date are important genetic and epigenetic regulators, e...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Jean Logan, Megan W Bourassa
There is considerable evidence to support dietary recommendations for prevention of cancer as well as for patients undergoing or recovering from cancer treatment. We consider here implications from human, animal and in-vitro studies of the effects of dietary factors (macronutrients and micronutrients-phytochemicals) on cancer. An important epidemiology study, the China Project found a significant correlation between disease incidence and markers of animal product consumption. Evidence of the role of animal protein in the promotion of cancer also comes from animal studies...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Anselm Jünemann, Robert Rejdak, Bettina Hohberger
Endothelial dysfunction and vascular dysregulation play a role in the multifactorial pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma as well as secondary open-angle glaucoma in the pseudoexfoliation syndrome. This paper reviews the literature on the association between homocysteine metabolism and glaucomatous disease and explains the possible role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma...
February 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Folami Y Ideraabdullah, Steven H Zeisel
Epigenetics is the study of heritable mechanisms that can modify gene activity and phenotype without modifying the genetic code. The basis for the concept of epigenetics originated more than 2,000 yr ago as a theory to explain organismal development. However, the definition of epigenetics continues to evolve as we identify more of the components that make up the epigenome and dissect the complex manner by which they regulate and are regulated by cellular functions. A substantial and growing body of research shows that nutrition plays a significant role in regulating the epigenome...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Zhong-Tian Bai, Bing Bai, Jun Zhu, Cui-Xia Di, Xun Li, Wen-Ce Zhou
Carcinogenesis is known to be primarily associated with gene mutations. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that epigenetic events also serve crucial roles in tumor etiology. Environmental factors, including nutrition, toxicants and ethanol, are involved in carcinogenesis through inducing epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, histone deacetylase and miRNA regulation. Studying epigenetic mechanisms has facilitated the development of early diagnostic strategies and potential therapeutic avenues...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Xunmei Yuan, Kazutaka Tsujimoto, Koshi Hashimoto, Kenichi Kawahori, Nozomi Hanzawa, Miho Hamaguchi, Takami Seki, Makiko Nawa, Tatsuya Ehara, Yohei Kitamura, Izuho Hatada, Morichika Konishi, Nobuyuki Itoh, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Hitoshi Shimano, Takako Takai-Igarashi, Yasutomi Kamei, Yoshihiro Ogawa
The nutritional environment to which animals are exposed in early life can lead to epigenetic changes in the genome that influence the risk of obesity in later life. Here, we demonstrate that the fibroblast growth factor-21 gene (Fgf21) is subject to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α-dependent DNA demethylation in the liver during the postnatal period. Reductions in Fgf21 methylation can be enhanced via pharmacologic activation of PPARα during the suckling period. We also reveal that the DNA methylation status of Fgf21, once established in early life, is relatively stable and persists into adulthood...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
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