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Fever neurocritical care

Tomoya Okazaki, Yasuhiro Kuroda
Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a life-threatening disease requiring neurocritical care. Delayed cerebral ischemia is a well-known complication that contributes to unfavorable neurological outcomes. Cerebral vasospasm has been thought to be the main cause of delayed cerebral ischemia, and although several studies were able to decrease cerebral vasospasm, none showed improved neurological outcomes. Our target is not cerebral vasospasm but improving neurological outcomes...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
Lawrence J Hirsch, Nicolas Gaspard, Andreas van Baalen, Rima Nabbout, Sophie Demeret, Tobias Loddenkemper, Vincent Navarro, Nicola Specchio, Lieven Lagae, Andrea O Rossetti, Sara Hocker, Teneille E Gofton, Nicholas S Abend, Emily J Gilmore, Cecil Hahn, Houman Khosravani, Felix Rosenow, Eugen Trinka
We convened an international group of experts to standardize definitions of New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE), Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES), and related conditions. This was done to enable improved communication for investigators, physicians, families, patients, and other caregivers. Consensus definitions were achieved via email messages, phone calls, an in-person consensus conference, and collaborative manuscript preparation. Panel members were from 8 countries and included adult and pediatric experts in epilepsy, electroencephalography (EEG), and neurocritical care...
April 2018: Epilepsia
Lori Kennedy Madden, Michelle Hill, Teresa L May, Theresa Human, Mary McKenna Guanci, Judith Jacobi, Melissa V Moreda, Neeraj Badjatia
BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is often used in neurocritical care to minimize secondary neurologic injury and improve outcomes. TTM encompasses therapeutic hypothermia, controlled normothermia, and treatment of fever. TTM is best supported by evidence from neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, although it has also been explored in ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and intracranial hemorrhage patients. Critical care clinicians using TTM must select appropriate cooling techniques, provide a reasonable rate of cooling, manage shivering, and ensure adequate patient monitoring among other challenges...
December 2017: Neurocritical Care
G Korbakis, P M Vespa
Neurocritical care has two main objectives. Initially, the emphasis is on treatment of patients with acute damage to the central nervous system whether through infection, trauma, or hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. Thereafter, attention shifts to the identification of secondary processes that may lead to further brain injury, including fever, seizures, and ischemia, among others. Multimodal monitoring is the concept of using various tools and data integration to understand brain physiology and guide therapeutic interventions to prevent secondary brain injury...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Karin Halvorson, Sameer Shah, Corey Fehnel, Bradford Thompson, N Stevenson Potter, Mitchell Levy, Linda Wendell
BACKGROUND: Fever is a common occurrence in the Neurocritical Care Unit (NCCU). It is reported that up to 50 % of these fevers are associated with a non-infectious source. As this is a diagnosis of exclusion, a complete fever evaluation must be done to rule out infection. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been identified as a possible biomarker to distinguish infectious from non-infectious etiologies of fever. We hypothesized that PCT could be used as a predictor of infectious fever in febrile patients with intracranial hemorrhage admitted to the NCCU...
October 2017: Neurocritical Care
D Chiumello, M Gotti, G Vergani
Fever, which is arbitrary defined as an increase in body temperature above 38.3°C, can affect up to 90% of patients admitted in intensive care unit. Induction of fever is mediated by the release of pyrogenic cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and interferons). Fever is associated with increased length of stay in intensive care unit and with a worse outcome in some subgroups of patients (mainly neurocritically ill patients). Although fever can increase oxygen consumption in unstable patients, on the contrary, it can activate physiologic systems that are involved in pathogens clearance...
April 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Gurpreet Singh Aujla, Premkumar Nattanmai, Keerthivaas Premkumar, Christopher R Newey
Fever increases mortality and morbidity and length of stay in neurocritically ill patients. Various methods are used in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) to control fever. Two such methods involve the Arctic Sun hydrogel wraps and the Gaymar cooling wraps. The purpose of our study was to compare these two methods in neurocritical care patients who had temperature >37.5°C for more than three consecutive hours and that was refractory to standard treatments. Data of patients requiring cooling wraps for treatment of hyperthermia at an NSICU at an academic, tertiary referral center were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Ivan Rocha Ferreira da Silva, Gabriel Rodriguez de Freitas
BACKGROUND: Fever is commonly observed in patients who have had aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and it has been associated with the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia and worse outcomes in previous studies. Frequently, fever is not the result of bacterial infections, and distinction between infection-related fever and fever secondary to brain injury (also referred as central fever) can be challenging. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to identify risk factors on admission for the development of central fever in patients with SAH...
December 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Fawaz Al-Mufti, Elie Dancour, Krishna Amuluru, Charles Prestigiacomo, Stephan A Mayer, E Sander Connolly, Jan Claassen, Joshua Z Willey, Philip M Meyers
Acute ischemic stroke continues to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent advances in mechanical thrombectomy techniques combined with prereperfusion computed tomographic angiography for patient selection have revolutionized stroke care in the past year. Peri- and postinterventional neurocritical care of the patient who has had an emergent large-vessel occlusion is likely an equally important contributor to the outcome but has been relatively neglected. Critical periprocedural management issues include streamlining care to speed intervention, blood pressure optimization, reversal of anticoagulation, management of agitation, and selection of anesthetic technique (ie, general vs monitored anesthesia care)...
July 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Marlene Fischer, Alois Schiefecker, Peter Lackner, Florian Frank, Raimund Helbok, Ronny Beer, Bettina Pfausler, Erich Schmutzhard, Gregor Broessner
BACKGROUND: Fever is common in neurocritical care patients and is associated with poor outcome. Targeted temperature management (TTM), i.e. therapeutic hypothermia or controlled normothermia, after acute brain injury has been studied as a neuroprotectant for several decades. In contrast to pharmacological agents with specific targets TTM affects multiple pathophysiological mechanisms and is primarily thought to attenuate secondary brain injury. Most promising results have been obtained from experimental studies on cerebral ischemia or traumatic brain injury showing beneficial effects of hypothermia on structural and functional outcome...
2017: Current Drug Targets
George A Lopez
Fever in the neurocritical care unit has a high prevalence and is associated with worse outcomes in patients with severe neurologic illness. While it is well accepted that fever is associated with worse outcomes in this patient population, it is unclear if aggressive temperature management will improve outcomes. Temperature should be monitored routinely in this high-risk population, fever worked up appropriately to identify infectious etiology, and reasonable measures taken to control elevated temperature. While infection is a common source of fever in patients with significant neurologic illness, the fever may also be exacerbated by the underlying brain injury...
March 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Raquel Farias-Moeller, Jessica L Carpenter, Nathan Dean, Elizabeth M Wells
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction in pediatric patients with acquired brain injury is often encountered and greatly understudied. We sought to identify the incidence of Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity (PSH) in critically ill pediatric patients with meningoencephalitis and encephalitis, associated risk factors and influence on outcome. METHODS: Children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with a diagnosis of meningoencephalitis and/or encephalitis were identified from a single institution Neurocritical Care database...
December 2015: Neurocritical Care
Rajesh Verma, Prithvi Giri, Imran Rizvi
INTRODUCTION: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a clinical disorder mainly caused by traumatic brain injury, stroke, encephalitis and other types of brain injury. The clinical features are episodes of hypertension, tachycardia, tachypnea, fever and dystonic postures. In this study, we described clinical profile and outcome of six patients of PSH admitted in neurocritical care unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted at neurology critical care unit of a tertiary care center...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Gonçalo M Rodrigues, Carlos Oliveira Amaral, Hugo Dias Valentim, Anita Quintas, Maria Emília Ferreira, João Albuquerque Castro, Luís Mota Capitão
INTRODUCTION: Mycotic pseudoaneurysms are an infrequent complication of infective endocarditis; most cases are secondary to arterial trauma. The commonest site involved are the intracranial arteries, followed by the abdominal aorta and then the peripheral vessels. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 36-year-old man, admitted in our institution for a subarachnoid haemorrhage, who presented with fever of unknown origin during his stay in the neurocritical care unit and whom was diagnosed infective endocarditis due to Meticilin Sensible Staphylococcus Aureus...
July 2013: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
Juliet G Beniga, Katherine G Johnson, Debra D Mark
Fever is a significant contributor to secondary brain insult and management is a challenge for the neurocritical care team. The absence of standardized guidelines likely contributes to poor surveillance and undertreatment of increased temperature. A need for practice change was identified and this evidence-based practice project was initiated to compile sufficient evidence to develop, implement, and evaluate a treatment guideline to manage fever and maintain normothermia in the neurocritical care population...
September 2014: Nursing Clinics of North America
Jesse J Corry
Used for over 3600 years, hypothermia, or targeted temperature management (TTM), remains an ill defined medical therapy. Currently, the strongest evidence for TTM in adults are for out-of-hospital ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest, intracerebral pressure control, and normothermia in the neurocritical care population. Even in these disease processes, a number of questions exist. Data on disease specific therapeutic markers, therapeutic depth and duration, and prognostication are limited...
August 4, 2012: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Leif-Erik Bohman, Joshua M Levine
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fever is common in the ICU among patients with severe brain injury. Fever has been consistently shown to exacerbate brain injuries in animal models and has been consistently associated with poor outcome in human studies. However, whether fever control improves outcome and the ideal means of fever control remain unknown. This review will address recent literature on the impact of fever on severe brain injury and on interventions to maintain normothermia. RECENT FINDINGS: Current guidelines generally recommend maintenance of normothermia after brain injury but have scant recommendations on methods to do this...
April 2014: Current Opinion in Critical Care
C A C Wijman, S M Smirnakis, P Vespa, K Szigeti, W C Ziai, M M Ning, J Rosand, D F Hanley, R Geocadin, C Hall, P D Le Roux, J I Suarez, O O Zaidat
The daily practice of neurointensivists focuses on the recognition of subtle changes in the neurological examination, interactions between the brain and systemic derangements, and brain physiology. Common alterations such as fever, hyperglycemia, and hypotension have different consequences in patients with brain insults compared with patients of general medical illness. Various technologies have become available or are currently being developed. The session on "research and technology" of the first neurocritical care research conference held in Houston in September of 2009 was devoted to the discussion of the current status, and the research role of state-of-the art technologies in neurocritical patients including multi-modality neuromonitoring, biomarkers, neuroimaging, and "omics" research (proteomix, genomics, and metabolomics)...
February 2012: Neurocritical Care
Navaz Karanjia, Diana Nordquist, Robert Stevens, Paul Nyquist
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute brain injury but normal lung function are often intubated for airway protection, but extubation often fails. Currently, no clinical data exist that describe the events leading to extubation failure in this population. We examined the extubation failure rate, reintubation rate, and clinical characteristics of patients whose reason for intubation was a primary neurological injury. We then identified the clinical characteristics of those patients with primary brain injury who were reintubated...
August 2011: Neurocritical Care
Charmaine Childs, Tadeusz Wieloch, Fiona Lecky, Graham Machin, Bridget Harris, Nino Stocchetti
Temperature disturbances are common in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The possibility of an adaptive, potentially beneficial role for fever in patients with severe brain trauma has been dismissed, but without good justification. Fever might, in some patients, confer benefit. A cadre of clinicians and scientists met to debate the clinically relevant, but often controversial issue about whether raised brain temperature after human traumatic brain injury (TBI) should be regarded as "good or bad" for outcome...
2010: Frontiers in Neurology
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