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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345468/photochemistry-of-solid-films-of-the-neonicotinoid-nitenpyram
#1
Kifle Z Aregahegn, Michael J Ezell, Barbara J Finlayson-Pitts
The environmental fates of nitenpyram (NPM), a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, are not well known. A thin solid film of NPM deposited on a germanium attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystal was exposed to radiation from a low-pressure mercury lamp at 254 nm, or from broadband low pressure mercury photolysis lamps centered at 350 or 313 nm. The loss during photolysis was followed in time using FTIR. The photolysis quantum yields (), defined as the number of NPM molecules lost per photon absorbed, were determined to be (9...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336495/acute-toxicity-of-six-neonicotinoid-insecticides-to-freshwater-invertebrates
#2
Melanie Raby, Monica Nowierski, Dmitri Perlov, Xiaoming Zhao, Chunyan Hao, David G Poirier, Paul K Sibley
Neonicotinoids are a group of insecticides commonly used in agriculture. Due to their high water solubility, neonicotinoids can be transported to surface waters and have the potential to be toxic to aquatic life. The present study assessed and compared the acute (48 or 96 h) toxicity of 6 neonicotinoids (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to 21 laboratory-cultured and field-collected aquatic invertebrates spanning 10 aquatic arthropod orders. Test conditions mimicked species' habitat, with lentic taxa exposed under static conditions, and lotic taxa using recirculating exposure systems...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324902/potential-impact-of-neonicotinoid-use-on-northern-bobwhite-colinus-virginianus-in-texas-a-historical-analysis
#3
Hannah M H Ertl, Miguel A Mora, Donald J Brightsmith, Jorge A Navarro-Alberto
The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides in recent years has led to increasing environmental concern, including impacts to avian populations. In Texas and across their range, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) habitat frequently overlaps cultivated cropland protected by neonicotinoids. To address the effects of neonicotinoid use on bobwhites in Texas, we conducted a historical analysis from 1978-2012 in Texas' ecological regions using quail count data collected from North American Breeding Bird Survey and Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and neonicotinoid use data from the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324040/neonicotinoids-and-other-insect-nicotinic-receptor-competitive-modulators-progress-and-prospects
#4
John E Casida
Neonicotinoids (neonics) are remarkably effective as plant systemics to control sucking insects and for flea control on dogs and cats. The nitroimines imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran are the leaders among the seven commercial neonics that also include the nitromethylene nitenpyram, the nitromethylene-derived cycloxaprid, and the cyanoimines acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Honey bees are highly sensitive to the nitroimines and nitromethylenes, but the cyanoimines are less toxic. All neonics are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists with a common mode of action, target-site cross-resistance, and much higher potency on insect than mammalian nAChRs at defined binding sites...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321977/imidacloprid-exposure-cause-the-histopathological-changes-activation-of-tnf-%C3%AE-inos-8-ohdg-biomarkers-and-alteration-of-caspase-3-inos-cyp1a-mt1-gene-expression-levels-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#5
Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun, Harun Arslan
Imidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid that is widely used for the protection of crops and carnivores from insects and parasites, respectively. It is well known that imidacloprid exposure has a harmful effect on several organisms. However, there is little information about imidacloprid toxicity in aquatic animals, particularly fish. Thus, in the current study, we assessed the histopathological changes; activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and TNF-α; and expression levels of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A and MT1 genes in the common carp exposed to imidacloprid...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321884/gut-microbiota-composition-is-associated-with-environmental-landscape-in-honey-bees
#6
Julia C Jones, Carmelo Fruciano, Falk Hildebrand, Hasan Al Toufalilia, Nicholas J Balfour, Peer Bork, Philipp Engel, Francis Lw Ratnieks, William Oh Hughes
There is growing recognition that the gut microbial community regulates a wide variety of important functions in its animal hosts, including host health. However, the complex interactions between gut microbes and environment are still unclear. Honey bees are ecologically and economically important pollinators that host a core gut microbial community that is thought to be constant across populations. Here, we examined whether the composition of the gut microbial community of honey bees is affected by the environmental landscape the bees are exposed to...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316188/evidence-for-activation-of-nitenpyram-by-a-mitochondrial-cytochrome-p450-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Thomas W R Harrop, Shane Denecke, Ying Ting Yang, Janice Chan, Phillip J Daborn, Trent Perry, Philip Batterham
BACKGROUND: Nitenpyram is a member of the economically important neonicotinoid class of insecticides. The in vivo metabolism of nitenpyram is not well characterised, but cytochrome P450 activity is the major mechanism of resistance to neonicotinoids identified in insect pests, and P450s metabolise other neonicotinoids including imidacloprid. RESULTS: Here, we used the GAL4/UAS system to direct RNAi against the cytochrome P450 redox partners to interrupt P450 functions in specific tissues in Drosophila melanogaster...
January 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313450/response-to-tennekes-2018-the-resilience-of-the-beehive-journal-of-toxicology-and-environmental-health-b-20-316-386
#8
Keith R Solomon, Gladys L Stephenson
This paper is a response to a letter from Dr. H Tennekes ("The Resilience of the Beehive" Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B 20: 316-386). Here we emphasize that our quantitative weight of evidence analyses were focused on the level of the honeybee colony. These colony-level responses include redundancy and resiliency as well as a number of possible sublethal effects of pesticides on the colony. We also note that the literature has shown that binding of neonicotinoid insecticides to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is reversible...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305920/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr-mediated-dopamine-release-in-larval-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Poojan Pyakurel, Mimi Shin, B Jill Venton
Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of insects and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a target for neonicotinoid insecticides. Functional insect nAChRs are difficult to express in host cells, and hence difficult to study. In mammals, acetylcholine and nicotine evoke dopamine release, but the extent to which this mechanism is conserved in insects is unknown. In intact larval ventral nerve cords (VNCs), we studied dopamine evoked by acetylcholine, nicotine, or neonicotinoids...
January 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302769/imidacloprid-impedes-mitochondrial-function-and-induces-oxidative-stress-in-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera-larvae-hubner-noctuidae
#10
Bharat Nareshkumar, Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma, Senigala K Jayalakshmi, Kuruba Sreeramulu
Neonicotinoids have high agonistic affinity to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and are frequently used as insecticides against most devastating lepidopteran insect pests. Imidacloprid influenced dose-dependent decline in the state III and IV respiration, respiration control index (RCI), and P/O ratios, in vitro and in vivo. The bioassay indicated its LD50 value to be 531.24 μM. The insecticide exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition on F0F1-ATPase and complex IV activity. At 600 μM, the insecticide inhibited 83...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298300/neonicotinoid-residues-in-uk-honey-despite-european-union-moratorium
#11
Ben A Woodcock, Lucy Ridding, Stephen N Freeman, M Gloria Pereira, Darren Sleep, John Redhead, David Aston, Norman L Carreck, Richard F Shore, James M Bullock, Matthew S Heard, Richard F Pywell
Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286873/leaching-and-sorption-of-neonicotinoid-insecticides-and-fungicides-from-seed-coatings
#12
Kelly L Smalling, Michelle L Hladik, Corey J Sanders, Kathryn M Kuivila
Seed coatings are a treatment used on a variety of crops to improve production and offer protection against pests and fungal outbreaks. The leaching of the active ingredients associated with the seed coatings and the sorption to soil was evaluated under laboratory conditions using commercially available corn and soybean seeds to study the fate and transport of these pesticides under controlled conditions. The active ingredients (AI) included one neonicotinoid insecticide (thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (azoxystrobin, fludioxonil, metalaxyl, sedaxane thiabendazole)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281077/value-of-neonicotinoid-insecticide-seed-treatments-in-mid-south-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-malvales-malvaceae-production-systems
#13
J H North, J Gore, A L Catchot, S D Stewart, G M Lorenz, F R Musser, D R Cook, D L Kerns, D M Dodds
Neonicotinoid insecticides are currently one of two classes of chemicals available as a seed treatment for growers to manage early season insect pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvales: Malvaceae), and they are used on nearly 100% of cotton hectares in the midsouthern states. An analysis was performed on 100 seed-treatment trials from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee to determine the value of neonicotinoid seed treatments in cotton production systems. The analysis compared seed treated with neonicotinoid insecticides seed treatments plus a fungicide with seed only treated with fungicide...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279642/imidacloprid-poisoning-an-emerging-cause-of-potentially-fatal-poisoning
#14
Sanjay A Mundhe, Siddheshwar V Birajdar, Sheshrao S Chavan, Nikhil R Pawar
There are a variety of pesticides that are used to control the pests in agricultural lands and other places. Newer pesticides, developed as an alternative to highly toxic organophosphates such as imidacloprid including other neonicotinoid compounds, are being increasingly used considering their less harmful effects in case of human exposures. Though it is considered relatively safer to human beings, it can lead to potentially life-threatening complications and acute poisoning with these compounds may be fatal in large ingestion...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273854/imidacloprid-slows-the-development-of-preference-for-rewarding-food-sources-in-bumblebees-bombus-impatiens
#15
Jordan D Phelps, Caroline G Strang, Malgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Tomasz Sniegocki, Andrzej Posyniak, David F Sherry
Bee pollination is economically and ecologically vital and recent declines in bee populations are therefore a concern. One possible cause of bee declines is pesticide use. Bumblebees exposed to imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, have been shown to be less efficient foragers and collect less pollen on foraging trips than unexposed bees. We investigated whether bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) chronically exposed to imidacloprid at field-realistic levels of 2.6 and 10 ppb showed learning deficits that could affect foraging...
December 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260456/degradation-of-the-neonicotinoid-pesticides-in-the-atmospheric-pressure-ionization-source
#16
Yunfeng Chai, Hongping Chen, Xin Liu, Chengyin Lu
During the analysis of neonicotinoid pesticide standards (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid) by mass spectrometry, the degradation of these pesticides (M-C=N-R is degraded into M-C=O, M is the skeleton moiety, and R is NO2 or CN) was observed in the atmospheric pressure ionization interfaces (ESI and APCI). In APCI, the degradation of all the five neonicotinoid pesticides studied took place, and the primary mechanism was in-source ion/molecule reaction, in which a molecule of water (confirmed by use of H218O) attacked the carbon of the imine group accompanying with loss of NH2R (R=NO2, CN)...
December 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259229/the-pesticide-flupyradifurone-impairs-olfactory-learning-in-asian-honey-bees-apis-cerana-exposed-as-larvae-or-as-adults
#17
Ken Tan, Cao Wang, Shihao Dong, Xinyu Li, James C Nieh
Relatively little attention has focused on how pesticides may affect Asian honey bees, which provide vital crop pollination services and are key native pollinators. We therefore studied the effects of a relatively new pesticide, flupyradifurone (FLU), which has been developed, in part, because it appears safer for honey bees than neonicotinoids. We tested the effects of FLU on Apis cerana olfactory learning in larvae (lower dose of 0.033 µg/larvae/day over 6 days) and, in a separate experiment, adults (lower dose of 0...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258192/identification-of-differentially-expressed-mirnas-in-colorado-potato-beetles-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-say-exposed-to-imidacloprid
#18
Mathieu D Morin, Pierre J Lyons, Nicolas Crapoulet, Sébastien Boquel, Pier Jr Morin
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) is a significant pest of potato plants that has been controlled for more than two decades by neonicotinoid imidacloprid. L. decemlineata can develop resistance to this agent even though the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance are not well characterized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short ribonucleic acids that have been linked to response to various insecticides in several insect models. Unfortunately, the information is lacking regarding differentially expressed miRNAs following imidacloprid treatment in L...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247944/sorption-mechanisms-of-neonicotinoids-on-biochars-and-the-impact-of-deashing-treatments-on-biochar-structure-and-neonicotinoids-sorption
#19
Peng Zhang, Hongwen Sun, Chao Ren, Lujuan Min, Huiming Zhang
To elucidate the sorption affinity of biochars for neonicotinoid pesticides and the influence of biochar structure on sorption mechanisms therein, 24 biochar samples were obtained by pyrolyzing maize straw and pig manure at pyrolyzing temperatures (PTs) of 200-700 °C and by further deashing them using acids, and the sorption of three typical neonicotinoids, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiacloprid on untreated and acid-deashed biochars were evaluated. All the biochar samples could efficiently adsorb the three neonicotinoids and multiple mechanisms were involved in sorption...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246838/imidacloprid-a-neonicotinoid-insecticide-facilitates-tyrosine-hydroxylase-transcription-and-phenylethanolamine-n-methyltransferase-mrna-expression-to-enhance-catecholamine-synthesis-and-its-nicotine-evoked-elevation-in-pc12d-cells
#20
Ichiro Kawahata, Tohru Yamakuni
Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide acting as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the target insects. However, questions about the safety to mammals, including human have emerged. Overactivation of mammalian peripheral catecholaminergic systems leads to onset of tachycardia, hypertension, vomiting, etc., which have been observed in acutely imidacloprid-poisoned patients as well. Physiological activation of the nAChRs is known to drive catecholamine biosynthesis and secretion in mammalian adrenal chromaffin cells...
December 12, 2017: Toxicology
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