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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144196/quantitative-weight-of-evidence-assessment-of-higher-tier-studies-on-the-toxicity-and-risks-of-neonicotinoids-in-honeybees-3-clothianidin
#1
Keith R Solomon, Gladys L Stephenson
A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was used to assess higher tier studies on the effects of clothianidin (CTD) on honeybees. Assessment endpoints were population size and viability of commercially managed bees and quantity of hive products. A colony-level no-observed-adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) of 25 µg CTD/kg syrup, equivalent to an oral no-observed-adverse effect-dose (NOAED) of 7.3 ng/bee/d for all responses measured. Based on a NOAEC of 19.7 µg/kg pollen, the NOAED for honeybee larvae was 2...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143171/neonicotinoid-insecticides-in-pollen-honey-and-adult-bees-in-colonies-of-the-european-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-l-in-egypt
#2
Garry Codling, Yahya Al Naggar, John P Giesy, Albert J Robertson
Honeybee losses have been attributed to multiple stressors and factors including the neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs). Much of the study of hive contamination has been focused upon temperate regions such as Europe, Canada and the United States. This study looks for the first time at honey, pollen and bees collected from across the Nile Delta in Egypt in both the spring and summer planting season of 2013. There is limited information upon the frequency of use of NIs in Egypt but the ratio of positive identification and concentrations of NIs are comparable to other regions...
November 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141708/sensitive-detection-of-neonicotinoid-insecticides-and-other-selected-pesticides-in-pollen-and-nectar-using-nanoflow-liquid-chromatography-orbitrap-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
David Moreno-González, Jaime Alcántara-Durán, Bienvenida Gilbert-López, Miriam Beneito-Cambra, Víctor M Cutillas, Łukasz Rajski, Antonio Molina-Díaz, Juan F García-Reyes
In this work, a new method based on nanoflow LC with high-resolution MS was developed for the determination ofeight pesticides in pollen and nectar samples, including neonicotinoid insecticides and other selected pesticides commonly found in bees and beeswax. Detection was undertaken with a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (Q Exactive™) equipped with a commercial nanospray ion source. The extraction of pesticides from pollen samples was performed by a modified micro-QuEChERS method scaled down to Eppendorf tubes, whereas nectar samples were simply diluted with a water–methanol (95 + 5, v/v) solution...
November 15, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140765/quantitative-weight-of-evidence-assessment-of-higher-tier-studies-on-the-toxicity-and-risks-of-neonicotinoids-in-honeybees-2-imidacloprid
#4
Gladys L Stephenson, Keith R Solomon
A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was used to assess higher-tier studies on the effects of imidacloprid (IMI) on honeybees. Assessment endpoints were population size and viability of commercially managed bees and quantity of hive products. A colony-level no-observed-adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) of 25 µg IMI/kg syrup, equivalent to an oral no-observed-adverse-effect-dose of 7.3 ng/bee/d for all responses, was measured. The overall weight of evidence indicates that there is minimal risk to honeybees from exposure to IMI from its use as a seed treatment...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139620/changing-patterns-in-water-toxicity-associated-with-current-use-pesticides-in-three-california-agriculture-regions
#5
Brian S Anderson, Bryn M Phillips, Jennifer P Voorhees, Xin Deng, Jeff Geraci, Karen Worcester, Ron S Tjeerdema
Regulation of agriculture irrigation water discharges in California is assessed and controlled by its nine Regional Water Quality Control Boards under the jurisdiction of the California State Water Resources Control Board. Each Regional Water Board has developed programs to control pesticides in runoff as part of the waste discharge requirements implemented through each Region's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program. This study assessed how pesticide use patterns differ in the Imperial (Imperial County), Salinas and Santa Maria (Monterey County) valleys, which host three of California's prime agriculture areas...
November 15, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138404/neonicotinoid-pesticide-limits-improvement-in-buzz-pollination-by-bumblebees
#6
P R Whitehorn, C Wallace, M Vallejo-Marin
Neonicotinoid pesticides have been linked to global declines of beneficial insects such as bumblebees. Exposure to trace levels of these chemicals causes sub-lethal effects, such as reduced learning and foraging efficiency. Complex behaviours may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of neonicotinoids. Such behaviours may include buzz pollination (sonication), in which pollinators, usually bees, use innate and learned behaviours to generate high-frequency vibrations to release pollen from flowers with specialised anther morphologies...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133226/the-effect-of-dietary-neonicotinoid-pesticides-on-non-flight-thermogenesis-in-worker-bumble-bees-bombus-terrestris
#7
Robert Potts, Rebecca M Clarke, Sophie E Oldfield, Lisa K Wood, Natalie Hempel de Ibarra, James E Cresswell
For bumble bees (genus Bombus), the capacity for non-flight thermogenesis is essential for two fundamental processes undertaken by adult workers, namely recovery from torpor after chilling and brood incubation. Farmland bees can be widely exposed to dietary residues of neurotoxic neonicotinoid insecticides that appear in the nectar and pollen of treated bee-attractive crops, which may harm them. An earlier study shows that dietary neonicotinoids cause complex alterations to thermoregulation in honey bees, but their effects on the thermogenic capabilities of individual bumble bees has been untested previously...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127660/exposure-to-a-sublethal-concentration-of-imidacloprid-and-the-side-effects-on-target-and-nontarget-organs-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#8
Aline Fernanda Catae, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Mario Sergio Palma, Osmar Malaspina
The use of insecticides has become increasingly frequent, and studies indicate that these compounds are involved in the intoxication of bees. Imidacloprid is a widely used neonicotinoid; thus, we have highlighted the importance of assessing its oral toxicity to Africanized bees and used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the sublethal effects in the brain, the target organ, and the midgut, responsible for the digestion/absorption of food. In addition, the distribution of proteins involved in important biological processes in the brain were evaluated on the 1st day of exposure by MALDI-imaging analysis...
November 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124633/an-update-of-the-worldwide-integrated-assessment-wia-on-systemic-insecticides-part-2-impacts-on-organisms-and-ecosystems
#9
Lennard Pisa, Dave Goulson, En-Cheng Yang, David Gibbons, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Edward Mitchell, Alexandre Aebi, Jeroen van der Sluijs, Chris J K MacQuarrie, Chiara Giorio, Elizabeth Yim Long, Melanie McField, Maarten Bijleveld van Lexmond, Jean-Marc Bonmatin
New information on the lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on organisms is presented in this review, complementing the previous Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) in 2015. The high toxicity of these systemic insecticides to invertebrates has been confirmed and expanded to include more species and compounds. Most of the recent research has focused on bees and the sublethal and ecological impacts these insecticides have on pollinators. Toxic effects on other invertebrate taxa also covered predatory and parasitoid natural enemies and aquatic arthropods...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123189/a-common-neonicotinoid-pesticide-thiamethoxam-alters-honey-bee-activity-motor-functions-and-movement-to-light
#10
S Tosi, J C Nieh
Honey bees provide key ecosystem services. To pollinate and to sustain the colony, workers must walk, climb, and use phototaxis as they move inside and outside the nest. Phototaxis, orientation to light, is linked to sucrose responsiveness and the transition of work from inside to outside the nest, and is also a key component of division of labour. However, the sublethal effects of pesticides on locomotion and movement to light are relatively poorly understood. Thiamethoxam (TMX) is a common neonicotinoid pesticide that bees can consume in nectar and pollen...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123163/imidacloprid-and-chlorpyrifos-insecticides-impair-migratory-ability-in-a-seed-eating-songbird
#11
Margaret L Eng, Bridget J M Stutchbury, Christy A Morrissey
Birds that travel long distances between their wintering and breeding grounds may be particularly susceptible to neurotoxic insecticides, but the influence of insecticides on migration ability is poorly understood. Following acute exposure to two widely used agricultural insecticides, imidacloprid (neonicotinoid) and chlorpyrifos (organophosphate), we compared effects on body mass, migratory activity and orientation in a seed-eating bird, the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys). During spring migration, sparrows were captured, held and dosed by gavage daily for 3 days with either the vehicle control, low (10% LD50) or high (25% LD50) doses of imidacloprid or chlorpyrifos and tested in migratory orientation trials pre-exposure, post-exposure and during recovery...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120069/effects-of-exposure-to-winter-oilseed-rape-grown-from-thiamethoxam-treated-seed-on-the-red-mason-bee-osmia-bicornis
#12
Natalie Ruddle, Charlotte Elston, Olaf Klein, Anja Hamberger, Helen Thompson
There has been increasing interest on the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on wild bees. In solitary bee species the direct link between each individual female and their reproductive success offers the opportunity to evaluate effects on individuals. The present study investigated effects of exposure to winter oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed on reproductive behaviour and output of solitary red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) released in 6 pairs of fields over a two-year period and confined to tunnels in a single year...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117371/influence-of-the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-thiamethoxam-on-mirna-expression-in-the-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae
#13
Teng-Fei Shi, Yu-Fei Wang, Fang Liu, Lei Qi, Lin-Sheng Yu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous noncoding single-stranded RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. They play important roles in regulating caste differentiation, behavior development, and immune defences in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In this study, we explored the effect of the neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on miRNA expression in this species using deep small RNA sequencing. The results showed that seven miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (q-value <0...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115090/urine-methyl-hippuric-acid-levels-in-acute-pesticide-poisoning-estimation-of-ingested-xylene-volume-and-association-with-clinical-outcome-parameters
#14
Chi Young Choi, NamJun Cho, Su Yeon Park, Samel Park, Hyo Wook Gil, Sae Yong Hong
To determine the relationship between the oral ingestion volume of xylene and methyl hippuric acid (MHA) in urine, we measured MHA in 11 patients whose ingested xylene volume was identified. The best-fit equation between urine MHA and ingested amount of xylene was as follows: y (ingested amount of xylene, mL/kg) = -0.052x² + 0.756x (x = MHA in urine in g/g creatinine). From this equation, we estimated the ingested xylene volume in 194 patients who had ingested pesticide of which the formulation was not available...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106043/synthesis-and-application-of-a-novel-solid-phase-extraction-adsorbent-for-the-multiresidue-analysis-of-insecticides-in-water
#15
Jingjing Xiong, Huizhen Li, Xue Ma, Jing You
A new solid-phase adsorbent was synthesized for the simultaneous enrichment of multiple classes of trace insecticides (neonicotinoids, organophosphates, fiproles and organochlorines) in water. The adsorbent was spherical with a diameter, surface area, average pore volume and pore size of ∼5 μm, 341 m(2) /g, 0.092 m(3) /g and 2.22 nm, respectively. Extraction conditions were optimized, including water pH and the type and volume of the rinsing and eluting solvents. After extraction, target insecticides were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105812/response-of-the-mayfly-cloeon-dipterum-to-chronic-exposure-to-thiamethoxam-in-outdoor-mesocosms
#16
Daniel B Pickford, Meaghean C Finnegan, Leilan R Baxter, Walter Böhmer, Mark L Hanson, Petra Stegger, Udo Hommen, Paul F Hoekstra, Mick Hamer
Thiamethoxam (TMX) is a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide that has been detected in surface water monitoring programs in North America and Europe. This has led to questions about its toxicity to non-target insects, specifically those with an aquatic life stage. In order to address the uncertainty associated with possible impacts related to environmental exposures, a chronic (35-d) outdoor mesocosm study with a formulated product containing TMX was conducted. The specific focus of the study was the response of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), which have been reported to be particularly sensitive in laboratory studies...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105037/an-update-of-the-worldwide-integrated-assessment-wia-on-systemic-insecticides-part-1-new-molecules-metabolism-fate-and-transport
#17
Chiara Giorio, Anton Safer, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Andrea Tapparo, Andrea Lentola, Vincenzo Girolami, Maarten Bijleveld van Lexmond, Jean-Marc Bonmatin
With the exponential number of published data on neonicotinoids and fipronil during the last decade, an updated review of literature has been conducted in three parts. The present part focuses on gaps of knowledge that have been addressed after publication of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic insecticides in 2015. More specifically, new data on the mode of action and metabolism of neonicotinoids and fipronil, and their toxicity to invertebrates and vertebrates, were obtained. We included the newly detected synergistic effects and/or interactions of these systemic insecticides with other insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, adjuvants, honeybee viruses, and parasites of honeybees...
November 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102665/perinatal-exposure-to-low-dose-imidacloprid-causes-adhd-like-symptoms-evidences-from-an-invertebrate-model-study
#18
Seoyoung Kim, Hee-Seok Lee, Yooheon Park
The fundamental diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism consists of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which lead to abnormal social interactions and repetitive and restricted behavior. Several food contaminants are suspected of being a possible contributing factor to the present-day increase in diseases, such as obesity and ADHD, and pesticides are also considered as a contributor to the increased prevalence of ADHD. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide with lower toxicity to mammals...
November 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100122/human-exposure-to-neonicotinoid-insecticides-and-the-evaluation-of-their-potential-toxicity-an-overview
#19
REVIEW
Wenchao Han, Ying Tian, Xiaoming Shen
Neonicotinoid insecticides have become the fastest growing class of insecticides over the past few decades. The insecticidal activity of neonicotinoids is attributed to their agonist action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Because of the special selective action on nAChRs in central nervous system of insects, and versatility in application methods, neonicotinoids are used to protect crops and pets from insect attacks globally. Although neonicotinoids are considered low toxicity to mammals and humans in comparison with traditional insecticides, more and more studies show exposure to neonicotinoids pose potential risk to mammals and even humans...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096261/neonicotinoid-insecticides-imidacloprid-guadipyr-and-cycloxaprid-induce-acute-oxidative-stress-in-daphnia-magna
#20
Suzhen Qi, Donghui Wang, Lizhen Zhu, Miaomiao Teng, Chengju Wang, Xiaofeng Xue, Liming Wu
Cycloxaprid (CYC) and guadipyr (GUA) are two new and promising neonicotinoid insecticides whose effects on Daphnia magna are as yet unknown. In this study, the acute toxicities of CYC and GUA to D. magna, including immobilization and embryo-hatching inhibition, and their effects on antioxidant enzymes and related gene expression were determined after a 48-h exposure. Imidacloprid (IMI) was evaluated at the same time as a reference agent. The 48-h EC50 values of IMI, GUA, and CYC for neonate immobilization were 13...
October 30, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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