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Lobna A Hussein, Noha F El Azab, Maha F Abdel-Ghany
A sensitive, selective, and validated HPLC-diode-array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five neonicotinoid insecticides-acetamiprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, flonicamid, and thiacloprid-and their primary metabolite, 6-chloronicotinic acid, in cucumbers and soil based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique as a pretreatment procedure. In the QuEChERS procedure, cucumber samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned using C18, whereas soil samples were extracted with an acetonitrile-dichloromethane mixture (1 + 2)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Rebecca A Schmidt-Jeffris, Brian A Nault
Many vegetable insect pests are managed using neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides. Unfortunately, these insecticides are toxic to many bees and natural enemies and no longer control some pests that have developed resistance. Anthranilic diamide insecticides provide systemic control of many herbivorous arthropod pests, but exhibit low toxicity to beneficial arthropods and mammals, and may be a promising alternative to neonicotinoids and pyrethroids. Anthranilic diamides may be delivered to vegetable crops via seed, in-furrow, or foliar treatments; therefore, it would be desirable to identify which application method provides high levels of pest control while minimizing the amount of active ingredient...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Nicola Cicero, Clara Naccari, Gaetano Cammilleri, Giuseppe Giangrosso, Antonello Cicero, Teresa Gervasi, Alessia Tropea, Ambrogina Albergamo, Vincenzo Ferrantelli
The decline of pollinating species is correlated to the extensive use of neonicotinoids against pest insects for crop protection. In this study, the concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides were determined in honeybees, honeycomb and honey samples, collected in Spring 2015 (blooming period) from different areas in Sicily (IT), to carry out an evaluation of bees products' safety and an overview of neonicotinoid contamination in beekeeping. The results obtained showed only the presence of clothianidin in bee samples and these concentrations don't represent a risk for bees' vitality and safety...
October 13, 2016: Natural Product Research
Lee William Cohnstaedt, Darren Snyder
Insecticidal sugar baits for mosquitoes and house ies have proven e cacy to reduce insect populations and consequently, disease transmission rates. The new insecticidal sugar trap (IST) is designed speci cally for controlling biting midge disease vector populations around livestock and near larval habitats. The trap operates by combining light-emitting diode (LED) technology with insecticidal sugar baits. The positive photo attraction of Culicoides elicited by the LEDs, draws the insects to the insecticidal sugar bait, which can be made from various commercial insecticide formulations (pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, etc...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Frank J Byrne, Matthew P Daugherty, Elizabeth E Grafton-Cardwell, James A Bethke, Joseph G Morse
BACKGROUND: Studies were conducted to evaluate uptake and retention of 3 systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam, in potted citrus nursery plants treated at standard label rates. Infestation of these plants placed at a field site with moderate levels of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) was monitored for 14 weeks following treatments and insecticide residues in leaf tissue were quantified using ELISA. Bioassays were conducted using leaves harvested on various dates post-treatment to compare the efficacies of residues against adult ACP...
October 7, 2016: Pest Management Science
Richard Schmuck, Gavin Lewis
The nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides, which include imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin, are widely used to control a range of important agricultural pests both by foliar applications and also as seed dressings and by soil application. Since they exhibit systemic properties, exposure of bees may occur as a result of residues present in the nectar and/or pollen of seed- or soil-treated crop plants and so they have been the subject of much debate about whether they cause adverse effects in pollinating insects under field conditions...
October 5, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Hong Wang, Yuanfang Huang, Chongyang Shen, Junxue Wu, An Yan, Hongyan Zhang
The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the transport of acetamiprid, a widely used neonicotinoid pesticide, is little known. We conducted saturated column experiments to examine cotransport of acetamiprid and silica nanoparticles (NPs) in pure and biochar-amended sands. Retention of acetamiprid was minor in the pure sand, whereas application of biochar in the sand significantly increased retention. Retention was greater at lower ionic strengths and near neutral pH values and was attributed to biodegradation and sorption through π-π interaction and pore filling...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Toshio Mori, Jianqiao Wang, Yusuke Tanaka, Kaoru Nagai, Hirokazu Kawagishi, Hirofumi Hirai
Clothianidin (CLO) is a member of the neonicotinoid pesticides, which have been widely used worldwide over the last two decades. However, its toxicity for bees and neurological toxicity for humans are urgent problems. Here, the degradation of CLO by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida was examined in nitrogen-limited liquid medium. After incubation for 20days at 30°C, 37% of CLO was degraded in the cultures. High-resolution ESI-MS and NMR analyses of the culture supernatant identified N-(2-chlorothiazol-5-yl-methyl)-N'-methylurea (TZMU) as a metabolite of CLO degradation...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Philipp Uhl, Lea A Franke, Christina Rehberg, Claudia Wollmann, Peter Stahlschmidt, Lukas Jeker, Carsten A Brühl
Wild and domesticated bee species are exposed to a variety of pesticides which may drive pollinator decline. Due to wild bee sensitivity data shortage, it is unclear if the honey bee Apis mellifera is a suitable surrogate species in the current EU risk assessment scheme. Furthermore, the underlying causes for sensitivity differences in bees are not established. We assessed the acute toxicity (median lethal dose, LD50) of dimethoate towards multiple bee species, generated a species sensitivity distribution and derived a hazardous dose (HD5)...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fabio Sgolastra, Piotr Medrzycki, Laura Bortolotti, Maria Teresa Renzi, Simone Tosi, Gherardo Bogo, Dariusz Teper, Claudio Porrini, Roberto Molowny-Horas, Jordi Bosch
BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoid insecticides have been identified as an important factor contributing to bee diversity declines. Nonetheless, uncertainties remain about their impact under field conditions. Most studies have been conducted on Apis mellifera and tested single compounds. However, in agricultural environments, bees are often exposed to multiple pesticides. We explore synergistic mortality between a neonicotinoid (clothianidin) and an ergosterol-biosynthesis-inhibitor fungicide (propiconazole) in three bee species (A...
September 29, 2016: Pest Management Science
Sana Chakroun, Lobna Ezzi, Intissar Grissa, Emna Kerkeni, Fadoua Neffati, Rakia Bhouri, Amira Sallem, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar, Mohssen Hassine, Meriem Mehdi, Zohra Haouas, Hassen Ben Cheikh
Acetamiprid is one of the most widely used neonicotinoids. This study investigates toxic effects of repeated oral administration of three doses of acetamiprid (1/20, 1/10, and 1/5 of LD50) during 60 days. For this, male Wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Hematological, biochemical, and toxicopathic effects of acetamiprid were evaluated. According to the results, a significant decrease in the body weight gain at the highest dose 1/5 of LD50 of acetamiprid was noticed. An increase in the relative liver weight was also observed at this dose level...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hayato Terayama, Hitoshi Endo, Hideo Tsukamoto, Koichi Matsumoto, Mai Umezu, Teruhisa Kanazawa, Masatoshi Ito, Tadayuki Sato, Munekazu Naito, Satoshi Kawakami, Yasuhiro Fujino, Masayuki Tatemichi, Kou Sakabe
Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Antonio López, Vicent Yusà, Amalia Muñoz, Teresa Vera, Esther Borràs, Milagros Ródenas, Clara Coscollà
A risk assessment strategy based on the quantitative target analysis and semi-quantitative retrospective screening determination of pesticides in PM10 has been developed. The proposed methodology was applied to 345 real samples from nine stations of a Mediterranean area in Spain, and the risk was assessed for adult, children and infants. Forty pesticides were detected with average concentrations ranging from 8 to 30,000pgm(-3). Each station showed its specific pesticide profile, which is linked to the different types of crops around each station...
September 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Juying Li, Sufen Zhang, Chengchen Wu, Chao Li, Haiyan Wang, Wei Wang, Zhong Li, Qingfu Ye
Paichongding is a chiral neonicotinoid insecticide currently marketed as racemate against sucking and biting insects. Under anaerobic condition, all paichongding stereoisomers underwent appreciable degradation in soil during 100 days of incubation, with estimated t1/2 values between 0.18 and 3.15 days. Diastereoselectivity in paichongding degradation was observed, with enantiomers (5S,7R)- and (5R,7S)-paichongding being more preferentially degraded in soils than enantiomers (5R,7R)- and (5S,7S)-paichongding...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jing Wang, Jie Chen, Wenjuan Zhu, Jiangtao Ma, Yan Rong, Zhiqiang Cai
Chiral insecticide paichongding (IPP) is a member of cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoid insecticides used in China. IPP was the promising replacement for imidacloprid as a result of its higher activity against imidacloprid-resistant insects. Two pairs of enantiomers, RR/SS-IPP and SR/RS-IPP, were separated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and employed in an aqueous system to investigate their biodegradation process. In this study, the strains G1-13/G1-14 and G2-19 with effective IPP degrading capability were isolated from agricultural soils...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yanning Zhang, Lan Zhang, Lei Feng, Liangang Mao, Hongyun Jiang
Imidaclothiz, a kind of neonicotinoid insecticides, is developed as a commercial pesticide in China and used for the control of sucking and biting insects, including aphids, whiteflies, beetles and some Lepidoptera species as well. In recent years, more and more attention has been focused on the adverse effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on non-target organisms. In this study, inhibition effects of imidaclothiz and recovery capacity of molecular biomarkers (GST, CE, CAT, SOD and POD activity, and DNA damage) in earthworms were detected for the first time...
September 7, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Mir Ali Farajzadeh, Mahdi Bamorowat, Mohammad Reza Afshar Mogaddam
An efficient, reliable, sensitive, rapid, and green analytical method for the extraction and determination of neonicotinoid insecticides in aqueous samples has been developed using ionic liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. In this method, a few microliters of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (as an extractant) is added onto a ringer tablet and it is transferred into a conical test tube containing aqueous phase of the analytes...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
M Basij, K Talebi, M Ghadamyari, V Hosseininaveh, S A Salami
Nine Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) populations were collected from different regions of Iran. In all nine populations, only one biotype (B biotype) was detected. Susceptibilities of these populations to imidacloprid and acetamiprid were assayed. The lethal concentration 50 values (LC50) for different populations showed a significant discrepancy in the susceptibility of B. tabaci to imidacloprid (3.76 to 772.06 mg l(-1)) and acetamiprid (4.96 to 865 mg l(-1)). The resistance ratio of the populations ranged from 9...
September 2, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Claudia Dussaubat, Alban Maisonnasse, Didier Crauser, Sylvie Tchamitchian, Marc Bonnet, Marianne Cousin, André Kretzschmar, Jean-Luc Brunet, Yves Le Conte
Honeybee colony survival strongly relies on the queen to overcome worker losses exposed to combined stressors like pesticides and parasites. Queen's capacity to withstand these stressors is however very little known. The effects of the common neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid in a chronic and sublethal exposure together with the wide distributed parasite Nosema ceranae have therefore been investigated on queen's physiology and survivorship in laboratory and field conditions. Early physiological changes were observed on queens, particularly the increase of enzyme activities (catalase [CAT] and glutathione-S-transferase [GST] in the heads) related to protective responses to xenobiotics and oxidative stress against pesticide and parasite alone or combined...
2016: Scientific Reports
Terry Hurley, Paul Mitchell
BACKGROUND: The benefits of neonicotinoid seed treatment to soybean farmers have received increased scrutiny. Rather than use data from small-plot experiments, this research uses survey data from 500 US farmers to estimate the benefit of neonicotinoid seed treatments to them. As seed treatment users, farmers are familiar with their benefits in the field and have economic incentives to only use them if they provide value. RESULTS: Of the surveyed farmers, 51% used insecticide seed treatments, averaging 87% of their soybean area...
August 30, 2016: Pest Management Science
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