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Pan Wang, Li-Lin Zhou, Fan Yang, Mang Li, Xiao-Ming Liu, Yong Wang, Chao-Liang Lei, Sheng-Yun Si
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important sap-sucking pest of many crops, including Chinese cabbage, Brassinca oleracea L. The neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam has been used as an effective insecticide to control M. persicae in cabbage fields. In this study, we assessed the effects of sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on demographic parameters of M. persicae. In leaf-dip bioassays, thiamethoxam showed a relatively high toxicity against M. persicae with an LC50 of 6...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Junjie Zhang, Yanli Wei, Huizhen Li, Eddy Y Zeng, Jing You
Extensive use of neonicotinoid insecticides has raised great concerns about their ecological risk. A reliable method to measure trace neonicotinoids in complicated aquatic environment is a premise for assessing their aquatic risk. To effectively remove matrix interfering substances from field water samples before instrumental analysis with HPLC/MS/MS, a multi-sorbent solid phase extraction method was developed using Box-Behnken design. The optimized method employed 200mg HLB/GCB (w/w, 8/2) as the sorbents and 6mL of 20% acetone in acetonitrile as the elution solution...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
Han Sol Lee, Sung-Woo Kim, A M Abd El-Aty, Hyung Suk Chung, Md Humayun Kabir, Md Musfiqur Rahman, Ji Hoon Jeong, Byung-Joon Chang, Ho-Chul Shin, Jae-Han Shim
An analytical method was developed to quantify the residual levels of the neonicotinoid insecticides, acetamiprid and thiacloprid, in field-incurred butterbur samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and partitioned with dichloromethane. After partitioning, purification was conducted using a Florisil(®) cartridge. Linearity of a matrix-matched calibration curve of the two compounds over a concentration range of 0.004-0.4μg/g was excellent, with determination coefficients (R(2))≥0...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Meaghean S Finnegan, Leilan R Baxter, Jon Maul, Mark L Hanson, Paul F Hoekstra
Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide used widely in agriculture to control a broad spectrum of chewing and sucking insect pests. Recent detection of thiamethoxam in surface waters has raised interest in characterizing the potential impacts of this insecticide to aquatic organisms. Here we report the results of toxicity testing (acute and chronic) conducted under good laboratory practices (GLP) for over 30 freshwater species (i.e., insects, molluscs, crustaceans, algae, macrophytes, fish) and four marine species (an alga, a mollusc, a crustacean, and a fish)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Shuang Hou, Yingying Zhuang, Yayun Deng, Xiaoyong Xu
Cycloxaprid (CYC) is a new cis-configuration neonicotinoid insecticide, which is currently under development in China for agricultural pest control. Considering the photodegradation of CYC is important for the application of CYC in the future, the photochemical behavior of CYC in aqueous solution was herein investigated in a "merry-go-round" reactor under a 300 W high-pressure mercury lamp. Twenty-five photodegradation products were identified via UPLC-TOF-ESI-MS/MS. The results suggested that NTN32692, the precursor of CYC was the predominant photodegradation product...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Sydney E Crawley, Jennifer R Gordon, Katelyn A Kowles, Michael F Potter, Kenneth F Haynes
Sublethal exposure to an insecticide may alter insect feeding, mating, oviposition, fecundity, development, and many other life history parameters. Such effects may have population-level consequences that are not apparent in traditional dose-mortality evaluations. Earlier, we found that a routinely used combination insecticide that includes a pyrethroid and a neonicotinoid (Temprid® SC) had deleterious effects on multiple bed bug (Cimex lectularius, L.) behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that sublethal exposure impacts physiology and reproduction as well...
2017: PloS One
L J Senior, B P Missenden, C Wright
In-field management of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Zeugodacus cucumis (French) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in fruiting vegetable crops has relied almost exclusively on organophosphate cover sprays. Laboratory and semifield trials were performed to compare a number of alternative insecticides for efficacy against these species. A novel semifield method was used whereby the insecticides were applied to crops as cover sprays under field conditions, and treated plants bearing fruit were transferred to large cages and exposed to fruit flies...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Joanna J Fisher, Louela A Castrillo, Bruno G G Donzelli, Ann E Hajek
In several insect systems, fungal entomopathogens synergize with neonicotinoid insecticides which results in accelerated host death. Using the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), an invasive woodborer inadvertently introduced into North America and Europe, we investigated potential mechanisms in the synergy between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum Petch and the insecticide imidacloprid. A potential mechanism underlying this synergy could be imidacloprid's ability to prevent feeding shortly after administration...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Francis P F Reay-Jones, Jeremy K Greene, D Ames Herbert, Alana L Jacobson, George G Kennedy, Dominic D Reisig, Phillip M Roberts
A 2-yr study in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was conducted to determine the abundance and species composition of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on different plant parts throughout the season in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Plant parts sampled included seedlings, terminals with two expanded leaves, leaves from the upper, middle, and lower sections of the canopy, white flowers, and medium-sized bolls. Adult thrips were significantly more abundant on seedlings and flowers in 2014, and on flowers followed by seedlings and leaves from the middle canopy in 2015...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Siobhan C de Little, Paul A Umina
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a significant agricultural pest that has developed resistance to a large number of insecticides globally. Within Australia, resistance has previously been confirmed for multiple chemical groups, including pyrethroids, carbamates, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids. In this study, we use leaf-dip and topical bioassays to investigate susceptibility and potential cross-resistance of 12 field-collected populations of Australian M. persicae to three recently registered insecticides: sulfoxaflor, spirotetramat, and cyantraniliprole...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Gemma L Baron, Nigel E Raine, Mark J F Brown
Bumblebees are essential pollinators of crops and wild plants, but are in decline across the globe. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been implicated as a potential driver of these declines, but most of our evidence base comes from studies of a single species. There is an urgent need to understand whether such results can be generalized across a range of species. Here, we present results of a laboratory experiment testing the impacts of field-relevant doses (1.87-5.32 ppb) of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on spring-caught wild queens of four bumblebee species: Bombus terrestris, B...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Tong Liu, Xiuguo Wang, Xiangwei You, Dan Chen, Yiqiang Li, Fenglong Wang
Neonicotinoid insecticides have become the most widely used pesticides in the world. Clothianidin is a novel neonicotinoid insecticide with a thiazolyl ring that exhibits excellent biological efficacy against a variety of pests. In the present study, the oxidative stress and genotoxicity of clothianidin on earthworms were evaluated. Moreover, the effective concentrations of clothianidin in artificial soil were monitored during the whole exposure period. The results showed that clothianidin was stable in artificial soil and that the residue concentrations were 0...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Christian H Krupke, Adam M Alford, Eileen M Cullen, Erin W Hodgson, Janet J Knodel, Brian McCornack, Bruce D Potter, Madeline I Spigler, Kelley Tilmon, Kelton Welch
BACKGROUND: A two year, multi-state study was conducted to assess the benefits of using soybean seed treated with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam to manage soybean aphid in the upper Midwestern US and compare this approach with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that included monitoring soybean aphids and treating with foliar-applied insecticide only when the economic threshold was reached. Concentrations of thiamethoxam in soybean foliage were also quantified throughout the growing season to estimate the pest management window afforded by insecticidal seed treatments RESULTS: Both the IPM treatment and thiamethoxam-treated seed resulted in significant reductions in cumulative aphid days when soybean aphid populations reached threshold levels...
April 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Dominic Englert, Jochen P Zubrod, Moritz Link, Saskia Mertins, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Neonicotinoids are increasingly applied on trees as protection measure against insect pests. Consequently, neonicotinoids are inevitably transferred into aquatic environments either via spray drift or surface runoff or (due to neonicotinoids' systemic nature) via senescent leaves. There particularly leaf-shredding invertebrates may be exposed to neonicotinoids through both the water phase and the consumption of contaminated leaves. In 7 day bioassays (n = 30), we examined ecotoxicological differences between these two exposure scenarios for an amphipod and an insect nymph with their feeding rate as the response variable...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Simone Tosi, Giovanni Burgio, James C Nieh
Pesticides can pose environmental risks, and a common neonicotinoid pesticide, thiamethoxam, decreases homing success in honey bees. Neonicotinoids can alter bee navigation, but we present the first evidence that neonicotinoid exposure alone can impair the physical ability of bees to fly. We tested the effects of acute or chronic exposure to thiamethoxam on the flight ability of foragers in flight mills. Within 1 h of consuming a single sublethal dose (1.34 ng/bee), foragers showed excitation and significantly increased flight duration (+78%) and distance (+72%)...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lixia Tian, Tianxue Song, Rongjun He, Yang Zeng, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: ABC transporter superfamily is one of the largest and ubiquitous groups of proteins. Because of their role in detoxification, insect ABC transporters have gained more attention in recent years. In this study, we annotated ABC transporters from a newly sequenced sweetpotato whitefly genome. Bemisia tabaci Q biotype is an emerging global invasive species that has caused extensive damages to field crops as well as ornamental plants. RESULTS: A total of 55 ABC transporters containing all eight described subfamilies (A to H) were identified in the B...
April 26, 2017: BMC Genomics
Marco Benamú, Mariángeles Lacava, Luis F García, Martín Santana, Jian Fang, Xungai Wang, Sean J Blamires
Neonicotinoids are one of the world's most extensively used insecticides, but their sub-lethal influences on non-target and beneficial organisms are not well known. Here we exposed the orb web spider Parawixia audax, which is found on arable lands in Uruguay, to a sub-lethal concentration of the broad spectrum insecticide Geonex (thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin) and monitored their web building. We collected their major ampullate silk and subjected it to tensile tests, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS) analysis, and amino acid composition analysis...
April 21, 2017: Chemosphere
Rachel H Parkinson, Jacelyn M Little, John R Gray
Neonicotinoids are known to affect insect navigation and vision, however the mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood. A visual motion sensitive neuron in the locust, the Descending Contralateral Movement Detector (DCMD), integrates visual information and is involved in eliciting escape behaviours. The DCMD receives coded input from the compound eyes and monosynaptically excites motorneurons involved in flight and jumping. We show that imidacloprid (IMD) impairs neural responses to visual stimuli at sublethal concentrations, and these effects are sustained two and twenty-four hours after treatment...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kate Basley, Dave Goulson
Although neonicotinoids are targeted at insects, their predominant use as a seed dressing and their long persistence in soils mean that non-target soil organisms such as earthworms are likely to be chronically exposed to them. Chronic exposure may pose risks that are not evaluated in most toxicity tests. We experimentally tested the effect of field-realistic concentrations of a commonly used neonicotinoid, clothianidin, on mortality, weight gain, and food consumption to assess the impacts of chronic exposure over four months on fitness of L...
2017: PeerJ
Miguel A Navarro-Roldán, Jesús Avilla, Dolors Bosch, Joan Valls, César Gemeno
Insecticides are the dominant pest management method in fruit and vegetable crops worldwide owing to their quick effect, low cost, and relatively easy application, but they bear negative effects on human health and the environment. Insecticide mode of action (MoA), target species, and sex are variables that could affect insecticide-induced mortality. We recorded the mortality caused by three neurotoxic insecticides with different modes of action (chlorpyrifos [organophosphate, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor], λ-cyhalothrin [pyrethroid, sodium channel modulator], and thiacloprid [neonicotinoid, nicotinic acetylcholinesterase receptor agonist]) applied topically to adult males and females of three economically important tortricid species [Cydia pomonella (L...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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