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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649467/larval-exposure-to-field-realistic-concentrations-of-clothianidin-has-no-effect-on-development-rate-over-winter-survival-or-adult-metabolic-rate-in-a-solitary-bee-osmia-bicornis
#1
Elizabeth Nicholls, Robert Fowler, Jeremy E Niven, James D Gilbert, Dave Goulson
There is widespread concern regarding the effects of agro-chemical exposure on bee health, of which neonicotinoids, systemic insecticides detected in the pollen and nectar of both crops and wildflowers, have been the most strongly debated. The majority of studies examining the effect of neonicotinoids on bees have focussed on social species, namely honey bees and bumble bees. However, most bee species are solitary, their life histories differing considerably from these social species, and thus it is possible that their susceptibility to pesticides may be quite different...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645084/application-of-the-combination-index-ci-isobologram-equation-to-research-the-toxicological-interactions-of-clothianidin-thiamethoxam-and-dinotefuran-in-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#2
Yanmei Liu, Sihong Liu, Hui Zhang, Yanping Gu, Xuesheng Li, Mingyuan He, Huihua Tan
Due to complex pest control scenarios and the needs of agricultural production, different neonicotinoids may be used in certain agricultural applications. Consequently, honeybees may be exposed to these substances through distribution throughout plant tissues via the vascular system through several pathways, such as surface water, the exudates excreted from plants, and air pollution via drift of dust as well as contaminated pollen and nectar. In the current study, the single and combined toxicity of clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam to honeybees was examined after 48 h exposure by the acute oral method and combination index (CI)-isobologram equation...
June 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643160/residual-ground-water-levels-of-the-neonicotinoid-thiacloprid-perturb-chemosensing-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Hannah Hopewell, Kieran G Floyd, Daniel Burnell, John T Hancock, Joel Allainguillaume, Michael R Ladomery, Ian D Wilson
This study investigated the neurological effects of residual ground-water levels of thiacloprid on the non-target organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematodes treated with thiacloprid showed a dose-dependent and significantly increased twitch response at concentrations above 50 ng mL(-1) that disabled their forward locomotion in liquid culture. In comparison with untreated controls, 10 ng mL(-1) thiacloprid perturbed the chemosensory ability of C. elegans such that the nematodes no longer demonstrated positive chemotaxis towards a NaCl chemo-attractant, reducing their chemotaxis index from +0...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640811/comparing-bee-species-responses-to-chemical-mixtures-common-response-patterns
#4
Alex Robinson, Helen Hesketh, Elma Lahive, Alice A Horton, Claus Svendsen, Agnes Rortais, Jean Lou Dorne, Jan Baas, Matthew S Heard, David J Spurgeon
Pollinators in agricultural landscapes can be exposed to mixtures of pesticides and environmental pollutants. Existing mixture toxicity modelling approaches, such as the models of concentration addition and independent action and the mechanistic DEBtox framework have been previously shown as valuable tools for understanding and ultimately predicting joint toxicity. Here we apply these mixture models to investigate the potential to interpret the effects of semi-chronic binary mixture exposure for three bee species: Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis within potentiation and mixture toxicity experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636110/cumulative-toxicity-of-neonicotinoid-insecticide-mixtures-to-chironomus-dilutus-under-acute-exposure-scenarios
#5
Erin M Maloney, Christy A Morrissey, John V Headley, Kerry M Peru, Karsten Liber
Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) was characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616862/loops-d-e-and-g-in-the-drosophila-d%C3%AE-1-subunit-contribute-to-high-neonicotinoid-sensitivity-of-d%C3%AE-1-chicken-%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#6
Makoto Ihara, Mai Hikida, Hiroyuki Matsushita, Kyosuke Yamanaka, Yuya Kishimoto, Kazuki Kubo, Shun Watanabe, Mifumi Sakamoto, Koutaro Matsui, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Daiki Okuhara, Shogo Furutani, David B Sattelle, Kazuhiko Matsuda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neonicotinoid insecticides interact with the orthosteric site formed at subunit interfaces of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (insect nACh receptors). However, their interactions with the orthosteric sites at α-non α and α-α subunit interfaces remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of neonicotinoid actions using the Drosophila Dα1-chicken β2 hybrid nACh receptor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Computer models of the (Dα1)3 (β2)2 nACh receptor in complex with imidacloprid and thiacloprid were generated...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594168/large-scale-risks-from-agricultural-pesticides-in-small-streams
#7
Eduard Szöcs, Marvin Brinke, Bilgin Karaoglan, Ralf B Schäfer
Small streams are important refuges for biodiversity. In agricultural areas, they may be at risk from pesticide pollution. However, most related studies have been limited to a few streams on the regional level, hampering extrapolation to larger scales. We quantified risks as exceedances of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) and used German monitoring data to quantify the drivers thereof and to assess current risks in small streams on a large scale. The data set was comprised of 1 766 104 measurements of 478 pesticides (including metabolites) related to 24 743 samples from 2301 sampling sites...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594132/are-neonicotinoids-killing-bees
#8
EDITORIAL
Robin J Blake, Leonard G Copping
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593544/the-environmental-risks-of-neonicotinoid-pesticides-a-review-of-the-evidence-post-2013
#9
Thomas James Wood, Dave Goulson
Neonicotinoid pesticides were first introduced in the mid-1990s, and since then, their use has grown rapidly. They are now the most widely used class of insecticides in the world, with the majority of applications coming from seed dressings. Neonicotinoids are water-soluble, and so can be taken up by a developing plant and can be found inside vascular tissues and foliage, providing protection against herbivorous insects. However, only approximately 5% of the neonicotinoid active ingredient is taken up by crop plants and most instead disperses into the wider environment...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582726/the-vibrational-properties-of-the-bee-killer-imidacloprid-insecticide-a-molecular-description
#10
Antônio A G Moreira, Pedro De Lima-Neto, Ewerton W S Caetano, Ito L Barroso-Neto, Valder N Freire
The chemical imidacloprid belongs to the neonicotinoids insecticide class, widely used for insect pest control mainly for crop protection. However, imidacloprid is a non-selective agrochemical to the insects and it is able to kill the most important pollinators, the bees. The high toxicity of imidacloprid requires controlled release and continuous monitoring. For this purpose, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is usually employed; infrared and Raman spectroscopy, however, are simple and viable techniques that can be adapted to portable devices for field application...
May 29, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579575/prenatal-and-early-postnatal-noael-dose-clothianidin-exposure-leads-to-a-reduction-of-germ-cells-in-juvenile-male-mice
#11
Shogo Yanai, Tetsushi Hirano, Takuya Omotehara, Tadashi Takada, Naoki Yoneda, Naoto Kubota, Anzu Yamamoto, Youhei Mantani, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Nobuhiko Hoshi
Neonicotinoids are pesticides used worldwide. They bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with high affinity. We previously reported that clothianidin (CTD), one of the latest neonicotinoids, reduced antioxidant expression and induced germ cell death in the adult testis of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the male reproductive toxicity of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to CTD, because it is likely that developmental exposure more severely affects the testis compared to adults due to the absence of the blood-testis barrier...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578396/neonicotinoid-induced-pathogen-susceptibility-is-mitigated-by-lactobacillus-plantarum-immune-stimulation-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-model
#12
Brendan A Daisley, Mark Trinder, Tim W McDowell, Hylke Welle, Josh S Dube, Sohrab N Ali, Hon S Leong, Mark W Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Pesticides are used extensively in food production to maximize crop yields. However, neonicotinoid insecticides exert unintentional toxicity to honey bees (Apis mellifera) that may partially be associated with massive population declines referred to as colony collapse disorder. We hypothesized that imidacloprid (common neonicotinoid; IMI) exposure would make Drosophila melanogaster (an insect model for the honey bee) more susceptible to bacterial pathogens, heat stress, and intestinal dysbiosis. Our results suggested that the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway is necessary for D...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577168/behavioural-effects-of-the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-thiamethoxam-on-the-predatory-insect-platynus-assimilis
#13
Ene Tooming, Enno Merivee, Anne Must, Marten-Ingmar Merivee, Ivar Sibul, Karin Nurme, Ingrid H Williams
Little information is available regarding sublethal effects of neonicotinoids on insect predators, many of which perform important roles in ecosystem functioning and biocontrol. In this study, dose-dependent sublethal effects of a dietary administered neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam on two basic behaviours, locomotion and feeding, were quantified in the carabid Platynus assimilis (Coleoptera, Carabidae) using automated video-tracking and weighing of consumed food, respectively. Acute toxicity tests showed that, when orally administered, the LD50 of thiamethoxam for P...
June 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570581/environmental-contaminants-of-honeybee-products-in-uganda-detected-using-lc-ms-ms-and-gc-ecd
#14
Deborah Ruth Amulen, Pieter Spanoghe, Michael Houbraken, Andrew Tamale, Dirk C de Graaf, Paul Cross, Guy Smagghe
Pollinator services and the development of beekeeping as a poverty alleviating tool have gained considerable focus in recent years in sub-Saharan Africa. An improved understanding of the pervasive environmental extent of agro-chemical contaminants is critical to the success of beekeeping development and the production of clean hive products. This study developed and validated a multi-residue method for screening 36 pesticides in honeybees, honey and beeswax using LC-MS/MS and GC-ECD. Of the 36 screened pesticides, 20 were detected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560623/exposure-assessment-of-honeybees-through-study-of-hive-matrices-analysis-of-selected-pesticide-residues-in-honeybees-beebread-and-beeswax-from-french-beehives-by-lc-ms-ms
#15
Gaëlle Daniele, Barbara Giroud, Claire Jabot, Emmanuelle Vulliet
Apiculture and pollination services are seriously threatened by bee weakening and losses phenomena. In this context, a survey was performed on samples from beehives across French areas during the 2012-2016 growing seasons, primarily taken from symptomatic colonies. A total of 488 honeybees, beebread, and wax were analyzed for the presence of pesticide residues. A total of 13 analytes including neonicotinoids and pyrethroids insecticides together with some of their metabolites and the fungicide boscalid were screened within samples...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560497/fate-and-transport-of-furrow-applied-granular-tefluthrin-and-seed-coated-clothianidin-insecticides-comparison-of-field-scale-observations-and-model-estimates
#16
Kara E Huff Hartz, Tracye M Edwards, Michael J Lydy
The transport of agricultural insecticides to water bodies may create risk of exposure to non-target organisms. Similarly, widespread use of furrow-applied and seed-coated insecticides may increase risk of exposure, yet accessible exposure models are not easily adapted for furrow application, and only a few examples of model validation of furrow-applied insecticides exist using actual field data. The goal of the current project was to apply an exposure model, the Pesticide in Water Calculator (PWC), to estimate the concentrations of two in-furrow insecticides applied to maize: the granular pyrethroid, tefluthrin, and the seed-coated neonicotinoid, clothianidin...
May 30, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557711/prenatal-residential-proximity-to-agricultural-pesticide-use-and-iq-in-7-year-old-children
#17
Robert B Gunier, Asa Bradman, Kim G Harley, Katherine Kogut, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use has been associated with neural tube defects and autism, but more subtle outcomes such as cognition have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship between prenatal residential proximity to agricultural use of potentially neurotoxic pesticides and neurodevelopment in 7-year-old children. METHODS: Participants included mothers and children ([Formula: see text]) living in the agricultural Salinas Valley of California enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556457/the-new-insight-into-foregut-functions-of-xenobiotic-detoxification-in-the-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#18
Jian-Hua Zhang, Song Zhang, Yuan-Xue Yang, Yi-Xi Zhang, Ze-Wen Liu
The physiological functions of insect foregut, especially in xenobiotic detoxification, are scarcely reported because of the unimportance in appearance and insufficient molecular information. The cockroach Periplaneta americana, an entomological model organism, provides perfect material to study physiological functions of foregut tissue due to its architectural feature. Through Illumina sequencing of foregut tissue from P. americana individuals (control) or insects treated with cycloxaprid, as novel neonicotinoid insecticide, 54 193 166 clean reads were obtained and further assembled into 53 853 unigenes with an average length of 366 bp...
May 26, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554865/development-of-primary-standards-for-mass-spectrometry-to-increase-accuracy-in-quantifying-environmental-contaminants
#19
R P Oates, Michelle Mcmanus, Seenivasan Subbiah, David M Klein, Robert Kobelski
Internal standards are essential in electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS) to correct for systematic error associated with ionization suppression and/or enhancement. A wide array of instrument setups and interfaces has created difficulty in comparing the quantitation of absolute analyte response across laboratories. This communication demonstrates the use of primary standards as operational qualification standards for LC-MS instruments and their comparison with commonly accepted internal standards...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551560/ornamental-plants-on-sale-to-the-public-are-a-significant-source-of-pesticide-residues-with-implications-for-the-health-of-pollinating-insects
#20
A Lentola, A David, A Abdul-Sada, A Tapparo, D Goulson, E M Hill
Garden centres frequently market nectar- and pollen-rich ornamental plants as "pollinator-friendly", however these plants are often treated with pesticides during their production. There is little information on the nature of pesticide residues present at the point of purchase and whether these plants may actually pose a threat to, rather than benefit, the health of pollinating insects. Using mass spectrometry analyses, this study screened leaves from 29 different 'bee-friendly' plants for 8 insecticides and 16 fungicides commonly used in ornamental production...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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