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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811594/spatio-temporal-variations-of-pm2-5-concentrations-and-the-evaluation-of-emission-reduction-measures-during-two-red-air-pollution-alerts-in-beijing
#1
Nianliang Cheng, Dawei Zhang, Yunting Li, Xiaoming Xie, Ziyue Chen, Fan Meng, Bingbo Gao, Bin He
To effectively improve air quality during pollution episodes, Beijing released two red alerts in 2015. Here we examined spatio-temporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations during two alerts based on multiple data sources. Results suggested that PM2.5 concentrations varied significantly across Beijing. PM2.5 concentrations in southern parts of Beijing were higher than those in northern areas during both alerts. In addition to unfavorable meteorological conditions, coal combustion, especially incomplete coal combustion contributed significantly to the high PM2...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810687/the-characterization-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-northeastern-us-trucking-terminals
#2
Erica D Walker, Jaime E Hart, Eric Garshick, Jennifer M Cavallari, Mary E Davis, Thomas J Smith, Francine Laden
In recent years, significant attention has been given to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures given their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. However, levels of exposure and the key determinants of exposure are not well defined for the trucking industry. We measured ultrafine particle characteristics at 10 trucking terminals of varying operating size and location in the Northeast region of the United States using particle concentration counter and a surface area analyzer. Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess determinants of the concentration of total bound PAHs (tPAH), the total aerosol active surface area (AS), and the ratio tPAH/AS overall and individually within docks, trucking cabs, and administrative offices...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810685/characterising-the-exposure-of-prison-staff-to-second-hand-tobacco-smoke
#3
Sean Semple, Helen Sweeting, Evangelia Demou, Greig Logan, Rachel O'Donnell, Kate Hunt
Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) is an avoidable and harmful exposure in the workplace but >25000 prison staff continue to be exposed on a daily basis in the UK and many more worldwide. SHS exposures in prisons are incompletely understood but may be considerable given the large proportion of smoking prisoners and limited ventilation. This study characterized the exposure of prison staff to SHS in all 15 prisons in Scotland using multiple methods. Exposure assessment strategies included 6-day area measurement of fine Particulate Matter (PM2...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810507/landscape-determinants-of-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-aerosol-optical-depth-in-the-two-most-polluted-metropolitans-in-the-united-states
#4
Chenghao Wang, Chuyuan Wang, Soe W Myint, Zhi-Hua Wang
Elevated concentration of atmospheric aerosols during severe urban air pollution episodes necessitates a deep understanding of the underlying determinants for a sustainable urban environment. The 15-year (2001-2015) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) data for the Phoenix and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas were applied to examine the spatio-temporal patterns and dynamics of urban aerosols. The strongly correlated temporal trends of AOD were observed due to the similar seasonal pattern of aerosol emissions and potential synoptic connections between two areas...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810205/chemical-composition-source-and-process-of-urban-aerosols-during-winter-haze-formation-in-northeast-china
#5
Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Yong Ren, Xin Wang, Zongbo Shi, Daizhou Zhang, Huizheng Che, Hujia Zhao, Yanfei Liu, Hongya Niu, Jianmin Chen, Xiaoye Zhang, A P Lingaswamy, Zifa Wang, Weijun Li
The characteristics of aerosol particles have been poorly evaluated even though haze episodes frequently occur in winter in Northeast China. OC/EC analysis, ion chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and soluble ions in PM2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles during a severe wintertime haze episode in Northeast China. The organic matter (OM), NH4(+), SO4(2-), and NO3(-) concentrations in PM2.5 were 89...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810202/seasonal-variation-and-potential-source-regions-of-pm2-5-bound-pahs-in-the-megacity-beijing-china-impact-of-regional-transport
#6
Yuepeng Zhang, Jing Chen, Hainan Yang, Rongjia Li, Qing Yu
Based on the 12-hour PM2.5 samples collected in an urban site of Beijing, sixteen PM2.5-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured to investigate the characteristics and potential source regions of particulate PAHs in Beijing. The study period included the summer period in July-August 2014, the APEC source control period during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in the first half of November 2014, and the heating period in the second half of November 2014. Compared to PM2...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808862/a-pilot-study-comparing-t-regulatory-cell-function-among-healthy-children-in-different-areas-of-gansu-china
#7
Panhong Gou, Xiaoru Chang, Zhonghui Ye, Yueli Yao, Patton Khuu Nguyen, Sally Katharine Hammond, Junling Wang, Sa Liu
Immune system is critical to protecting human health from toxic substances. Our previously published research had found an important link between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air and changes at the DNA level in immune cells that led to impaired function of regulatory T (Treg) cells in children living in California, USA. But molecular and cellular pathways of these changes remain unclear. The present study aims to explore whether exposure to PAHs leads to changes in Treg cells functions of children living in Gansu, China, where ambient air pollution levels are much higher than those in California, and to explore potential mechanisms of PAH-induced immunological dysfunctions...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808419/exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-induces-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-via-mir-21
#8
Jianwei Dai, Wensheng Chen, Yuyin Lin, Shiwen Wang, Xiaolan Guo, Qian-Qian Zhang
Vascular endothelial permeability transition does not cause significant lesions, but enhanced permeability may contribute to the development of vascular and other diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure and cancer. Therefore, elucidating the effect of Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5) on vascular endothelial permeability could help prevent disease that might be caused by PM2.5. Our previous study and the present one revealed that PM2.5 significantly increased the permeability of vascular endothelial cells and disrupted the barrier function of the vascular endothelium in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808195/effect-of-exposure-to-ambient-pm2-5-pollution-on-the-risk-of-respiratory-tract-diseases-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#9
Qian Liu, Cheng Xu, Guixiang Ji, Hui Liu, Wentao Shao, Chunlan Zhang, Aihua Gu, Peng Zhao
The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have designated airborne particulates, including particulates of median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), as Group 1 carcinogens. It has not been determined, however, whether exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with an increase in respiratory related diseases. This meta-analysis assessed the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the risk of respiratory tract diseases, using relevant articles extracted from PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806671/characterization-and-health-risk-assessment-of-pm2-5-bound-organics-inside-and-outside-of-chinese-smoking-lounges
#10
Lijuan Li, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Judith C Chow, John G Watson, Frank S C Lee, Long Cui, Yuan Gao, Wenting Dai, Kin Fai Ho, Yu Huang, Junji Cao
PM2.5 samples were collected at six indoor public places that contained dedicated smoking lounges. Samples were taken in the smoking lounges, at two indoor locations outside of the lounges, and in outdoor air near the venues. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and non-polar organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes (n-C16 to n-C40), iso/anteiso-alkanes (C29 to C33), hopanes and phthalate esters (PAEs) were quantified. Average PM2.5 levels of 170.2 ± 85.9 μg/m(3) in the lounges exceeded limits of 25 μg/m(3) set by World Health Organization (WHO); these levels were 5...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806548/seasonal-variation-characteristic-of-inhalable-microbial-communities-in-pm2-5-in-beijing-city-china
#11
Pengrui Du, Rui Du, Weishan Ren, Zedong Lu, Pingqing Fu
Bacteria and fungi are primary constituents of airborne microbes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and significantly impact human health. However, hitherto, seasonal variation and effect of air pollution on microbial community composition and structure are poorly understood. This study analyzed the bacterial and fungal composition of PM2.5 under different air pollution levels during different seasons in Beijing. We altogether collected 75PM2.5 samples during four seasons from April 2014 to January 2015, under different air pollution levels and employed high-throughput sequencing methods to analyze microbial composition...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805054/a-scalable-field-study-protocol-and-rationale-for-passive-ambient-air-sampling-a-spatial-phytosampling-for-leaf-data-collection
#12
Tonny J Oyana, Slawomir M Lomnicki, Chuqi Guo, Stephania A Cormier
Stable, bioreactive, radicals known as environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found to exist on the surface of airborne PM2.5. These EPFRs have been found to form during many combustion processes, are present in vehicular exhaust, and persist in the environment for weeks and biological systems for up to 12 hours. To measure EPFRs in PM samples, high volume samplers are required and measurements are less representative of community exposure; therefore, we developed a novel spatial phytosampling methodology to study the spatial patterns of EPFR concentrations using plants...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803198/variability-of-indoor-fungal-microbiome-of-green-and-non-green-low-income-homes-in-cincinnati-ohio
#13
Kanistha Coombs, Diana Taft, Doyle V Ward, Brett J Green, Ginger L Chew, Behrouz Shamsaei, Jaroslaw Meller, Reshmi Indugula, Tiina Reponen
"Green" housing is designed to use low-impact materials, increase energy efficiency and improve occupant health. However, little is known about the indoor mycobiome of green homes. The current study is a subset of a multicenter study that aims to investigate the indoor environment of green homes and the respiratory health of asthmatic children. In the current study, the mycobiome in air, bed dust and floor dust was compared between green (study site) and non-green (control site), low-income homes in Cincinnati, Ohio...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803148/combustion-derived-nanoparticles-the-neuroenteric-system-cervical-vagus-hyperphosphorylated-alpha-synuclein-and-tau-in-young-mexico-city-residents
#14
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Beatriz Pérez-Guillé, Partha S Mukherjee, Angélica Gónzalez-Maciel
Mexico City (MC) young residents are exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), have high frontal concentrations of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs), accumulation of hyperphosphorylated aggregated α-synuclein (α-Syn) and early Parkinson's disease (PD). Swallowed CDNPs have easy access to epithelium and submucosa, damaging gastrointestinal (GI) barrier integrity and accessing the enteric nervous system (ENS). This study is focused on the ENS, vagus nerves and GI barrier in young MC v clean air controls...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802694/exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-is-associated-with-accelerated-functional-decline-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Christopher J Winterbottom, Rupal J Shah, Karen C Patterson, Maryl E Kreider, Reynold A Panettieri, Belinda Rivera-Lebron, Wallace T Miller, Leslie A Litzky, Trevor M Penning, Krista Heinlen, Tara Jackson, A Russell Localio, Jason D Christie
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive disease with unknown pathogenesis, may in part be due to an abnormal response to injurious stimuli by alveolar epithelial cells. Air pollution and particulate matter inhalation evoke a wide variety of pulmonary and systemic inflammatory diseases. We therefore hypothesized that increased average ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations would be associated with an accelerated rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in IPF...
August 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802170/airborne-particles-in-indoor-environment-of-homes-schools-offices-and-aged-care-facilities-the-main-routes-of-exposure
#16
REVIEW
L Morawska, G A Ayoko, G N Bae, G Buonanno, C Y H Chao, S Clifford, S C Fu, O Hänninen, C He, C Isaxon, M Mazaheri, T Salthammer, M S Waring, A Wierzbicka
It has been shown that the exposure to airborne particulate matter is one of the most significant environmental risks people face. Since indoor environment is where people spend the majority of time, in order to protect against this risk, the origin of the particles needs to be understood: do they come from indoor, outdoor sources or both? Further, this question needs to be answered separately for each of the PM mass/number size fractions, as they originate from different sources. Numerous studies have been conducted for specific indoor environments or under specific setting...
August 9, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802142/overexpression-of-ho-1-assisted-pm2-5-induced-apoptosis-failure-and-autophagy-related-cell-necrosis
#17
Wei Zhou, Xiaoyan Yuan, Li Zhang, Baoting Su, Dongdong Tian, Yang Li, Jun Zhao, Yimei Wang, Shuangqing Peng
Severe smog/haze events accompanied by extremely high concentrations of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have emerged frequently in China and the potential health risks have attracted ever-growing attention. During these episodes, a surge in hospital visits for acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases exacerbation has been reported to be associated with acute exposure to high-levels of particulate matters. To investigate cell fate determination and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms during severe haze episodes or smog events, we exposed human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to PM2...
August 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801708/characterizing-particulate-matter-exfiltration-estimates-for-alternative-cookstoves-in-a-village-like-household-in-rural-nepal
#18
Sutyajeet I Soneja, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Benjamin Zaitchik, Frank C Curriero, Patrick N Breysse
Alternative stoves are an intervention option to reduce household air pollution. The amount of air pollution exiting homes when alternative stoves are utilized is not known. In this paper, particulate matter exfiltration estimates are presented for four types of alternative stoves within a village-like home, which was built to reflect the use of local materials and common size, in rural Nepal. Four alternative stoves with chimneys were examined, which included an alternative mud brick stove, original Envirofit G3355 model, manufacture altered Envirofit G3355, and locally altered Envirofit G3355...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801545/cardiotoxicity-and-mechanism-of-particulate-matter-2-5-pm2-5-exposure-in-offspring-rats-during-pregnancy
#19
Hongling Wang, Xiangwen Peng, Fenglin Cao, Ying Wang, Huijie Shi, Shuai Lin, Weijie Zhong, Jingxia Sun
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiotoxicity and mechanism of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) exposure on offspring rats during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Wistar rats were used to establish a PM2.5 exposure animal model during pregnancy, and they were divided into a control group, a low-dose group, a middle-dose group, and a high-dose group according to PM2.5 exposure dose. The pathological changes of heart tissue, the rate of myocardial cell apoptosis, the levels of LDH, AST, and CM-KB in serum, and the difference in mitochondrial fusion genes (OPA1 and Mfn1) and mitochondrial genes (Drp1 and Fis1) were compared among groups...
August 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801196/prenatal-fine-particulate-exposure-and-early-childhood-asthma-effect-of-maternal-stress-and-fetal-gender
#20
Alison Lee, Hsiao-Hsien Leon Hsu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Sonali Bose, Maria José Rosa, Itai Kloog, Ander Wilson, Joel Schwartz, Sheldon Cohen, Brent A Coull, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright
BACKGROUND: The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex and exposure dose and timing. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively examined associations between co-exposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and maternal stress on childhood asthma (n=736). METHODS: Daily PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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