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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352774/the-bloch-equation-with-terms-induced-by-an-electric-field
#1
Piotr Garbacz
The Bloch equation of the nuclear magnetization of spin-1/2 nuclei in molecules, which have permanent electric dipole moments μe that are placed simultaneously in a magnetic field B and an electric field E, is derived. It is shown that if the principal components of the nuclear magnetic shielding tensor σ and the dipole moment μe are known, then the measurement of the transverse component to the magnetic field B of the nuclear magnetization, which is induced by the application of the electric field oscillating at the half of the spin precession frequency, allows determining the orientation of the dipole moment μe with respect to the principal axis system of the symmetric part of the tensor σ...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351572/differential-susceptibility-in-ambient-particle-related-first-ever-stroke-onset-risk-findings-from-a-national-case-crossover-study
#2
Tianjia Guan, Tao Xue, Yuanli Liu, Yixuan Zheng, Siyuan Fan, Kebin He, Qiang Zhang
Different populations may respond differently to ambient fine particulate (PM2.5) exposure; however, less is known about the distribution of susceptible individuals among the entire population. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover design to assess associations between stroke risk and PM2.5. During 2013-2015, 1,356 first-ever stroke onset events were derived from a large representative sample, the China National Stroke Screening Survey (CNSSS) database; daily PM2.5 averages with a spatial resolution of 0...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351544/long-term-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-blood-pressure-and-incident-hypertension-in-taiwanese-adults
#3
Zilong Zhang, Cui Guo, Alexis K H Lau, Ta-Chien Chan, Yuan Chieh Chuang, Changqing Lin, Wun Kai Jiang, Eng-Kiong Yeoh, Tony Tam, Kam S Woo, Bryan P Yan, Ly-Yun Chang, Martin C S Wong, Xiang Qian Lao
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution may increase blood pressure and the risk of hypertension. However, epidemiological evidence is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm (PM2.5), blood pressure, and incident hypertension in a large Taiwanese cohort. METHODS: We studied 361,560 adults ≥18y old from a large cohort who participated in a standard medical examination program during 2001 to 2014...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351483/prenatal-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-pm2-5-causes-offspring-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-in-adulthood
#4
Minjie Chen, Shuai Liang, Xiaobo Qin, Li Zhang, Lianglin Qiu, Sufang Chen, Ziying Hu, Yanyi Xu, Wanjun Wang, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Environmental stressors that encounter in early-life and cause abnormal fetal and/or neonatal development may increase susceptibility to non-communicable diseases such as diabetes. Maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with various fetal abnormalities, suggesting that it may program offspring's susceptibility to diabetes. In the present study, we therefore examined whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust PM2.5 (DEP), one of the major sources of ambient PM2...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351245/exposure-to-ambient-air-particles-increases-the-risk-of-mental-disorder-findings-from-a-natural-experiment-in-beijing
#5
Zhen Jia, Yongjie Wei, Xiaoqian Li, Lixin Yang, Huijie Liu, Chen Guo, Lulu Zhang, Nannan Li, Shaojuan Guo, Yan Qian, Zhigang Li
Epidemiology studies indicated that air pollution has been associated with adverse neurological effects in human. Moreover, the secretion of glucocorticoid (GC) affects the mood regulation, and the negative feedback of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GR) inhibits the GC secretion. Meanwhile, the over secretion of GC can interfere the immune system and induce neurotoxicity. In the present study, the human test showed that the secretion of the cortisol in plasma was elevated after exposure in heavy air pollution...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350914/cys34-adductomes-differ-between-patients-with-chronic-lung-or-heart-disease-and-healthy-controls-in-central-london
#6
Sa Liu, Hasmik Grigoryan, William Matthew Bell Edmands, Sonia Dagnino, Rudy Sinharay, Paul Cullinan, Peter Collins, Kian Fan Chung, Benjamin M Barratt, Frank J Kelly, Paolo Vineis, Stephen M Rappaport
Oxidative stress generates reactive species that modify proteins, deplete antioxidant defenses and contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). To determine whether protein modifications differ between COPD or IHD patients and healthy subjects, we performed untargeted analysis of adducts at the Cys34 locus of human serum albumin (HSA). Biospecimens were obtained from nonsmoking participants from London, U.K., including healthy subjects (n=20) and patients with COPD (n=20) or IHD (n=10)...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346281/a-prototype-sensor-for-in-situ-sensing-of-fine-particulate-matter-and-volatile-organic-compounds
#7
Chee-Loon Ng, Fuu-Ming Kai, Ming-Hui Tee, Nicholas Tan, Harold F Hemond
Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic) capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346078/long-term-high-air-pollution-exposure-induced-metabolic-adaptations-in-traffic-policemen
#8
Chaochao Tan, Yupeng Wang, Mingyue Lin, Zhu Wang, Li He, Zhiyi Li, Yu Li, Keqian Xu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the adverse physiological changes induced by long-term exposure to PM2.5. METHODS: Totally 183 traffic policemen and 88 office policemen as the control group, were enrolled in this study. The concentrations of PM2.5 in both the working places of traffic and office policemen were obtained. Detailed personal questionnaires and conventional laboratory tests including hematology, fasting blood glucose, blood lipids, liver, kidney, immunity and tumor-related markers were conducted on all participants of this study...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345249/effects-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-on-the-prevention-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-in-rats-exposed-to-air-pollutant-particles-less-than-2-5-micrometers-in-diameter-pm2-5
#9
Lerong Chen, Xiaolan Yuan, Luru Zou, Jianping Peng, Xinchun Hu
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on airway changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rats exposed to air pollutant particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), and to evaluate the mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three groups were included in this study: a normal group, a COPD model group, and a COPD with 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment group. In each group, the rats were divided into four subgroups: control and different doses of PM2...
January 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344732/recognition-of-the-importance-of-geogenic-sources-in-the-content-of-metals-in-pm2-5-collected-in-the-mexico-city-metropolitan-area
#10
Ofelia Morton-Bermea, Rodrigo Garza-Galindo, Elizabeth Hernández-Álvarez, Omar Amador-Muñoz, Maria Elena Garcia-Arreola, Sara L Ordoñez-Godínez, Laura Beramendi-Orosco, Graciela L Santos-Medina, Javier Miranda, Irma Rosas-Pérez
The study of airborne metals in urban areas is relevant due to their toxic effects on human health and organisms. In this study, we analyzed metals including rare earth elements (REE) in particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), collected at five sites around the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), during three periods in 2011: April (dry-warm season, DW), August (rainy season, R), and November (dry-cold season, DC). Principal component analysis allowed identifying factors related to geogenic sources and factors related to anthropogenic sources...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343860/predicted-impact-of-thermal-power-generation-emission-control-measures-in-the-beijing-tianjin-hebei-region-on-air-pollution-over-beijing-china
#11
Liqiang Wang, Pengfei Li, Shaocai Yu, Khalid Mehmood, Zhen Li, Shucheng Chang, Weiping Liu, Daniel Rosenfeld, Richard C Flagan, John H Seinfeld
Widespread economic growth in China has led to increasing episodes of severe air pollution, especially in major urban areas. Thermal power plants represent a particularly important class of emissions. Here we present an evaluation of the predicted effectiveness of a series of recently proposed thermal power plant emission controls in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region on air quality over Beijing using the Community Multiscale Air Quality(CMAQ) atmospheric chemical transport model to predict CO, SO2, NO2, PM2...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342453/fine-particulate-air-pollution-and-the-expression-of-micrornas-and-circulating-cytokines-relevant-to-inflammation-coagulation-and-vasoconstriction
#12
Renjie Chen, Huichu Li, Jing Cai, Cuicui Wang, Zhijing Lin, Cong Liu, Yue Niu, Zhuohui Zhao, Weihua Li, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a key factor in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, but miRNA responses to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and their potential contribution to cardiovascular effects of PM2.5 are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We explored the potential influence of PM2.5 on the expression of selected cytokines relevant to systemic inflammation, coagulation, and vasoconstriction, and on miRNAs that may regulate their expression. METHODS: We designed a double-blind, randomized crossover study in which true and sham air purifiers were used to expose 55 healthy young adult students in Shanghai, China, to reduced or ambient levels of indoor PM2...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342195/association-between-pm10-pm2-5-no2-o3-and-self-reported-diabetes-in-italy-a-cross-sectional-ecological-study
#13
Riccardo Orioli, Giuseppe Cremona, Luisella Ciancarella, Angelo G Solimini
INTRODUCTION: Air pollution represents a serious threat to health on a global scale, being responsible for a large portion of the global burden of disease from environmental factors. Current evidence about the association between air pollution exposure and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate the association between area-level ambient air pollution and self-reported DM in a large population sample in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted information about self-reported and physician diagnosed DM, risk factors and socio-economic status from 12 surveys conducted nationwide between 1999 and 2013...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341854/separation-of-brown-carbon-from-black-carbon-for-improve-and-csn-pm2-5-samples
#14
Judith C Chow, John G Watson, Mark C Green, Xiaoliang Wang, L-W Antony Chen, Dana L Trimble, Paul M Cropper, Steven D Kohl, Steven B Gronstal
The replacement of the DRI Model 2001 with Model 2015 thermal/optical analyzers (TOAs) results in continuity of the long-term organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) data base, and it adds optical information with no additional carbon analysis effort. The value of multiwavelength light attenuation is that light absorption due to black carbon (BC) can be separated from that of brown carbon (BrC), with subsequent attribution to known sources such as biomass burning and secondary organic aerosols. There is evidence of filter loading effects for the 25% of all samples with the highest EC concentrations based on the ratio of light attenuation to EC...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339966/acute-diesel-exhaust-exposure-and-postural-stability-a-controlled-crossover-experiment
#15
Jason Curran, Rachel Cliff, Nadine Sinnen, Michael Koehle, Chris Carlsten
Recent epidemiological evidence connects ambient air pollutants to adverse neurobehavioural effects in adults. In animal models, subchronic controlled exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) have also showed evidence of neuroinflammation. Evidence suggests that DE not only affects outcomes commonly associated with cognitive dysfunction, but also balance impairment. We conducted a controlled human exposure experiment with 28 healthy subjects (average age = 28 years (SD = 7.1; range = 21-49); and 40% female) who were exposed to two conditions, filtered air (FA) and DE (300 μg PM2...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337916/real-time-cascade-impactor-based-on-surface-acoustic-wave-delay-lines-for-pm10-and-pm2-5-mass-concentration-measurement
#16
Lyes Djoumi, Meddy Vanotti, Virginie Blondeau-Patissier
In this research, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors are combined with a cascade impactor to perform real time PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration measurements. The SAW sensors consist of 125 MHz delay lines based on Love waves propagating on an AT-cut quartz substrate. The Love waves are guided on the substrate's surface using a silica layer. SAW sensors themselves are not capable to discriminate particles by their size, therefore, particle separation based on aerodynamic diameter is achieved using a 3 Lpm dedicated cascade impactor...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337904/maternal-exposure-to-pm2-5-during-pregnancy-induces-impaired-development-of-cerebral-cortex-in-mice-offspring
#17
Tianliang Zhang, Xinrui Zheng, Xia Wang, Hui Zhao, Tingting Wang, Hongxia Zhang, Wanwei Li, Hua Shen, Li Yu
Air pollution is a serious environmental health problem closely related to the occurrence of central nervous system diseases. Exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) during pregnancy may affect the growth and development of infants. The present study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy on brain development in mice offspring. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into experimental groups of low-, medium-, or high-dosages of PM2...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335875/seasonal-variation-and-source-apportionment-of-pm2-5-bound-trace-elements-at-a-coastal-area-in-southwestern-taiwan
#18
Su-Lun Hwang, Miao-Ching Chi, Su-Er Guo, Yu-Ching Lin, Chiang-Ting Chou, Chieh-Mo Lin
The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal variations and source apportionment on atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass and associated trace element concentrations at a coastal area, in Chiayi County of southwestern Taiwan. Particle measurements were conducted in 2015. Twenty-three trace elements in PM2.5 were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multiple approaches of the enrichment factor (EF) analysis and positive matrix fraction (PMF) model were used to identify potential sources of PM2...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335169/seasonal-variations-in-fine-particle-composition-from-beijing-prompt-oxidative-stress-response-in-mouse-lung-and-liver
#19
Michal Pardo, Fanfan Xu, Xinghua Qiu, Tong Zhu, Yinon Rudich
Exposure to air pollution can induce oxidative stress, inflammation and adverse health effects. To understand how seasonal and chemical variations drive health impacts, we investigated indications for oxidative stress and inflammation in mice exposed to water and organic extracts from urban fine particles/PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) collected in Beijing, China. Higher levels of pollution components were detected in heating season (HS, winter and part of spring) PM2.5 than in the non-heating season (NHS, summer and part of spring and autumn) PM2...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335168/wrf-modeling-of-pm2-5-remediation-by-salscs-and-its-clean-air-flow-over-beijing-terrain
#20
Qingfeng Cao, Lian Shen, Sheng-Chieh Chen, David Y H Pui
Atmospheric simulations were carried out over the terrain of entire Beijing, China, to investigate the effectiveness of an air-pollution cleaning system named Solar-Assisted Large-Scale Cleaning System (SALSCS) for PM2.5 mitigation by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. SALSCS was proposed to utilize solar energy to generate airflow therefrom the airborne particulate pollution of atmosphere was separated by filtration elements. Our model used a derived tendency term in the potential temperature equation to simulate the buoyancy effect of SALSCS created with solar radiation on its nearby atmosphere...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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