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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943349/assessment-of-annual-air-pollution-levels-with-pm1-pm2-5-pm10-and-associated-heavy-metals-in-algiers-algeria
#1
Abdelhamid Talbi, Yacine Kerchich, Rabah Kerbachi, Ménouèr Boughedaoui
Concentrations of particulate matter less than 1  μm, 2.5  μm, 10 μm and their contents of heavy metals were investigated in two different stations, urban and roadside at Algiers (Algeria). Sampling was conducted during two years by a high volume samplers (HVS) equipped with a cascade impactor at four levels stage, for one year sampling. The characterization of the heavy metals associated to the particulate matter (PM) was carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF). The annual average concentration of PM1, PM2...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942251/source-profiles-and-contributions-of-biofuel-combustion-for-pm2-5-pm10-and-their-compositions-in-a-city-influenced-by-biofuel-stoves
#2
Ying-Ze Tian, Jia-Bao Chen, Lin-Lin Zhang, Xin Du, Jin-Jin Wei, Hui Fan, Jiao Xu, Hai-Ting Wang, Liao Guan, Guo-Liang Shi, Yin-Chang Feng
Source and ambient samples were collected in a city in China that uses considerable biofuel, to assess influence of biofuel combustion and other sources on particulate matter (PM). Profiles and size distribution of biofuel combustion were investigated. Higher levels in source profiles, a significant increase in heavy-biomass ambient and stronger correlations of K(+), Cl(-), OC and EC suggest that they can be tracers of biofuel combustion. And char-EC/soot-EC (8.5 for PM2.5 and 15.8 for PM10 of source samples) can also be used to distinguish it...
September 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941800/factors-affecting-variability-in-pm2-5-exposure-concentrations-in-a-metro-system
#3
Zhiyuan Li, Wenwei Che, H Christopher Frey, Alexis K H Lau
The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate PM2.5 inflow to metro train cabins when doors open at stations; (2) assess the spatial and temporal variability in PM2.5 exposure concentration; and (3) quantify the relationship between in-cabin concentration versus outdoor and non-ambient PM2.5. We measured in-cabin PM2.5 concentrations using portable monitors at the door-side and center of a train cabin simultaneously on a Hong Kong metro line. In addition, platform and in-cabin pollutant concentrations near a train door were simultaneously measured...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938101/exposure-to-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-two-large-cohorts-of-us-nurses
#4
N Palacios, K L Munger, K C Fitzgerald, J E Hart, T Chitnis, A Ascherio, F Laden
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is thought to raise the risk of neurological disease by promoting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, glial activation and cerebrovascular damage. Multiple Sclerosis is a common auto-immune disorder, primarily affecting young women. We conducted, to a large prospective study of particulate matter (PM) exposure and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in two prospective cohorts of women: the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and the Nurses Health Study II (NHS II). METHODS: Cumulative average exposure to different size fractions of PM up to the onset of MS was estimated using spatio-temporal models...
September 19, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936270/characterization-of-five-year-observation-data-of-fine-particulate-matter-in-the-metropolitan-area-of-lahore
#5
Fatima Khanum, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Prashant Kumar
This study aims to assess the long-term trend of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm) at two urban sites of Lahore during 2007-2011. These sites represent two distinct areas: commercial (Townhall) and residential cum industrial (Township). The highest daily mean concentrations of PM2.5 were noted as 389 and 354 μg m(-3) at the Townhall and Township sites, respectively. As expected, the annual seasonal mean of PM2.5 was about 53 and 101% higher during winter compared with the summer and monsoon/post-monsoon seasons, respectively...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935655/particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-the-risk-of-incident-ckd-and-progression-to-esrd
#6
Benjamin Bowe, Yan Xie, Tingting Li, Yan Yan, Hong Xian, Ziyad Al-Aly
Elevated levels of fine particulate matter <2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes and death, but their association with risk of CKD and ESRD is unknown. We linked the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Veterans Affairs databases to build an observational cohort of 2,482,737 United States veterans, and used survival models to evaluate the association of PM2.5 concentrations and risk of incident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), incident CKD, eGFR decline ≥30%, and ESRD over a median follow-up of 8...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935614/randomized-trial-of-interventions-to-improve-childhood-asthma-in-homes-with-wood-burning-stoves
#7
Curtis W Noonan, Erin O Semmens, Paul Smith, Solomon W Harrar, Luke Montrose, Emily Weiler, Marcy McNamara, Tony J Ward
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution due to biomass combustion for residential heating adversely affects vulnerable populations. Randomized controlled trials to improve indoor air quality in homes of children with asthma are limited, and no such studies have been conducted in homes using wood for heating. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to test the hypothesis that household-level interventions, specifically improved-technology wood-burning appliances or air-filtration devices, would improve health measures, in particular Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) scores, relative to placebo, among children living with asthma in homes with wood-burning stoves...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935403/suppression-of-progesterone-synthesis-in-human-trophoblast-cells-by-fine-particulate-matter-primarily-derived-from-industry
#8
Cui Wang, Jinhuan Yang, Zhengliang Hao, Chenxue Gong, Lihua Tang, Yingling Xu, Dezhao Lu, Zhuoyu Li, Meirong Zhao
Epidemiological studies have exhibited a positive association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). However, source-related effect and the potential mechanism have not been thoroughly elucidated in toxicology. In this study, PM2.5 was collected during a severe winter haze episode in an energy-base city of China. We coupled this approach with the source appointment by applying the Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory and Concentration Weighted Trajectory model. We observed that the primary trajectory with high polluted air mass came from the northwest of the sampling site...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934721/association-of-long-term-exposure-to-transportation-noise-and-traffic-related-air-pollution-with-the-incidence-of-diabetes-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Charlotte Clark, Hind Sbihi, Lillian Tamburic, Michael Brauer, Lawrence D Frank, Hugh W Davies
BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between transportation noise and cardiovascular disease has increased; however, few studies have examined metabolic outcomes such as diabetes or accounted for environmental coexposures such as air pollution, greenness, or walkability. OBJECTIVES: Because diabetes prevalence is increasing and may be on the causal pathway between noise and cardiovascular disease, we examined the influence of long-term residential transportation noise exposure and traffic-related air pollution on the incidence of diabetes using a population-based cohort in British Columbia, Canada...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934094/estimated-changes-in-life-expectancy-and-adult-mortality-resulting-from-declining-pm2-5-exposures-in-the-contiguous-united-states-1980-2010
#10
Neal Fann, Sun-Young Kim, Casey Olives, Lianne Sheppard
BACKGROUND: PM2.5 precursor emissions have declined over the course of several decades, following the implementation of local, state, and federal air quality policies. Estimating the corresponding change in population exposure and PM2.5-attributable risk of death prior to the year 2000 is made difficult by the lack of PM2.5 monitoring data. OBJECTIVES: We used a new technique to estimate historical PM2.5 concentrations, and estimated the effects of changes in PM2...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932237/a-new-hybrid-model-fpa-svm-considering-cointegration-for-particular-matter-concentration-forecasting-a-case-study-of-kunming-and-yuxi-china
#11
Weide Li, Demeng Kong, Jinran Wu
Air pollution in China is becoming more serious especially for the particular matter (PM) because of rapid economic growth and fast expansion of urbanization. To solve the growing environment problems, daily PM2.5 and PM10 concentration data form January 1, 2015, to August 23, 2016, in Kunming and Yuxi (two important cities in Yunnan Province, China) are used to present a new hybrid model CI-FPA-SVM to forecast air PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in this paper. The proposed model involves two parts. Firstly, due to its deficiency to assess the possible correlation between different variables, the cointegration theory is introduced to get the input-output relationship and then obtain the nonlinear dynamical system with support vector machine (SVM), in which the parameters c and g are optimized by flower pollination algorithm (FPA)...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931832/mediating-role-of-trpv1-ion-channels-in-the-co-exposure-to-pm2-5-and-formaldehyde-of-balb-c-mice-asthma-model
#12
Jing Song, Jun Kang, Bencheng Lin, Jinquan Li, Yuqing Zhu, Junting Du, Xu Yang, Zhuge Xi, Rui Li
Asthma is a complex pulmonary inflammatory disease that can be promoted by air pollutants such as PM2.5 and formaldehyde (FA). However, existent experimental evidence principally focuses on the negative influence of a single air pollutant, neglecting the possible synergistic effect in biological responses to mixture of these pollutants, a more common situation in our daily life. In this study, allergic Balb/c mice were exposed to a mixture of PM2.5 and FA, and their toxicological effects and mechanisms were explored...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931794/health-effects-of-air-pollution-a-historical-review-and-present-status
#13
Masayuki Shima
During the 1960s, the concentrations of air pollutants, particularly that of sulfur dioxide (SO2), were extremely high in many industrial cities in Japan, and the prevalence of bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis increased among residents living in the cities. To evaluate the effects of air pollution on respiratory diseases, many epidemiological studies were conducted, and the findings played an important role in the regulatory control of air pollution. After 1970, the concentration of SO2 has decreased markedly, and its adverse health effects have been minimized...
2017: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930181/ambient-air-pollution-and-risk-for-ischemic-stroke-a-short-term-exposure-assessment-in-south-china
#14
Pi Guo, Yulin Wang, Wenru Feng, Jiagang Wu, Chuanxi Fu, Hai Deng, Jun Huang, Li Wang, Murui Zheng, Huazhang Liu
Data on the association between air pollution and risk of ischemic stroke in China are still limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic strokes in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in south China, using a large-scale multicenter database of stroke hospital admissions. Daily counts of ischemic stroke admissions over the study years 2013-2015 were obtained from the Guangzhou Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease Event Surveillance System...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929790/the-variability-of-pm10-and-pm2-5-concentrations-in-selected-polish-agglomerations-the-role-of-meteorological-conditions-2006-2016
#15
Joanna Jędruszkiewicz, Bartosz Czernecki, Michał Marosz
The research focuses on the analysis of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations variability at 11 stations in selected urbanized areas of Poland (Tricity, Poznań, Łódź, Kraków). Methods comprised: the analysis of basic statistical characteristics in yearly/monthly/daily/hourly scale and threshold exceedance frequencies. Also, correlations between PM10 and meteorological variables were investigated. GEV distribution analysis allowed the estimation of the return levels of monthly maxima of PM10 and PM2.5. Results show that in Tricity there are fewer than 5 % of days with PM10 and PM2...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927016/china-s-air-quality-and-respiratory-disease-mortality-based-on-the-spatial-panel-model
#16
Qilong Cao, Ying Liang, Xueting Niu
Background: Air pollution has become an important factor restricting China's economic development and has subsequently brought a series of social problems, including the impact of air pollution on the health of residents, which is a topical issue in China. Methods: Taking into account this spatial imbalance, the paper is based on the spatial panel data model PM2.5. Respiratory disease mortality in 31 Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2008 is taken as the main variable to study the spatial effect and impact of air quality and respiratory disease mortality on a large scale...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926373/exposure-to-mobile-source-air-pollution-in-early-life-and-childhood-asthma-incidence-the-kaiser-air-pollution-and-pediatric-asthma-study
#17
Audrey Flak Pennington, Matthew J Strickland, Mitchel Klein, Xinxin Zhai, Josephine T Bates, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Craig Hansen, Armistead G Russell, Paige E Tolbert, Lyndsey A Darrow
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution exacerbates childhood asthma, but it is unclear what role it plays in asthma development. METHODS: The association between exposure to primary mobile source pollutants during pregnancy and during infancy and asthma incidence by ages 2 through 6 was examined in the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, a racially diverse birth cohort of 24,608 children born between 2000 and 2010 and insured by Kaiser Permanente Georgia...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925870/pollution-and-sun-exposure-a-deleterious-synergy-mechanisms-and-opportunities-for-skin-protection
#18
Laurent Marrot
Pollutants are highly diverse chemical entities, including gases such as ozone or nitrogen and sulphur oxides and particulate matter of different sizes and with different chemical constituents. PM2.5 is composed of particles that are sometimes about ten nanometres or so in size (ultrafine particles) which can be deposited in lung alveoli, translocated into capillaries and then distributed to all organs through blood circulation. PM2.5 is often associated with toxic chemicals such as heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some photo-reactive PAHs can induce strong oxidative stress under UVA exposure...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924862/personal-inhalation-exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-their-nitro-derivatives-in-rural-residents-in-northern-thailand
#19
Walaiporn Orakij, Thaneeya Chetiyanukornkul, Thanyarat Chuesaard, Yuichi Kaganoi, Waka Uozaki, Chiharu Homma, Yaowatat Boongla, Ning Tang, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Akira Toriba
A personal inhalation exposure and cancer risk assessment of rural residents in Lampang, Thailand, was conducted for the first time. This highlighted important factors that may be associated with the highest areal incidence of lung cancer. Personal exposure of rural residents to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs) through inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated in addition to stationary air sampling in an urban area. The personal exposure of the subjects to PM2...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924742/characterization-of-pm2-5-in-delhi-role-and-impact-of-secondary-aerosol-burning-of-biomass-and-municipal-solid-waste-and-crustal-matter
#20
Pavan K Nagar, Dhirendra Singh, Mukesh Sharma, Anil Kumar, Viney P Aneja, Mohan P George, Nigam Agarwal, Sheo P Shukla
Delhi is one among the highly air polluted cities in the world. Absence of causal relationship between emitting sources of PM2.5 and their impact has resulted in inadequate actions. This research combines a set of innovative and state-of-the-art analytical techniques to establish relative predominance of PM2.5 sources. Air quality sampling at six sites in summer and winter for 40 days (at each site) showed alarmingly high PM2.5 concentrations (340 ± 135 μg/m(3)). The collected PM2.5 was subjected to chemical speciation including ions, metals, organic and elemental carbons which followed application of chemical mass balance technique for source apportionment...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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