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Ruijun Su, Xiaoting Jin, Weifang Zhang, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Liu, Jie Ren
Many epidemiological investigations have consistently demonstrated the immunotoxicity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear and needs to be elucidated. In this work, the immune cells, including pulmonary macrophages of SD rats and Raw264.7 cells, were applied to further investigate the effect of PM2.5 on cell autophagy of macrophages, thus clarified the possible molecular mechanism of immunotoxicity caused by PM2.5. SD rats were exposed to summer (0.2, 0...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Xinglei Zhao, Shan Wang, Xia Yin, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
Fabrication of air filtration materials (AFM) that allow air to easily flow through while retaining particles is a significant and urgent need due to the harmful airborne particulate matter pollution; however, this is still a challenging research area. Herein, we report novel slip-effect functional nanofibrous membranes with decreased air resistance (reduction rate of 40%) due to the slip flow of air molecules on the periphery of nanofibers. This was achieved through careful control over the diameters of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers and aperture size of fiber assembly...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Miaomiao Liu, Yining Huang, Zongwei Ma, Zhou Jin, Xingyu Liu, Haikun Wang, Yang Liu, Jinnan Wang, Matti Jantunen, Jun Bi, Patrick L Kinney
While recent assessments have quantified the burden of air pollution at the national scale in China, air quality managers would benefit from assessments that disaggregate health impacts over regions and over time. We took advantage of a new 10×10km satellite-based PM2.5 dataset to analyze spatial and temporal trends of air pollution health impacts in China, from 2004 to 2012. Results showed that national PM2.5 related deaths from stroke, ischemic heart disease and lung cancer increased from approximately 800,000 cases in 2004 to over 1...
October 13, 2016: Environment International
Hui-Chen Cheng, Ren-Hao Pan, Huan-Jui Yeh, K Robert Lai, May-Yung Yen, Chien-Lung Chan, An-Guor Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate whether daily changes in ambient air pollution were associated with an increased risk of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). DESIGN: Retrospective population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: We identified patients newly diagnosed with CRAO between 2001 and 2013 in a representative database of 1 000 000 patients that were randomly selected from all registered beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan...
October 13, 2016: Ophthalmology
Gongbo Chen, Wenyi Zhang, Shanshan Li, Yongming Zhang, Gail Williams, Rachel Huxley, Hongyan Ren, Wei Cao, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: There is good evidence that air pollution is a risk factor for adverse respiratory and vascular health outcomes. However, data are limited as to whether ambient fine particles contribute to the transmission of influenza and if so, how the association is modified by weather conditions. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 and influenza incidence at the national level in China and explored the associations at different temperatures...
October 10, 2016: Environment International
Guiqian Tang, Na Chao, Yuesi Wang, Jiashan Chen
Vehicular emissions in China in 2006 and 2010 were calculated at a high spatial resolution based on the data released by the National Bureau of Statistics, by taking the emission standards into consideration. China's vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), fine particulate matters (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matters (PM10), black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) were 30,113.9, 4593.7, 6838.0, 20.9, 400.2, 430.5, 285.6, and 105...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Qian Yin, Jinfeng Wang, Maogui Hu, Hoting Wong
When investigating the impact of air pollution on health, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is considered more harmful than particulates of other sizes. Therefore, studies of PM2.5 have attracted more attention. Beijing, the capital of China, is notorious for its serious air pollution problem, an issue which has been of great concern to the residents, government, and related institutes for decades. However, in China, significantly less time has been devoted to observing PM2...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Min Zhou, Liping Qiao, Shuhui Zhu, Li Li, Shengrong Lou, Hongli Wang, Qian Wang, Shikang Tao, Cheng Huang, Changhong Chen
In this work, a one-year observation focusing on high time resolution characteristics of components in fine particles was conducted at an urban site in Shanghai. Contributions of different components on visibility impairment were also studied. Our research indicates that the major components of PM2.5 in Shanghai are water-soluble inorganic ions and carbonaceous aerosol, accounting for about 60% and 30% respectively. Higher concentrations of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 occurred in fall and summer, while higher concentrations of nitrate (NO3(-)) were observed in winter and spring...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Mei-Chun Lu, Panchalli Wang, Tsun-Jen Cheng, Chun-Pai Yang, Yuan-Horng Yan
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the indicators of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 3589 non-diabetic pregnant women who underwent a 3-h 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were enrolled from a tertiary teaching hospital in Chiayi City, Taiwan between 2006 and 2014. Fasting, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h glucose levels after an OGTT were used as indicators of glucose homeostasis. PM2.5 and other air pollution data were obtained from one fixed-site monitoring station (Chiayi City station) operated by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA)...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Research
Jim Antturi, Otto Hänninen, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Lasse Johansson, Marje Prank, Mikhail Sofiev, Markku Ollikainen
The maximum allowable fuel sulphur content for shipping in the Baltic Sea dropped from 1%S to 0.1%S in 1 January 2015. We provide a cost-benefit analysis of the sulphur reduction policy in the Baltic Sea Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA). We calculated the abatement costs based on shipowners' optimal decision-making in choosing between low-sulphur fuel and a sulphur scrubber, and the benefits were modelled through a high-resolution impact pathway analysis, which took into account the formation and dispersion of the emissions, and considered the positive health impacts resulting from lowered ambient PM2...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Anke Hüls, Ursula Krämer, Christian Herder, Karin Fehsel, Christian Luckhaus, Sabine Stolz, Andrea Vierkötter, Tamara Schikowski
BACKGROUND: Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with chronic inflammation providing a link to the development of chronic health effects. Furthermore, there is evidence that pathways activated by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress induce airway inflammation and thereby play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of genetic variation of the ER stress pathway on air pollution-induced inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Research
Karen Vrijens, Ellen Winckelmans, Maria Tsamou, Willy Baeyens, Patrick De Boever, Danyel Jennen, Theo M de Kok, Elly Den Hond, Wouter Lefebvre, Michelle Plusquin, Hans Reynders, Greet Schoeters, Nicolas Van Larebeke, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Jos Kleinjans, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) exposure leads to premature death, mainly due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVES: Identification of transcriptomic biomarkers of air pollution exposure and effect in a healthy adult population. METHODS: Microarray analyses were performed in 98 healthy volunteers (48 men, 50 women). The expression of 8 sex-specific candidate biomarker genes (significantly associated with PM10 in the discovery cohort and with a reported link to air pollution-related disease) was measured with qPCR in an independent validation cohort (75 men, 94 women)...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Yun Zhou, Yuewei Liu, Yuanchao Song, Jungang Xie, Xiuqing Cui, Bing Zhang, Tingming Shi, Jing Yuan, Weihong Chen
Short-term exposures to outdoor air pollutants have been associated with lower lung function, but the results are inconsistence. The effects of different pollutant levels on lung function changes are still unclear. We quantified the effects of outdoor air pollution exposure (NO2, PM10, O3, and PM2.5) on lung function among 1,694 female non-smokers from the Wuhan-Zhuhai Cohort in China by using linear mixed model. We further investigated the associations in the two cities with different air quality levels separately to quantify the effects of different pollutant level exposure on lung function...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chun-Sheng Liang, Huan Liu, Ke-Bin He, Yong-Liang Ma
Although air quality monitoring networks have been greatly improved, interpreting their expanding data in both simple and efficient ways remains challenging. Therefore, needed are new analytical methods. We developed such a method based on the comparison of pollutant concentrations between target and circum areas (circum comparison for short), and tested its applications by assessing the air pollution in Jing-Jin-Ji, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Cheng-Yu, China during 2015. We found the circum comparison can instantly judge whether a city is a pollution permeation donor or a pollution permeation receptor by a Pollution Permeation Index (PPI)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Huihong Guo, Hui Wang, Qingqian Liu, Hailong An, Chao Liu, Xinli Xia, Weilun Yin
Air pollution caused by particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is a serious environmental problem. Plants can improve air quality by removing PM2.5 from the atmosphere. However, direct evidence of PM2.5 absorption and assimilation into plants has not yet been found. In this study, we demonstrate that (15)NH4(+) in PM2.5 was absorbed by poplar leaves in low and high PM2.5 treatment groups (namely, LPT and HPT). Then, (15)N was subsequently transferred to other parts of the treated seedlings as shown by (15)N tracing and simulated PM2...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Heather Morgan, Elizabeth Treasure, Mo Tabib, Majella Johnston, Chris Dunkley, Deborah Ritchie, Sean Semple, Steve Turner
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking can cause health complications in pregnancy. Particulate matter (PM2.5) metrics applied to second hand smoke (SHS) concentrations provide indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements and have been used to promote smoking behaviour change among parents of young children. Here, we present the qualitative results from a study designed to use IAQ measurements to help pregnant women who smoke to quit smoking. METHODS: We used IAQ measurements in two centres (Aberdeen and Coventry) using two interventions: 1...
October 12, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Regina M B O Duarte, João T V Matos, Andreia S Paula, Sónia P Lopes, Sara Ribeiro, José Francisco Santos, Carla Patinha, Eduardo Ferreira da Silva, Rosário Soares, Armando C Duarte
In the framework of two national research projects (ORGANOSOL and CN-linkAIR), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was sampled for 17 months at an urban location in the Western European Coast. The PM2.5 samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), elemental carbon (EC), major water-soluble inorganic ions, mineralogical, and for the first time in this region, strontium isotope ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) composition. Organic matter dominates the identifiable urban PM2.5 mass, followed by secondary inorganic aerosols...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hye-Kyung Park, Kai-Chung Cheng, Afua O Tetteh, Lynn M Hildemann, Kari C Nadeau
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution is correlated with morbidity caused by allergic diseases. We evaluated the effectiveness of reducing the levels of indoor fine particulate matter < 2.5 micrometer diameter (PM2.5) in Fresno, California using air purifiers on health outcomes in children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: The active group (with air purifiers) and the control group consisted of eight houses each. Air purifiers were installed in the living rooms and bedrooms of the subjects in the active group during the entire 12-week study duration...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Kazuichi Hayakwa, Ning Tang, Akira Toriba
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Moreover, some oxidative metabolites of these pollutants, such as hydroxylated and epoxide PAHs, cause endocrine disruption or produce reactive oxygen species. These compounds have become a large concern from the view point of particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution. This report deals with recent studies concerning analytical methods for PAHs, NPAHs and related compounds in atmospheric and biological samples...
October 9, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Ya-Ru Yang, Yung-Ming Chen, Szu-Ying Chen, Chang-Chuan Chan
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the associations between particulate matter (PM) exposures and renal function among adults. METHODS: We recruited 21,656 adults as subjects from 2007-2009. The Taiwanese Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation was used to derive the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Subjects with an eGFR lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were defined as having chronic kidney disease (CKD). Land use regression (LUR) models were used to estimate individual exposures to PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), coarse particles (PMCoarse), fine particles (PM2...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
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