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Xiaowei Cong, Xijin Xu, Long Xu, Minghui Li, Cheng Xu, Qilin Qin, Xia Huo
Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cardiovascular regulatory changes in childhood contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular events at older ages. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air pollutant exposure on the child sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system, which plays a vital role in regulating and controlling the cardiovascular system. Two plasma biomarkers (plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine) of SAM activity and heart rate were measured in preschool children (n = 228) living in Guiyu, and native (n = 104) and non-native children (n = 91) living in a reference area (Haojiang) for >1 year...
March 17, 2018: Environment International
Xiaowei Zhang, Wei Zhang, Mingqiang Yi, Yingjie Wang, Pengjun Wang, Jun Xu, Fenglei Niu, Feng Lin
Airborne particulate matter (PM) is causing more and more serious air pollution and threatening the public health. However, existing air filter technologies with the easy-to-block manner can rarely meet the requirements of high-performance PM filters. Here we propose a conceptually new type of inertial impaction filters for rapidly high-efficiency PM removal. Under the airflow velocity of 8.0 m/s, the real inertial impaction filters show high PM removal efficiencies of up to 97.77 ± 1.53% and 99.47 ± 0...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hao Yin, Massimo Pizzol, Jette Bredahl Jacobsen, Linyu Xu
Air pollution from PM2 .5 affects many cities worldwide, causing both health impacts and mood depression. One of the obstacles to implementing environmental regulations for PM2 .5 reduction is that there are limited studies of PM2 .5 welfare loss and few investigations of mood depression caused by PM2 .5 . This article describes a survey study conducted in Beijing, China to estimate the welfare loss due to PM2 .5 . In total, 1709 participants completed either a face-to-face or online survey. A contingent valuation method was applied to elicit people's willingness to pay to avoid PM2 ...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lulu Cui, Rui Li, Yunchen Zhang, Ya Meng, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen
Continuous HONO measurement was conducted to study the formation features of HONO during the haze episodes at Shanghai, China. The HONO concentration ranged from 0.26 to 5.84ppb and averaged at 2.31ppb during the measurement period. The HONO concentration during the haze episode (P1), the haze-fog episode (P2) and the clean period (P3) were 2.80, 2.35 and 1.78ppb, respectively. Heterogeneous conversion of NO2 was the dominate pathway for nocturnal HONO formation, and the heterogeneous conversion efficiency of NO2 to HONO was closely associated with the PM2...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Simon D Griffiths, Philip Chappell, Jane A Entwistle, Frank J Kelly, Michael E Deary
Public exposure to significantly elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) as a result of major fires at industrial sites is a worldwide problem. Our paper describes how the United Kingdom developed its Air Quality in Major Incidents (AQinMI) service to provide fire emission plume concentration data for use by managers at the time of the incident and to allow an informed public health response. It is one of the first civilian services of its type anywhere in the world. Based on the involvement of several of the authors in the AQinMI service, we describe the service's function, detail the nature of fires covered by the service, and report for the first time on the concentration ranges of PM to which populations may be exposed in major incident fires...
March 16, 2018: Environment International
Wei Zhang, Lei Zhang, Ying Li, Yuling Tian, Xiaoran Li, Xue Zhang, Arthur P J Mol, David A Sonnenfeld, Jianguo Liu, Zeyu Ping, Long Chen
"Supply-side structural reform" (SSSR) has been the most important ongoing economic reform in China since 2015, but its important environmental health effects have not been properly assessed. The present study addresses that gap by focusing on reduction of overcapacity in the coal, steel, and iron sectors, combined with reduction of emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), nitrogen oxide (NOx ), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), and projecting resultant effects on air quality and public health across cities and regions in China...
March 15, 2018: Environment International
Dandan Xu, Yi Zhang, Lian Zhou, Tiantian Li
The association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and reduced lung function parameters has been reported in many works. However, few studies have been conducted in developing countries with high levels of air pollution like China, and little attention has been paid to the acute effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on lung function. The study design consisted of a panel comprising 86 children from the same school in Nanjing, China. Four measurements of lung function were performed...
March 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Luo Jia-Ying, Chen Zhao, Guo Jia-Jun, Guo Zi-Jun, Lan Xiao, Sun Bao-Qing
BACKGROUND: With the rising prevalence of allergic rhinitis, the utility of indoor environmental management deserves increasing scrutiny. This research aims at evaluating the ability of air purifiers to be a therapy of allergic rhinitis. METHODS: 32 subjects (25±13.5 years old) diagnosed with allergic rhinitis were selected and HEPA air purifiers placed in their bedrooms for 4 months. Before the intervention and each month, dust samples were collected with a vacuum cleaner and the dust collector assessed for allergen content...
March 12, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Guor-Cheng Fang, Chao-Yang Huang, Yuan-Jie Zhuang, Wen-Chuan Huang, Kai-Hsiang Tsai, You-Fu Xiao
The ambient air particulates pollutants of total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 were collected by using PS-1 and Wilbur PM2.5 sampler, simultaneously during the year of 2015-2017 at a photoelectric factory in Science Park of central Taiwan. And those of the ambient air atmospheric metallic elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) concentrations which attached on the TSP and PM2.5 were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. In addition, identifying anthropogenic and natural pollutants sources were conducted by using the enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA) methods...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Dong Yan, Tao Zhang, Jing Su, Li-Li Zhao, Hao Wang, Xiao-Mei Fang, Yu-Qin Zhang, Hong-Yu Liu, Li-Yan Yu
The structural variation of the bacterial community associated with particulate matter (PM) was assessed in an urban area of Beijing during haze and non-haze days. Sampling for different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particulate) was conducted using three portable air samplers from September 2014 to February 2015. The airborne bacterial community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq platform with bacteria-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 1,707,072 reads belonging to 6009 operational taxonomic units were observed...
March 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yifeng Xue, Yong Wang, Xuefeng Li, Hezhong Tian, Lei Nie, Xiaoqing Wu, Junrui Zhou, Zhen Zhou
The mass concentration and major chemical components of fine particulate matter were measured before, during and after Beijing's massive parade commemorating 70th anniversary of the Chinese Victory in World War II on September 3, 2015. Regional emission inventory, positive matrix factorization (PMF), observations from space and backward air mass trajectories were jointly applied to identify the major pollution sources and their temporal and spatial variations. The contributions of emissions variations and the meteorological conditions related to the "parade blue" phenomenon in Beijing and its surrounding areas were investigated in detail...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Sebhat Erqou, Jane E Clougherty, Oladipupo Olafiranye, Jared W Magnani, Aryan Aiyer, Sheila Tripathy, Ellen Kinnee, Kevin E Kip, Steven E Reis
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess racial differences in air pollution exposures to ambient fine particulate matter (particles with median aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm [PM2.5 ]) and black carbon (BC) and their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, arterial endothelial function, incident CVD events, and all-cause mortality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Data from the HeartSCORE study (Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation) were used to estimate 1-year average air pollution exposure to PM2...
March 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Anyu Yu, Guangshe Jia, Jianxin You, Puwei Zhang
The particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) is a serious air-pollutant emission in China, which has caused serious risks to public health. To reduce the pollution and corresponding public mortality, this paper proposes a method by incorporating slacks-based data envelopment analysis (DEA) and an integrated exposure risk (IER) model. By identifying the relationship between the PM2.5 concentration and mortality, the potential PM2.5 concentration efficiency and mortality reduction were measured. The proposed method has been applied to China's 243 cities in 2015...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Zhaoheng Liu, Wei Wang, Fang Cao, Shuo Liu, Xinxin Zou, Guodong Li, Haojie Yang, Yang Jiao
Air pollution is the main cause of respiratory diseases. Fine particulates with the diameter below 2.5  μ m can get into the alveoli and then enter the blood circulation through the lung tissue ventilation function and cause multiple systemic diseases especially the respiratory diseases. This study investigated the pathological mechanism of the lungs injury in rats induced by PM2.5 and the effect and mechanism of the Chinese herbal medicine number 2 Feibi Recipe (number 2 FBR) on lungs injury. In this experiment, Wistar rats were used...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Lu Shen, Loretta J Mickley, Eric M Leibensperger, Mingwei Li
We find that summertime air quality in the eastern U.S. displays strong dependence on North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, resulting from large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions. Using observations, reanalysis data sets, and climate model simulations, we further identify a multidecadal variability in surface air quality driven by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). In one-half cycle (~35 years) of the AMO from cold to warm phase, summertime maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations increase by 1-4 ppbv and PM2...
December 28, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
Fan Wu, Jinying Zhang
Epidemiological studies have confirmed that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the underlying mechanisms in PM2.5 exposure-induced heart injury are largely unknown. It has been acknowledged that NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4 plays a critical role in CVD development. To investigate the acute effects of PM2.5 on the mouse heart and the role of Nox4 in PM2.5 exposure-induced cardiac injury, C57BL/6J mice were instilled with saline or 1.5, 3.0, 6...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Mei Mei, Haojun Song, Lina Chen, Bin Hu, Ru Bai, Diandou Xu, Ying Liu, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that elevated levels of air pollution contribute to an increased incidence or severity of asthma. Although late-onset adult asthma seems to be more attributable to environmental risk factors, limited data is available on the impact of early-life exposure to size-fractionated ambient particulate matter (PM) on asthma in adults. We aimed to determine the effect on the development and exacerbation of asthma in the adult after the mice were exposed as juveniles to three size-fractionated ambient particulates collected from Beijing...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Weize Song, Haifeng Jia, Zhilin Li, Deliang Tang
Urban air pollutant distribution is a concern in environmental and health studies. Particularly, the spatial distribution of NO2 and PM2.5 , which represent photochemical smog and haze pollution in urban areas, is of concern. This paper presents a study quantifying the seasonal differences between urban NO2 and PM2.5 distributions in Foshan, China. A geographical semi-variogram analysis was conducted to delineate the spatial variation in daily NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations. The data were collected from 38 sites in the government-operated monitoring network...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Adrian Blanco Machin, Luiz Fernando Costa Nascimento
Exposure to air pollutants, usually measured by environmental agencies that are not present in all states, may be associated with respiratory admissions in children. An ecological time series study was conducted with data on hospitalizations due to selected respiratory diseases in children under 10 years of age in 2012 in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Mean levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were estimated with a mathematical model, data on low temperatures and relative humidity were obtained from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology, and the numbers of brush burnings were obtained from the Environmental Information System...
March 8, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Cole Brokamp, Roman Jandarov, Monir Hossain, Patrick Ryan
The short-term and acute health effects of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) have highlighted the need for exposure assessment models with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we utilize satellite, meteorologic, atmospheric, and land-use data to train a random forest model capable of accurately predicting daily PM2.5 concentrations at a resolution of 1 × 1 km throughout an urban area encompassing seven counties. Unlike previous models based on aerosol optical density (AOD), we show that the missingness of AOD is an effective predictor of ground-level PM2...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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