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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432994/assessment-of-temporal-variation-for-the-risk-of-particulate-matters-on-asthma-hospitalization
#1
Hyomi Kim, Honghyok Kim, Yoon-Hyung Park, Jong-Tae Lee
Increased ambient concentration of particulate matters are considered as one of major causes for increased prevalence or exacerbation of asthma or asthma like symptoms. Recently, possible temporal variation in risks of PM on mortality has been suggested. We investigated short-term effect of both PM10 and PM2.5 on asthma hospitalization, and assessed temporal variation of PM risks in Seoul, Korea, 2003-2011. Generalized additive model was used to estimate PM risks on asthma hospitalization with consideration by long-term trend, influenza epidemic, day of week, meteorological factors...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432909/source-receptor-relationships-for-pm2-5-during-typical-pollution-episodes-in-the-pearl-river-delta-city-cluster-china
#2
Yiming Liu, Yingying Hong, Qi Fan, Xuemei Wang, Pakwai Chan, Xiaoyang Chen, Anqi Lai, Mingjie Wang, Xunlai Chen
Located in the Southern China monsoon region, pollution days in Pearl River Delta (PRD) were classified into "Western type", "Central type" or "Eastern type", with a relative percentage of 67%, 24% and 9%, respectively. Using this classification system, three typical pollution events were selected for numerical simulations using the WRF-Chem model. The source sensitivity method for anthropogenic emissions of PM2.5 and its precursors was applied to identify the source-receptor relationships for PM2.5 among 9 cities in PRD...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432210/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-complex-intervention-to-reduce-children-s-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-in-the-home
#3
Elena Ratschen, Rebecca Thorley, Laura Jones, Magdalena Opazo Breton, Juliette Cook, Ann McNeill, John Britton, Tim Coleman, Sarah Lewis
OBJECTIVES: Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) causes significant harm and occurs predominantly through smoking by caregivers in the family home. We report a trial of a complex intervention designed to reduce secondhand smoke exposure of children whose primary caregiver feels unable or unwilling to quit smoking. DESIGN: An open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Deprived communities in Nottingham City and County, England PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers resident in Nottingham City and County in England who were at least 18 years old, the main caregiver of a child aged under 5 years living in their household, and reported that they were smoking tobacco inside their home...
April 21, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431925/analysis-of-pm2-5-induced-cytotoxicity-in-human-hacat-cells-based-on-a-microfluidic-system
#4
Yuxiao Zhang, Lulu Zheng, Jiang Tuo, Qi Liu, Xinlian Zhang, Zhixuan Xu, Sixiu Liu, Guodong Sui
Human exposure to PM2.5 causes several adverse health effects. Skin is the first barrier against harmful environmental substances and can has direct contact with PM2.5, but there is no study about PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity in human skin cells on the molecular level partially due to the shortcomings of traditional research methods. In present study, we established a microfluidic system including a cell culture chip integrated with a high-throughput protein microarray chip to investigate the mechanism of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431389/prediction-of-size-fractionated-airborne-particle-bound-metals-using-mlr-bp-ann-and-svm-analyses
#5
Xiang'zi Leng, Jinhua Wang, Haibo Ji, Qin'geng Wang, Huiming Li, Xin Qian, Fengying Li, Meng Yang
Size-fractionated heavy metal concentrations were observed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 2014 to 2015 (spanning all four seasons) from suburban (Xianlin) and industrial (Pukou) areas in Nanjing, a megacity of southeast China. Rapid prediction models of size-fractionated metals were established based on multiple linear regression (MLR), back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) by using meteorological factors and PM concentrations as input parameters...
April 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431378/development-of-novel-alternative-biodiesel-fuels-for-reducing-pm-emissions-and-pm-related-genotoxicity
#6
Po-Ming Yang, Chia-Chi Wang, Ying-Chi Lin, Syu-Ruei Jhang, Li-Jung Lin, Yuan-Chung Lin
This paper intend to investigate the effects of biodiesel fuel blends comprising of waste-cooking oil and butanol-diesel (B10W10-B10W40) under steady-state conditions. Both particulate organic carbon (OC) and PM including PM2.5 and PM10 significantly decreased with the increasing percentage of biodiesel fuel blends. The fuel blend of B10W40 also demonstrated the most effective function in reducing the emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 in the volume by 59.4% and 57.7%, respectively. Moreover, the emissions of nitrogen oxides decreased with the blending of B10W10-B10W40 (13...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431317/ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-premature-mortality-burden-in-the-holy-city-varanasi-india
#7
Vaishali Jain, Sagnik Dey, Sourangsu Chowdhury
More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431315/effects-of-pm2-5-exposure-on-the-notch-signaling-pathway-and-immune-imbalance-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Xing-Yu Gu, Xu Chu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Xiao-Ju Liu
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with T lymphocytes subset (Th1/Th2, Th17/Treg) imbalance. Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of the adaptive immunity. The immune disorder induced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is related to COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which PM2.5 influences the Notch signaling pathway leading to worsening immune disorder and accelerating COPD development. A COPD mouse model was established by cigarette smoke exposure...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429404/air-pollution-weight-loss-and-metabolic-benefits-of-bariatric-surgery-a-potential-model-for-study-of-metabolic-effects-of-environmental-exposures
#9
R Ghosh, W J Gauderman, H Minor, H A Youn, F Lurmann, K R Cromar, L Chatzi, B Belcher, C R Fielding, R McConnell
BACKGROUND: Emerging experimental evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to development of obesity and diabetes, but studies of children are limited. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that pollution effects would be magnified after bariatric surgery for treatment of obesity, reducing benefits of surgery. METHODS: In 75 obese adolescents, excess weight loss (EWL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) were measured prospectively at baseline and following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)...
April 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426774/the-role-of-air-pollution-in-myocardial-remodeling
#10
A M de Oliveira-Fonoff, C Mady, F G Pessoa, K C B Fonseca, V M C Salemi, F Fernandes, P H N Saldiva, F J A Ramires
BACKGROUND: Excessive air pollution in urban environments can impact morbidity and mortality. The authors evaluated the role of particulate matter2.5 (PM2.5) in structural, geometric, and functional remodeling in hearts, using an experimental model of myocardial infarction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seventy-five rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CG), CG exposed to PM2.5 pollution (CGP), myocardial infarcted group (MI), infarcted group immediately exposed to pollution (IGP-I), and infarcted group previously exposed to pollution and kept exposed after infarction (IGP-II)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425934/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-airborne-particulate-matter-on-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bm-mscs-cellular-molecular-and-systems-biological-approaches
#11
Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Mansour A Alghamdi, Magdy Shamy, Mamdouh I Khoder, Max Costa, Mourad Assidi, Roaa Kadam, Haneen Alsehli, Mamdooh Gari, Peter Natesan Pushparaj, Gauthaman Kalamegam, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani
Particulate matter (PM) contains heavy metals that affect various cellular functions and gene expression associated with a range of acute and chronic diseases in humans. However, the specific effects they exert on the stem cells remain unclear. Here, we report the effects of PM collected from the city of Jeddah on proliferation, cell death, related gene expression and systems of biological analysis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), with the aim of understanding the underlying mechanisms. PM2...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424066/short-term-exposure-to-pm2-5-and-vanadium-and-changes-in-asthma-gene-dna-methylation-and-lung-function-decrements-among-urban-children
#12
Kyung Hwa Jung, David Torrone, Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir, Matthew Perzanowski, Joshua Bautista, Jacqueline R Jezioro, Lori Hoepner, Jamie Ross, Frederica P Perera, Steven N Chillrud, Rachel L Miller
BACKGROUND: Both short and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants have been associated with asthma and reduced lung function. We hypothesized that short-term indoor exposure to fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and vanadium (V) would be associated with altered buccal cell DNA methylation of targeted asthma genes and decreased lung function among urban children in a nested subcohort of African American and Dominican children. METHODS: Six day integrated levels of air pollutants were measured from children's homes (age 9-14; n = 163), repeated 6 months later (n = 98)...
April 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423205/the-impact-of-biogas-and-fuelwood-use-on-institutional-kitchen-air-quality-in-kampala-uganda
#13
Aleia Ingulli McCord, Sarah Adel Stefanos, Vianney Tumwesige, Dorothy Lsoto, Anna Hillstrom Meding, Angela Adong, James Jay Schauer, Rebecca Anne Larson
Experts have suggested that microscale biogas systems offer a source of renewable energy that improves indoor air quality, but such impacts have not been directly measured. This study documented cooking behaviors and measured 2.5 μm particulate matter (PM2.5 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) concentrations within 14 institutional kitchens in Kampala, Uganda that prepare meals using biogas (n=5), a mixture of biogas and fuelwood (n=3), and fuelwood (n=6). Small institutions (10-30 people) with biogas kitchens had 99% lower concentrations of PM2...
April 19, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423049/inmap-a-model-for-air-pollution-interventions
#14
Christopher W Tessum, Jason D Hill, Julian D Marshall
Mechanistic air pollution modeling is essential in air quality management, yet the extensive expertise and computational resources required to run most models prevent their use in many situations where their results would be useful. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420188/health-risk-assessment-of-indoor-air-quality-socioeconomic-and-house-characteristics-on-respiratory-health-among-women-and-children-of-tirupur-south-india
#15
Krassi Rumchev, Yun Zhao, Jeffery Spickett
Background: Indoor air pollution is still considered as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and especially in developing countries, including India. This study aims to assess social, housing, and indoor environmental factors associated with respiratory health among mothers and children. Methods: The study was conducted in the city of Tirupur, South India. We quantitatively assessed the indoor exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide in relation to respiratory health among women and children...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420157/the-effects-of-pm2-5-from-asian-dust-storms-on-emergency-room-visits-for-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-diseases
#16
Ssu-Ting Liu, Chu-Yung Liao, Cheng-Yu Kuo, Hsien-Wen Kuo
A case-crossover study examined how PM2.5 from Asian Dust Storms (ADS) affects the number of emergency room (ER) admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and respiratory diseases (RDs). Our data indicated that PM2.5 concentration from ADS was highly correlated with ER visits for CVDs and RDs. The odds ratios (OR) increased by 2.92 (95% CI: 1.22-5.08) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.30-2.91) per 10 µg/m³ increase in PM2.5 levels, for CVDs and RDs, respectively. A 10 µg/m³ increase in PM2.5 from ADSs was significantly associated with an increase in ER visits for CVDs among those 65 years of age and older (an increase of 2...
April 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420118/ambient-air-pollution-and-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-in-beijing-china
#17
Ruixue Xia, Guopeng Zhou, Tong Zhu, Xueying Li, Guangfa Wang
Air pollutants are associated with cardiovascular death; however, there is limited evidence of the effects of different pollutants on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in Beijing, China. We aimed to investigate the associations of OHCAs with the air pollutants PM2.5-10 (coarse particulate matter), PM2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O₃) between 2013 and 2015 using a time-stratified case-crossover study design...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419921/development-of-pm2-5-and-no2-models-in-a-lur-framework-incorporating-satellite-remote-sensing-and-air-quality-model-data-in-pearl-river-delta-region-china
#18
Xiaofan Yang, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Huan Liu, Hanyang Man, Zhaofeng Lv, Kebin He, Kees de Hoogh
High resolution pollution maps are critical to understand the exposure and health effect of local residents to air pollution. Currently, none of the single technologies used to measure or estimate concentrations of pollutants can provide sufficient resolved exposure data. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed to combine ground-based measurements, satellite remote sensing (SRS) and air quality model (AQM), together with geographic and local source related spatial inputs, to generate high resolution pollution maps for both PM2...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417329/quantitative-cancer-risk-assessment-and-local-mortality-burden-for-ambient-air-pollution-in-an-eastern-mediterranean-city
#19
Hassan R Dhaini, Thérèse Salameh, Antoine Waked, Stéphane Sauvage, Agnès Borbon, Paola Formenti, Jean-François Doussin, Nadine Locoge, Charbel Afif
Health risks posed by ambient air pollutants to the urban Lebanese population have not been well characterized. The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk and mortality burden of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulates (PM) based on two field-sampling campaigns conducted during summer and winter seasons in Beirut. Seventy NMHCs were analyzed by TD-GC-FID. PM2.5 elemental carbon (EC) components were examined using a Lab OC-EC aerosol Analyzer, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC-MS...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417138/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-traffic-noise-and-incident-hypertension-in-seven-cohorts-of-the-european-study-of-cohorts-for-air-pollution-effects-escape
#20
Kateryna B Fuks, Gudrun Weinmayr, Xavier Basagaña, Olena Gruzieva, Regina Hampel, Bente Oftedal, Mette Sørensen, Kathrin Wolf, Geir Aamodt, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Inmaculada Aguilera, Thomas Becker, Rob Beelen, Bert Brunekreef, Barbara Caracciolo, Josef Cyrys, Roberto Elosua, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Maria Foraster, Laura Fratiglioni, Agneta Hilding, Danny Houthuijs, Michal Korek, Nino Künzli, Jaume Marrugat, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Johanna Penell, Göran Pershagen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Wim J R Swart, Annette Peters, Barbara Hoffmann
Aims: We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. Methods and results: We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression...
April 1, 2017: European Heart Journal
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