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Yafei Liu, You Zhang, Chuang Li, Yun Bai, Daoming Zhang, Chunyu Xue, Guangqing Liu
Pollutant emissions from incomplete combustion of raw coal in low-efficiency residential heating stoves greatly contribute to winter haze in China. Semi-coke coals and improved heating stoves are expected to lower air pollutant emissions and are vigorously promoted by the Chinese government in many national and local plans. In this study, the thermal performance and air pollutant emissions from semi-coke combustion in improved heating stoves were measured in a pilot rural county and compared to the baseline of burning raw coal to quantify the mitigation potential of air pollutant emissions...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jiangtao Liu, Lei Guo, Kai Zhang, Quanquan Song, Qiaozhen Wei, Qin Bian, Tingting Liang, Jingping Niu, Bin Luo
Angiotensin II (ANG II) might play an important role in the co-effects of cold stress and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the roles of valsartan in alleviating COPD following co-exposure to cold stress and PM2.5 . Both the two intervention factors are carried out upon COPD rats with the intervention of valsartan. Blockade of angiotensin receptor by valsartan decreases the levels of malondialdehyde in the normal temperature and tumor necrosis factor-α under cold stress significantly...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jun Liu, Biwu Chu, Tianzeng Chen, Changgeng Liu, Ling Wang, Xiaolei Bao, Hong He
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important component of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 ), while the key factors controlling SOA formation in ambient air remain poorly understood. In this work, the SOA formation in Beijing urban ambient air was investigated using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) with high concentrations of OH radicals. The SOA formation potential increased significantly with the increase of ambient PM2.5 concentration during the observation. The optimum ambient exposure time, which is the aging time equivalent to atmospheric oxidation (with similar OH exposure) associated with the peak SOA formation, varied between 2 to 4 days in this study...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mohammed Jaoui, Michael Lewandowski, John H Offenberg, Maribel Colon, Kenneth S Docherty, Tadeusz E Kleindienst
The analytical capabilities associated with the use of silylation reactions have been extended to a new class of organic molecules, nitroaromatic compounds (NACs). These compounds are a possible contributor to urban particulate matter of secondary origin which would make them important analytes due to their (1) detrimental health effects, (2) potential to affect aerosol optical properties, (3) and usefulness for identifying PM2.5 from biomass burning. The technique is based on derivatization of the parent NACs using N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoro acetamide, one of the most prevalent derivatization reagent for analyzing hydroxylated molecules, followed by GC-MS using electron ionization (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Baoqing Wang, Honghong Niu, Bowei Liu, Xinxin Hu, Zihui Ren
The indoor and outdoor PM2.5 mass concentration, water-soluble ion by filter sampler was analyzed on December 3-21, 2015 during wintertime in Tianjin, China. The results indicate that high humidity conditions result in the accumulation of atmospheric pollutants and reduce atmosphere visibility. The I/O ratio for PM2.5 concentration in dormitory and lab are less than 1 in haze days. Indoor PM2.5 concentration increases rapidly with outdoor PM2.5 concentration increasing in haze days. The filtration factors of the dormitory and lab indicate nearly half of the outdoor PM2...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qingyang Xiao, Hanyi Chen, Matthew J Strickland, Haidong Kan, Howard H Chang, Mitchel Klein, Chen Yang, Xia Meng, Yang Liu
BACKGROUND: Few studies have estimated effects of maternal PM2.5 exposure on birth outcomes in China due to the lack of historical air pollution data. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the associations between maternal PM2.5 exposure and birth outcomes using gap-filled satellite estimates in Shanghai, China. METHODS: We obtained birth registration records of 132,783 singleton live births during 2011-2014 in Shanghai. PM2.5 exposures were assessed from satellite-derived estimates or central-site measurements...
May 12, 2018: Environment International
Shu-E Soh, Anne Goh, Oon Hoe Teoh, Keith M Godfrey, Peter D Gluckman, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Yap-Seng Chong
Prenatal exposure to air pollution is associated with childhood respiratory health; however, no previous studies have examined maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) as a potential effect modifier. We investigated whether maternal pre-pregnancy BMI modified the association of trimester-specific air pollution divided into quartiles of exposure (Q1⁻4) on respiratory health in the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study ( n = 953) in 2-year-old children. For episodes of wheezing, children of overweight/obese mothers and who were exposed to particulate matter less than 2...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Josef Cyrys, H-Erich Wichmann, Regina Rückerl, Annette Peters
Low Emission Zones (LEZs) were implemented as a measure for improving the quality of ambient air. As of February 2018, 58 LEZs were in operation in Germany; however they differ significantly, especially regarding their size.The effectiveness of LEZs has been investigated by dispersion modelling as well as by analysis of PM10 (particles which pass through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) measurement values. Recent studies show a clear trend...
May 14, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Mingyu Zhang, Noel T Mueller, Hongjian Wang, Xiumei Hong, Lawrence J Appel, Xiaobin Wang
Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with greater risk of elevated blood pressure (BP) in adults and children. Recent evidence suggests that air pollution exposure in pregnancy may also portend increased risk for the next generation; however, few studies have examined this relationship. We conducted a prospective study of 1293 mothers in the Boston Birth Cohort (enrolled 1998-2012) and their children who had follow-up visits between 3 and 9 years of age and complete exposure and outcome data...
May 14, 2018: Hypertension
JingHong Li, Nan Chen, YiPing Tian, Hui Xu
The exploration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by cell lines may be a powerful and non-invasive tool for the study of the health risk of human exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In this work, we developed a sensitive solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (SPME-GC-MS) to analyze VOCs in breathed gas of PM2.5-induced human embryonic fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). A novel graphene oxide/polyaniline/polydopamine (GO/PANI/PDA) coating was prepared on a stainless steel wire via electrochemical deposition and self-polymerization for the first time...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Tongjun Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongguang Zhang, Ya Zhang, Jun Zhao, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yan Wang, Xiaoxu Xie, Long Wang, Zongyu Xu, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Yuan He, Ying Yang, Jihong Xu, Zuoqi Peng, Xu Ma
BACKGROUND: The relationship between PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of exposure to PM2.5 on preterm birth in China. METHODS: The birth outcomes of 426,246 pregnant women enrolled between January 2014 and December 2014 in NFPCP (National Free Pre-pregnancy Checkups Project) were collected, and their individual PM2.5 exposure values were estimated from the China National Environmental Monitoring Centre...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Efisio Solazzo, Angelo Riccio, Rita Van Dingenen, Luana Valentini, Stefano Galmarini
This study promotes the critical use of air pollution modelling results for health and agriculture impacts, with the primary goal of providing more reliable estimates to decision makers. To date, the accuracy of air quality (AQ) models and the effects of model-to-model result variability (which we will refer to as model uncertainty) on impact assessment studies have been often ignored, thus undermining the robustness of the information used in the decision making process and the confidence in the results obtained...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sheng Li, Ming Zhu, Weiqiang Yang, Mingjin Tang, Xueliang Huang, Yuegang Yu, Hua Fang, Xu Yu, Qingqing Yu, Xiaoxin Fu, Wei Song, Yanli Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang
Carbonaceous aerosols represent an important nexus between air pollution and climate change. Here we collected filter-based PM2.5 samples during summer and autumn in 2015 at one urban and two rural sites in Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, and got the light absorption by black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) resolved with a DRI Model 2015 multi-wavelength thermal/optical carbon analyzer apart from determining the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents. On average BrC contributed 12-15% of the measured absorption at 405nm (LA405 ) during summer and 15-19% during autumn with significant increase in the LA405 by BrC at the rural sites...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Wanyu Zhao, Wenyi Yang, Yingjie Zhang, Lujie Ren, Xiaokun Han, Qingjun Guo, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Pingqing Fu
Pervasive particulate pollution has been observed over large areas of the North China Plain. The high level of sulfate, a major component in fine particles, is pronounced during heavy pollution periods. Being different from source apportionments by atmospheric chemistry-transport model and receptor modeling methods, here we utilize sulfur isotopes to discern the potential emission sources. Sixty-five daily PM2.5 samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing between September 2013 and July 2014. Inorganic ions, organic/elemental carbon and stable sulfur isotopes of sulfate were analyzed...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Weiwei Pu, Xuefeng Shi, Lili Wang, Jing Xu, Zhiqiang Ma
Understanding the potential source regions of air pollutants and their relative contribution from surrounding areas are of great importance for air pollution control strategies in Northern China. Six years of measurement of air pollutants was conducted from 2005 to 2010 in Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional background station. During the study period, the annual average concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide and ozone (Ox ), and fine particle matter less than or equal to 2.5μm (PM2...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Yutong He, Zhaoyu Gao, Tiantian Guo, Feng Qu, Di Liang, Daojuan Li, Jin Shi, Baoen Shan
BACKGROUND: The association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and lung cancer (LC) mortality in China is limited. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is infamous for serious air pollution. Seven of the top 10 cities with the worst air quality are located in Hebei Province. Thus, we explored the effect of 10 years of PM2.5 on the LC mortality rate in Hebei Province. METHODS: We quantified associations between LC mortality and PM2.5 and estimated the LC mortality burden attributed to PM2...
May 14, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Yujiao Sun, Shangwei Xu, Danyang Zheng, Jie Li, Hezhong Tian, Yong Wang
In this study, particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters of ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10 , respectively), which was found at different concentrations in spring, was collected in Beijing. The chemical composition and bacterial community diversity of PM were determined, and the relationship between them was studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and mathematical statistics. Chemical composition analysis revealed greater relative percentages of total organic compounds (TOC) and secondary ions (NO3 - , SO4 2- , and NH4 + )...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M K Bełcik, A Trusz-Zdybek, E Zaczyńska, A Czarny, K Piekarska
In the ambient is >2000 chemical substances, some of them are absorbed on the surface of the particulate matter and may causes many health problems. Air pollution is responsible for >3.2 million premature deaths which classifies it as a second place environmental risk factor. Especially dangerous for health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives which shows mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Air pollutions were also classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer to group which carcinogenic properties on human were proved by available knowledge...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Congbo Song, Chao Ma, Yanjie Zhang, Ting Wang, Lin Wu, Peng Wang, Yan Liu, Qian Li, Jinsheng Zhang, Qili Dai, Chao Zou, Luna Sun, Hongjun Mao
The relative importance of contributions of gasoline vehicles (GVs) and diesel vehicles (DVs), heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and non-HDDVs to on-road vehicle emissions remains unclear. Vehicle emission factors (EFs), including fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), NO-NO2 -NOx , and carbon monoxide (CO), were measured (August 4-18, 2017) in an urban tunnel in Tianjin, northern China. The average EFs (mg km-1 veh-1 ) of the fleet were as follows: 9.21 (95% confidence interval: 1.60, 23.07) for PM2.5 , 62.08 (21...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yan Wang, Lilin Xiong, Tianshu Wu, Ting Zhang, Lu Kong, Yuying Xue, Meng Tang
Epidemiological studies have illustrated that PM2.5 is closely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but underlying toxicological mechanisms are not yet clear. The main purpose of this study is to disclose the potential biological mechanisms responsible for PM2.5-dependent adverse cardiovascular outcomes through the appliance of genome-wide transcription microarray. From results, compared with the control group, there are 97 genes significantly altered in 2.5 μg/cm2 PM2.5 treated group and 440 differentially expressed genes in 10 μg/cm2 group...
May 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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