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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454155/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-approaches-on-special-subgroups-and-unresolved-burning-questions
#1
REVIEW
J Remon, N Vilariño, N Reguart
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been incorporated in the treatment strategy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Beyond the already approved indications in first- and second-line setting of advanced NSCLC, new data has recently emerged demonstrating its efficacy in locally advanced disease as maintenance after chemo-radiotherapy and currently several trials are also exploring its efficacy in earlier stages of the disease to evaluate whether these results could be extrapolated to the adjuvant setting...
February 8, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453437/enhancement-of-immunomodulative-effect-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-with-sucrose-palmitate
#2
Masaya Kanayama, Yukiko Kato, Toshikazu Tsuji, Yuki Konoeda, Akiko Hashimoto, Osamu Kanauchi, Toshio Fujii, Daisuke Fujiwara
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a key role in the immune response against viruses. In addition, recent research has suggested that pDCs possess direct and indirect tumoricidal activities. We previously found that a lactic acid bacteria strain, Lactococcus lactis JCM 5805 (LC-Plasma), stimulated pDCs and prevented viral infection in mouse and human studies. Meanwhile, emulsifiers have recently been highlighted as candidate adjuvants for some viral vaccines and cancer immunotherapies. In this study, we discovered some specific emulsifiers, mainly consisting of sucrose fatty acid esters, that drastically enhance the potency of LC-Plasma to activate pDCs in vitro...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452091/expression-profiles-and-clinical-value-of-plasma-exosomal-tim-3-and-galectin-9-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Jianwei Gao, Xiangyu Qiu, Xinying Li, Hang Fan, Fang Zhang, Tangfeng Lv, Yong Song
Exosomes are membrane-bound, virus-size vesicles present in circulating blood. Tumor cells are avid producers of exosomes, which are thought to mimic molecular features of parent tumor cells. T-cell Immunoglobulin- and Mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) is one of the next generation immune checkpoints and can be activated by its ligand Galectin-9, negatively regulating anti-tumor immune response. However, the characteristics of plasma exosomal Tim-3/Galectin-9 (Exo-T/G) in cancer remained unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the expression patterns and clinical value of plasma exosomal total protein (Exo-pro) and Exo-T/G in non-small cell lung caner (NSCLC)...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450756/risk-stratification-according-to-the-prognostic-nutritional-index-for-predicting-postoperative-complications-after-lung-cancer-surgery
#4
Satoru Okada, Junichi Shimada, Satoshi Teramukai, Daishiro Kato, Hiroaki Tsunezuka, Naoko Miyata, Shunta Ishihara, Tatsuo Furuya, Chiaki Nakazono, Narumi Ishikawa, Masayoshi Inoue
BACKGROUND: The prognostic nutritional index (PNI), an immune nutritional marker based on serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte count, predicts postoperative complications in various types of malignancies. However, the clinical significance of the PNI for postoperative complications following lung cancer surgery is uncertain. METHODS: Patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (n = 515) were retrospectively analyzed and the relationship between the preoperative PNI and postoperative complications was evaluated...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449897/atezolizumab-feasible-second-line-therapy-for-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-review-of-efficacy-safety-and-place-in-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Fanny Jean, Pascale Tomasini, Fabrice Barlesi
Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prognosis is still poor and has recently been reformed by the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors and the approval of anti-PD-1 (programmed cell-death 1) treatments such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab in second line. More recently, atezolizumab (MDPL 3280A), a programmed cell-death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, was also studied in this setting. Here, we report a review of the literature assessing the efficacy, safety, and place of atezolizumab in the second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448960/double-negative-cd27-igd-b-cells-are-expanded-in-nsclc-and-inversely-correlate-with-affinity-matured-b-cell-populations
#6
Sara M Centuori, Cecil J Gomes, Samuel S Kim, Charles W Putnam, Brandon T Larsen, Linda L Garland, David W Mount, Jesse D Martinez
BACKGROUND: The presence of B cells in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with longer survival, however, the role these cells play in the generation and maintenance of anti-tumor immunity is unclear. B cells differentiate into a variety of subsets with differing characteristics and functions. To date, there is limited information on the specific B cell subsets found within NSCLC. To better understand the composition of the B cell populations found in NSCLC we have begun characterizing B cells in lung tumors and have detected a population of B cells that are CD79A + CD27 - IgD - ...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445611/immune-response-after-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#7
Mirko Barone, Giuseppe Cipollone, Felice Mucilli
The effects of immunomodulation processes in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy are still debated; although, the reduced surgical stress of minimally invasive surgery is evident. The immunological repercussions could also influence the evolution of the disease and the prognosis of patients. The article aims to raise some points of reflection by considering available evidences and reiterating, once again, the prognostic utility of a minimally invasive procedure rather than classical approach...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444918/immunotherapy-a-new-standard-of-care-in-thoracic-malignancies-a-summary-of-the-european-respiratory-society-research-seminar-of-the-thoracic-oncology-assembly
#8
Adrien Costantini, Marta Grynovska, Francesca Lucibello, Jorge Moisés, Franck Pagès, Ming S Tsao, Frances A Shepherd, Hasna Bouchaab, Marina Garassino, Joachim G J V Aerts, Julien Mazières, Michele Mondini, Thierry Berghmans, Anne-Pascale Meert, Jacques Cadranel
In May 2017, the second European Respiratory Society research seminar of the Thoracic Oncology Assembly entitled "Immunotherapy, a new standard of care in thoracic malignancies?" was held in Paris, France. This seminar provided an opportunity to review the basis of antitumour immunity and to explain how immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) work. The main therapeutic trials that have resulted in marketing authorisations for use of ICIs in lung cancer were reported. A particular focus was on the toxicity of these new molecules in relation to their immune-related adverse events...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441437/immune-checkpoint-blockade-the-new-frontier-in-cancer-treatment
#9
Jeffrey M Clarke, Daniel J George, Stacey Lisi, April K S Salama
Immune checkpoint blockers have revolutionized cancer treatment in recent years. These agents are now approved for the treatment of several malignancies, including melanoma, squamous and non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Studies have demonstrated the significant impact of immunotherapy versus standard of care on patient outcomes, including durable response and extended survival. The use of immunotherapy-based combination therapy has been shown to further extend duration of response and survival...
February 13, 2018: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441072/fatal-necrotizing-encephalopathy-after-treatment-with-nivolumab-for-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Markus Leitinger, Mihael V Varosanec, Slaven Pikija, Romana E Wass, Dave Bandke, Serge Weis, Michael Studnicka, Susanne Grinzinger, Mark R McCoy, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are antibodies, which enhance cellular and humoral immune responses and are approved for the treatment of various tumors. Immune-related adverse events (irAE) involving different organs and systems are, however, among the side-effects. Recent reports of severe persistent neurological deficits and even fatal cases underpin the need for better understanding of the exact pathomechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. To our knowledge, we report the first biopsy-proven case of fatal necrotizing encephalopathy after treatment with nivolumab...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440769/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-signature-is-inversely-associated-with-t-cell-infiltration-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#11
Young Kwang Chae, Sangmin Chang, Taeyeong Ko, Jonathan Anker, Sarita Agte, Wade Iams, Wooyoung M Choi, Kyoungmin Lee, Marcelo Cruz
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is able to drive metastasis during progression of multiple cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). As resistance to immunotherapy has been associated with EMT and immune exclusion in melanoma, it is important to understand alterations to T-cell infiltration and the tumor microenvironment during EMT in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. We conducted an integrated analysis of the immune landscape in NSCLCs through EMT scores derived from a previously established 16 gene signature of canonical EMT markers...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440650/type-2-innate-lymphocytes-actuate-immunity-against-tumours-and-limit-cancer-metastasis
#12
Iryna Saranchova, Jeffrey Han, Rysa Zaman, Hitesh Arora, Hui Huang, Franz Fenninger, Kyung Bok Choi, Lonna Munro, Cheryl G Pfeifer, Ian Welch, Fumio Takei, Wilfred A Jefferies
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) potentiate immune responses, however, their role in mediating adaptive immunity in cancer has not been assessed. Here, we report that mice genetically lacking ILC2s have significantly increased tumour growth rates and conspicuously higher frequency of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and resulting metastasis to distal organs. Our data support the model that IL-33 dependent tumour-infiltrating ILC2s are mobilized from the lungs and other tissues through chemoattraction to enter tumours, and subsequently mediate tumour immune-surveillance by cooperating with dendritic cells to promote adaptive cytolytic T cell responses...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439884/a-quantitative-ct-imaging-signature-predicts-survival-and-complements-established-prognosticators-in-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Juheon Lee, Bailiang Li, Yi Cui, Xiaoli Sun, Jia Wu, Hui Zhu, Jinming Yu, Michael F Gensheimer, Billy W Loo, Maximilian Diehn, Ruijiang Li
PURPOSE: Prognostic biomarkers are needed to guide the management of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This work aims to develop an image-based prognostic signature and assess its complementary value to existing biomarkers. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively analyzed data of stage I NSCLC in 8 cohorts. On the basis of an analysis of 39 computed tomography (CT) features characterizing tumor and its relation to neighboring pleura, we developed a prognostic signature in an institutional cohort (n = 117) and tested it in an external cohort (n = 88)...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438373/anlotinib-as-a-third-line-therapy-in-patients-with-refractory-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-multicentre-randomised-phase-ii-trial-alter0302
#14
Baohui Han, Kai Li, Yizhuo Zhao, Baolan Li, Ying Cheng, Jianying Zhou, You Lu, Yuankai Shi, Zhehai Wang, Liyan Jiang, Yi Luo, Yiping Zhang, Cheng Huang, Qiang Li, Guoming Wu
BACKGROUND: Anlotinib (AL3818) is a novel multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibiting tumour angiogenesis and proliferative signalling. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of third-line anlotinib for patients with refractory advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (RA-NSCLC). METHODS: Eligible patients were randomised 1 : 1 to receive anlotinib (12 mg per day, per os; days 1-14; 21 days per cycle) or a placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS)...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438108/stat3-enhancing-germline-mutations-contribute-to-tumor-extrinsic-immune-evasion
#15
Daniel Kogan, Alexander Grabner, Christopher Yanucil, Christian Faul, Vijay Kumar Ulaganathan
Immune evasion and the suppression of anti-tumor responses during cancer progression are considered hallmarks of cancer and are typically attributed to tumor-derived factors. Although the molecular basis for the crosstalk between tumor and immune cells is an area of active investigation, whether host-specific germline variants can dictate immunosuppressive mechanisms has remained a challenge to address. A commonly occurring germline mutation (c.1162G>A/rs351855 G/A) in the FGFR4 (CD334) gene enhances STAT3 signaling and is associated with poor prognosis and accelerated progression of multiple cancer types...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437879/characterizing-the-potency-and-impact-of-carbon-ion-therapy-in-a-primary-mouse-model-of-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#16
Jeremy Michael Brownstein, Amy Jordan Wisdom, Katherine D Castle, Yvonne M Mowery, Peter M Guida, Chang-Lung Lee, Francesco Tommasino, Chiara La Tessa, Emanuele Scifoni, Junheng Gao, Lixia Luo, Lorraine Da Silva Campos, Yan Ma, Nerissa Williams, Sin-Ho Jung, Marco Durante, David G Kirsch
Carbon ion therapy (CIT) offers several potential advantages for treating cancers compared with X-ray and proton radiotherapy including increased biological efficacy and more conformal dosimetry. However, CIT potency has not been characterized in primary tumor animal models. Here, we calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions compared to X-rays in an autochthonous mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma. We used Cre/loxP technology to generate primary sarcomas in KrasLSL-G12D/+; p53fl/fl mice...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437767/t-cell-exhaustion-signatures-vary-with-tumor-type-and-are-severe-in-glioblastoma
#17
Karolina Woroniecka, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Kristen E Rhodin, Hanna R Kemeny, Cosette A Dechant, Samuel H Farber, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Xiuyu Cui, Shohei Koyama, Christina C Jackson, Landon J Hansen, Tanner M Johanns, Luis Sanchez-Perez, Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan, Yen-Rei A Yu, Darell D Bigner, Amber J Giles, Patrick Healy, Glenn Dranoff, Kent J Weinhold, Gavin P Dunn, Peter E Fecci
PURPOSE: T cell dysfunction is a hallmark of GBM. While anergy and tolerance have been well characterized, T cell exhaustion remains relatively unexplored. Exhaustion, characterized in part by the upregulation of multiple immune checkpoints, is a known contributor to failures amidst immune checkpoint blockade, a strategy that has lacked success thus far in GBM. This study is among the first to examine, and credential as bona fide, exhaustion among T cells infiltrating human and murine GBM...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435295/identification-of-candidate-responders-for-anti-pd-l1-pd-1-immunotherapy-rova-t-therapy-or-ezh2-inhibitory-therapy-in-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Motonobu Saito, Katsuharu Saito, Kouya Shiraishi, Daichi Maeda, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Yoshihiro Minamiya, Koji Kono, Takashi Kohno, Akiteru Goto
A useful candidate for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) therapy is immune checkpoint blockade therapy targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1. Furthermore, rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T), a delta-like protein 3 (DLL3)-targeted antibody-drug conjugate, and enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) inhibitor are expected to be the first targeted therapy for SCLC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate PD-L1, DLL3 and EZH2 expression in SCLCs to find a candidate responder to those therapies. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for PD-L1, DLL3 and EZH2 was performed in 20 patients with SCLC and the clinicopathological characteristics and IHC staining intensity were compared...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435270/roles-of-toll-like-receptors-from-inflammation-to-lung-cancer-progression
#19
Jinjing Gu, Yi Liu, Bin Xie, Pingping Ye, Jiefan Huang, Zhe Lu
Lung cancer is among the most common malignant tumors worldwide, and is characterized by a low survival rate compared with other cancers. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved in evolution and widely expressed on immune cells, where they serve an important role in the innate immune system by evoking inflammatory responses. Evasion of immune destruction is an important hallmark in the development of cancer. There is an established association between chronic inflammation and cancer, with TLRs serving important roles in the immune response against tumor cells...
February 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435193/targeted-drugs-for-systemic-therapy-of-lung-cancer-with-brain-metastases
#20
REVIEW
Ya-Wen Sun, Jian Xu, Jun Zhou, Wen-Juan Liu
Brain metastases are very common in lung cancer patients. The condition of these patients is complicated and difficult to treat, and adverse reactions following treatment can affect the nervous system, which severely reduces quality of life. Lung cancers are categorized as small cell lung cancers and non-small cell lung cancers. Patients with brain metastasis of small cell lung cancers are generally treated with brain radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, but stage III/IV patients with brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancers are generally not responsive to radiotherapy or chemotherapy...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
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