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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239466/nivolumab-induced-myxedema-crisis
#1
Uqba Khan, Humaira Rizvi, Dahlia Sano, Jane Chiu, Tarik Hadid
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab is an anti-programmed cell death (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody that is approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic melanoma, relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced renal cell cancer. We report a rare case of myxedema crisis induced by nivolumab in a patient with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of lung. CASE PRESENTATION: Fifty three-year old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma currently on treatment with nivolumab presented with diffuse facial and tongue swelling, slurred speech, depressed mentation, fatigue and weakness...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238782/vaccination-efficacy-with-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-against-cancer-was-enhanced-under-simulated-microgravity
#2
Jing Li, Jun Chen, Xiuyu Li, Yanfang Qian
Stem cell vaccination can induce consistent and strong anti-tumor immunity against cancer in mice model. The antigenic similarity between tumors and embryos has been appreciated for many years and reflects the expression of embryonic gene products by cancer cells and/or cancer-initiating stem cells. Taking advantage of this similarity, we have tested a prophylactic lung cancer vaccine composed of allogeneic murine MSCs. Based on this conception, we first compared their tumor vaccines intervention effects of adult MSCs and MSCs under simulated microgravity (MSC/SMG)...
February 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236980/significance-of-immune-checkpoint-proteins-in-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Ross A Soo, Hye Ryun Kim, Bernadette Reyna Asuncion, Zul Fazreen, Mohamed Feroz Mohd Omar, Maria Cynthia Herrera, Joey Sze Yun Lim, Grace Sia, Richie Soong, Byoung-Chul Cho
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the expression of PD-L1, PD-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM3) in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from 90 patients with newly diagnosed advanced stage NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations and treated with first line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) within 3 months of diagnosis were stained for CTLA-4, PD-L1, PD-1, TIM-3 and CD3 expression by immunohistochemistry...
March 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236978/circulating-heregulin-level-is-associated-with-the-efficacy-of-patritumab-combined-with-erlotinib-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Kimio Yonesaka, Kenji Hirotani, Joachim von Pawel, Mircea Dediu, Shuquan Chen, Catherine Copigneaux, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
OBJECTIVES: Patritumab is a fully human anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) antibody that blocks activation by its ligand, heregulin (HRG). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of patritumab in aberrantly high HRG-expressing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the phase II randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study HERALD (n=212 patients with NSCLC), patritumab plus erlotinib did not improve progression-free survival (PFS) compared with placebo plus erlotinib...
March 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231510/lipopolyplex-potentiates-anti-tumor-immunity-of-mrna-based-vaccination
#5
Stefano Persano, Maria L Guevara, Zhaoqi Li, Junhua Mai, Mauro Ferrari, Pier Paolo Pompa, Haifa Shen
mRNA-based vaccines have the benefit of triggering robust anti-cancer immunity without the potential danger of genome integration from DNA vaccines or the limitation of antigen selection from peptide vaccines. Yet, a conventional mRNA vaccine comprising of condensed mRNA molecules in a positively charged protein core structure is not effectively internalized by the antigen-presenting cells. It cannot offer sufficient protection for mRNA molecules from degradation by plasma and tissue enzymes either. Here, we have developed a lipopolyplex mRNA vaccine that consists of a poly-(β-amino ester) polymer mRNA core encapsulated into a 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene glycol)-2000 (EDOPC/DOPE/DSPE-PEG) lipid shell...
February 20, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230277/immune-checkpoint-blockade-biology-in-mouse-models-of-glioblastoma
#6
Alan T Yeo, Al Charest
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant primary brain cancer that is associated with abysmal prognosis. The median survival of GBM patients is ∼15 months and there have not been any significant advance in therapies in over a decade, leaving treatment options limited. There is clearly an unmet need for GBM treatment. Immunotherapies are treatments based on usurping the power of the host's immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. They have recently proven to be a successful strategy for combating a variety of cancers...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230260/elevation-of-sharpin-protein-levels-in-prostate-adenocarcinomas-promotes-metastasis-and-impairs-patient-survivals
#7
Hai Huang, Tao Du, Yiming Zhang, Yiming Lai, Kaiwen Li, Xinxing Fan, Dingjun Zhu, Tianxin Lin, Kewei Xu, Jian Huang, Leyuan Liu, Zhenghui Guo
BACKGROUND: SHARPIN, SHANK-associated RH domain interacting protein, associates with a linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) to regulate inflammation and immunity. It has been reported that SHARPIN is highly expressed in several human tumors including ovarian cancer and liver cancer. We found that SHARPIN is also highly expressed in prostate cancer cell lines of DU145, LNCAP, and PC-3. Suppression of SHARPIN caused an inhibition of NF-κB signal and decreases in tumorigenesis of cultured cells in NOD/SCID mouse model...
February 23, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230011/changes-of-cd4-t-cell-subsets-after-radiofrequency-ablation-in-lung-cancer-and-its-significance
#8
Wang Shaobin, Xiong Yu, Lin Jiatian, Chen Zaizhong, Dai Luping, Chen Junhui
AIMS: To analyze the changes of CD4+ T-cell subsets following radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in lung cancer and the impact of RFA on the antitumor immunity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Flow cytometry was employed to detect CD4+ T-cell subsets in the peripheral blood from 45 healthy controls and 45 lung cancer patients before and after RFA. The correlation between CD4+ T-cell subsets and the clinical characteristics was discussed by comparing the results between different groups...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229276/effects-of-chlorella-vulgaris-on-tumor-growth-in-mammary-tumor-bearing-balb-c-mice-discussing-association-of-an-immune-suppressed-protumor-microenvironment-with-serum-ifn%C3%AE-and-igg-decrease-and-spleen-igg-potentiation
#9
Ahad Khalilnezhad, Elham Mahmoudian, Nariman Mosaffa, Ali Anissian, Mohsen Rashidi, Davar Amani
PURPOSE: Chlorella vulgaris (CV) has exhibited immune-enhancing and protective activities against cancer and infections. However, there is an increasing concern about the use of Chlorella species in human, regarding its various molecules with antigenic features found in infectious microorganisms. Our goal was to investigate the impact of higher concentrations of CV on tumor growth in spontaneous mouse mammary tumor (SMMT) models. METHODS: Balb/c mice were daily given CV powder at doses of 0, 200, or 300 mg/kg for 42 days (CONTROL, CV200, and CV300 groups, respectively; n = 6/group)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228842/worldwide-malaria-incidence-and-cancer-mortality-are-inversely-associated
#10
Li Qin, Changzhong Chen, Lili Chen, Ran Xue, Ming Ou-Yang, Chengzhi Zhou, Siting Zhao, Zhengxiang He, Yu Xia, Jianxing He, Pinghua Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Xiaoping Chen
BACKGROUND: Investigations on the effects of malaria infection on cancer mortality are limited except for the incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) in African children. Our previous murine lung cancer model study demonstrated that malaria infection significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. This study aims to assess the possible associations between malaria incidence and human cancer mortality. METHODS: We compiled data on worldwide malaria incidence and age-standardized mortality related to 30 types of cancer in 56 countries for the period 1955-2008, and analyzed their longitudinal correlations by a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM), adjusted for a nonlinear year effect and potential confounders such as country's income levels, life expectancies and geographical locations...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228226/-progress-of-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Zhansheng Jiang, Zhanyu Pan, Xiubao Ren
Pembrolizumab, an inhibitor target programmed death 1 (PD-1), was approved into the first line therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It was a milestone that immune checkpoints drugs have played an important role in the treatment system of NSCLC. The results of clinical trials revealed the superiority of PD-1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors compared with chemotherapy in first-line, second-line and multidrug resistance phase therapy. Objective response rate (ORR) was up to 80% with pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy, and progression-free survival (PFS) with single pembrolizumab in first line was nearly 1 year (10...
February 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225753/complement-drives-glucosylceramide-accumulation-and-tissue-inflammation-in-gaucher-disease
#12
Manoj K Pandey, Thomas A Burrow, Reena Rani, Lisa J Martin, David Witte, Kenneth D Setchell, Mary A Mckay, Albert F Magnusen, Wujuan Zhang, Benjamin Liou, Jörg Köhl, Gregory A Grabowski
Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in GBA1, which encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 mutations drive extensive accumulation of glucosylceramide (GC) in multiple innate and adaptive immune cells in the spleen, liver, lung and bone marrow, often leading to chronic inflammation. The mechanisms that connect excess GC to tissue inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that activation of complement C5a and C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) controls GC accumulation and the inflammatory response in experimental and clinical Gaucher disease...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223273/pd-l1-studies-across-tumor-types-its-differential-expression-and-predictive-value-in-patients-treated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#13
Harriet M Kluger, Christopher R Zito, Gabriela Turcu, Marina Baine, Hongyi Zhang, Adebowale Adeniran, Mario Sznol, David L Rimm, Yuval Kluger, Lieping Chen, Justine V Cohen, Lucia B Jilaveanu
PURPOSE: With recent approval of inhibitors of PD-1 in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), extensive efforts are underway to develop biomarkers predictive of response. PD-L1 expression has been most widely studied, and is more predictive in NSCLC than RCC or melanoma. We therefore studied differences in expression patterns across tumor types. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We employed tissue microarrays with tumors from NSCLC, RCC or melanoma and a panel of cell lines to study differences between tumor types...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223235/interleukin-32-inflammation-and-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Jin Tae Hong, Dong Ju Son, Chong Kil Lee, Do-Young Yoon, Dong Hun Lee, Mi Hee Park
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer development. IL-32 gene consists of eight small exons, and IL-32 mRNA has nine alternative spliced isoforms, and was thought to be secreted because it contains an internal signal sequence and lacks a transmembrane region. IL-32 is initially expressed selectively in activated T cells by mitogen and activated NK cells and their expression is strongly augmented by microbes, mitogens, and other cytokines. The IL-32 is induced mainly by pathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but IL-32 is more prominent in immune cells than in non-immune tissues...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222478/-possible-significance-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-cytology-at-initial-diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-lung-cancer
#15
A Grünewaldt, C Hügel, E Hermann, T O F Wagner
Bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] is an important procedure in the diagnosis of a variety of lung diseases. While it has enormous value in the diagnostics of inflammatory parenchymal diseases, its significance in lung cancer is unclear. Keeping in mind that immune therapy (e. g. application of checkpoint inhibitors) is gaining importance in the management of lung carcinoma, it is important to know if there are typical cellular patterns in BAL of lung cancer patients. Methods In a retrospective proof of principle-study, we analyzed 38 patients who underwent BAL at the initial diagnosis of lung cancer...
February 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218348/radioguided-surgery-with-radiolabeled-somatostatin-analogs-not-only-in-gep-nets
#16
Vincenzo Cuccurullo, Giuseppe Danilo Di Stasio, Luigi Mansi
Radioguided surgery (RGS) is a surgical technique that, using intra-operative probes, enables the surgeon to identify tissues preoperatively "marked" by a radiopharmaceutical. Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are present in the majority of neuroendocrine cells and may be over-expressed not only by tumor cells, but also by endothelial cells of peritumoral vessels, inflammatory cells and cells of the immune system, such as activated lymphocytes, monocytes and epithelioid cells. This extra neoplastic uptake is the rationale for the use of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs (SSAs) either in some tumors not expressing SSTRs or in various non-oncological diseases...
2017: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214928/dendritic-cell-rehab-new-strategies-to-unleash-therapeutic-immunity-in-ovarian-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Chang-Suk Chae, Eli Teran-Cabanillas, Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz
Immune-based therapies that induce remarkable and durable responses against melanoma and lung cancer have unfortunately demonstrated limited success in ovarian cancer patients. This is likely due to the exceptional immunoregulatory nature of ovarian tumors, which employ numerous strategies to effectively suppress anti-tumor immunity. Here, we summarize a decade of research indicating that ovarian cancers possess an exquisite capacity to subvert the activity of host dendritic cells (DCs) as a key mechanism to impede the development and maintenance of protective T cell-based immune responses...
February 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214182/opportunistic-autoimmunity-secondary-to-cancer-immunotherapy-oasi-an-emerging-challenge
#18
M Kostine, L Chiche, E Lazaro, P Halfon, C Charpin, D Arniaud, F Retornaz, P Blanco, N Jourde-Chiche, C Richez, C Stavris
With "checkpoint inhibitors" targeting PD1/PD-1-ligands or CTLA-4/CD28 pathways, immunotherapy has profoundly modified therapeutic strategies in oncology. First approved in refractory metastatic neoplasms (melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma), it is now being tested broadly in other cancers and/or as adjuvant treatment. For a significant proportion of patients, immunotherapy is responsible for "immunological" events, identified as Immune-Related Adverse Events (irAEs). Owing to the increasing number of prescriptions, identification and management of specific immunological side effects is crucial and requires close collaboration between oncologists and internists and/or other organ specialists...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214087/targeting-the-pd-1-pd-l1-axis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Rajiv Kumar, Dearbhaile Collins, Saoirse Dolly, Fiona McDonald, Mary E R O'Brien, Timothy A Yap
The last decade has witnessed rapid advances in the discovery and development of immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer medicine, particularly drugs targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The proven antitumor efficacy coupled with low rates of drug-related toxicities observed, albeit idiosyncratic, with these novel immunotherapeutics have led to the registration of multiple PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab, in second-line advanced NSCLC, whereas durvalumab and avelumab are in late-phase clinical testing...
December 23, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213726/pd-1-and-pd-l1-antibodies-in-cancer-current-status-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Arjun Vasant Balar, Jeffrey S Weber
Immunotherapy has moved to the center stage of cancer treatment with the recent success of trials in solid tumors with PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockade. Programmed death-1 or PD-1 is a checkpoint molecule on T cells that plays a vital role in limiting adaptive immune responses and preventing autoimmune and auto-inflammatory reactivity in the normal host. In cancer patients, PD-1 expression is very high on T cells in the tumor microenvironment, and PD-L1, its primary ligand, is variably expressed on tumor cells and antigen-presenting cells within tumors, providing a potent inhibitory influence within the tumor microenvironment...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
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